In a multithreaded process on a single processor, the processor can switch execution resources between threads, resulting in concurrent execution.
In the same multithreaded process in a shared-memory multiprocessor environment, each thread in the process can run on a separate processor at the same time, resulting in parallel execution.
When the process has fewer or as many threads as there are processors, the threads support system in conjunction with the operating environment ensure that each thread runs on a different processor.
For example, in a matrix multiplication that has the same number of threads and processors, each thread (and each processor) computes a row of the result.
Traditional UNIX already supports the concept of threads—each process contains a single thread, so programming with multiple processes is programming with multiple threads. But a process is also an address space, and creating a process involves creating a new address space.
Creating a thread is less expensive when compared to creating a new process, because the newly created thread uses the current process address space. The time it takes to switch between threads is less than the time it takes to switch between processes, partly because switching between threads does not involve switching between address spaces.
Communicating between the threads of one process is simple because the threads share everything—address space, in particular. So, data produced by one thread is immediately available to all the other threads.
The interface to multithreading support is through a subroutine library, libpthread for POSIX threads, and libthread for Solaris threads. Multithreading provides flexibility by decoupling kernel-level and user-level resources.
Threads are the primary programming interface in multithreaded programming. [User-level threads are so named to distinguish them from kernel-level threads, which are the concern of systems programmers only. Because this book is for application programmers, kernel-level threads are not discussed.] Threads are visible only from within the process, where they share all process resources like address space, open files, and so on. The following state is unique to each thread.
Because threads share the process instructions and most of the process data, a change in shared data by one thread can be seen by the other threads in the process. When a thread needs to interact with other threads in the same process, it can do so without involving the operating environment.
By default, threads are lightweight. But, to get more control over a thread (for instance, to control scheduling policy more), the application can bind the thread. When an application binds threads to execution resources, the threads become kernel resources (see System Scope (Bound Threads)for more information).
To summarize, user-level threads are:
Inexpensive to create because they do not need to create their own address space.
Fast to synchronize because synchronization is done at the application level, not at the kernel level.
Managed by the threads library; either libpthread or libthread.
You usually do not need to concern yourself with LWPs to program with threads. The information here about LWPs is provided as background, so you can understand the differences in scheduling scope, described on Process Scope (Unbound Threads).
Much as the stdio library routines such as fopen() and fread() use the open() and read() functions, the threads interface uses the LWP interface, and for many of the same reasons.
Lightweight processes (LWPs) bridge the user level and the kernel level. Each process contains one or more LWP, each of which runs one or more user threads. (See Figure 1–1.)
Each LWP is a kernel resource in a kernel pool, and is allocated and de-allocated to a thread on a per thread basis.
POSIX specifies three scheduling policies: first-in-first-out (SCHED_FIFO), round-robin (SCHED_RR), and custom (SCHED_OTHER). SCHED_FIFO is a queue-based scheduler with different queues for each priority level. SCHED_RR is like FIFO except that each thread has an execution time quota.
Both SCHED_FIFO and SCHED_RR are POSIX Realtime extensions. SCHED_OTHER is the default scheduling policy.
See LWPs and Scheduling Classesfor information about the SCHED_OTHER policy.
Two scheduling scopes are available: process scope for unbound threads and system scope for bound threads. Threads with differing scope states can coexist on the same system and even in the same process. In general, the scope sets the range in which the threads scheduling policy is in effect.
In most cases, threads should be PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS. These threads have no restriction to execute on a particular LWP, and are equivalent to Solaris thread created without the THR_BOUND flag. The threads library decides the association between individual threads and LWPs.
Each bound thread is bound to an LWP for the lifetime of the thread. This is equivalent to creating a Solaris thread in the THR_BOUND state. You can bind a thread to use special scheduling attributes with Realtime scheduling.
In neither case, bound or unbound, can a thread be directly accessed by or moved to another process.
Thread cancellation allows a thread to terminate the execution of any other thread in the process. The target thread (the one being cancelled) can keep cancellation requests pending and can perform application-specific cleanup when it acts upon the cancellation notice.
The pthreads cancellation feature permits either asynchronous or deferred termination of a thread. Asynchronous cancellation can occur at any time; deferred cancellation can occur only at defined points. Deferred cancellation is the default type.
Synchronization allows you to control program flow and access to shared data for concurrently executing threads.
The four synchronization models are mutex locks, read/write locks, condition variables, and semaphores.
Read/write locks permit concurrent reads and exclusive writes to a protected shared resource. To modify a resource, a thread must first acquire the exclusive write lock. An exclusive write lock is not permitted until all read locks have been released.