When the KMF_DEADBEEF (0x2) bit is set in the flags field of a kmem_cache, the allocator tries to make memory corruption easy to detect by writing a special pattern into all freed buffers. This pattern is 0xdeadbeef. Since a typical region of memory contains both allocated and freed memory, sections of each kind of block will be interspersed; here is an example from the “kmem_alloc_24” cache:
0x70a9add8: deadbeef deadbeef 0x70a9ade0: deadbeef deadbeef 0x70a9ade8: deadbeef deadbeef 0x70a9adf0: feedface feedface 0x70a9adf8: 70ae3260 8440c68e 0x70a9ae00: 5 4ef83 0x70a9ae08: 0 0 0x70a9ae10: 1 bbddcafe 0x70a9ae18: feedface 139d 0x70a9ae20: 70ae3200 d1befaed 0x70a9ae28: deadbeef deadbeef 0x70a9ae30: deadbeef deadbeef 0x70a9ae38: deadbeef deadbeef 0x70a9ae40: feedface feedface 0x70a9ae48: 70ae31a0 8440c54e
The buffer beginning at 0x70a9add8 is filled with the 0xdeadbeef pattern, which is an immediate indication that the buffer is currently free. At 0x70a9ae28 another free buffer begins; at 0x70a9ae00 an allocated buffer is located between them.
You might have observed that there are some holes on this picture, and that 3 24–byte regions should occupy only 72 bytes of memory, instead of the 120 bytes shown here. This discrepancy is explained in the next section Redzone: 0xfeedface.