System Administration Guide: Basic Administration

Chapter 5 Managing User Accounts and Groups (Tasks)

This chapter describes how to set up and maintain user accounts and groups.

For information on the procedures associated with setting up and maintaining user accounts and groups, see Setting Up User Accounts (Task Map) and Maintaining User Accounts (Task Map).

For background information about managing user accounts and groups, see Chapter 4, Managing User Accounts and Groups (Overview).

Setting Up User Accounts (Task Map)

Task 

Description 

For Instructions 

1. Start the Solaris Management Console launcher 

Start the Solaris Management Console launcher to access the User Accounts and Groups Tools. 

How to Start the Console as Superuser or as a Role or How to Start the Solaris Management Console in a Name Service Environment

2. (Optional) Customize User Initialization Files 

You can set up user initialization files (.cshrc, .profile, .login), so you can provide new users with consistent environments.

How to Customize User Initialization Files

3. (Optional) Add a Group 

You can add groups to help administer users by using the Groups Tool. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

4. (Optional) Set up a User Template 

You can create a user template so you don't have to manually add all similar user properties. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

5. Add a User  

You can add a user account by using the Users Tool. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

6. (Optional) Add Rights or a Role to a User  

You can add rights or a role to a user so the user can perform a specific command or task. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

7. Share the User's Home Directory  

You must share the user's home directory so the directory can be remotely mounted from the user's system.  

How to Share a User's Home Directory

8. Mount the User's Home Directory  

You must mount the user's home directory on the user's system. 

How to Mount a User's Home Directory

User Information Data Sheet

You might find it useful to create a form like the one that follows to gather information about users before adding their accounts.

Item 

Description 

User Name: 

 

Role Name: 

 

Profiles or Authorizations: 

 

User Name: 

 

UID: 

 

Primary Group: 

 

Secondary Groups: 

 

Comment: 

 

Default Shell: 

 

Password Status and Aging: 

 

Home Directory Server Name: 

 

Home Directory Path Name: 

 

Mounting Method: 

 

Permissions on Home Directory: 

 

Mail Server: 

 

Department Name: 

 

Department Administrator: 

 

Manager: 

 

Employee Name: 

 

Employee Title: 

 

Employee Status: 

 

Employee Number: 

 

Start Date: 

 

Add to These Mail Aliases: 

 

Desktop System Name: 

 

How to Customize User Initialization Files

  1. Become superuser or assume an equivalent role on the system where the users' home directories are created and shared.

  2. Create a skeleton directory for each type of user.


    # mkdir /shared-dir/skel/user-type
    

    shared-dir

    The name of a directory that is available to other systems on the network.  

    user-type

    The name of a directory to store initialization files for a type of user. 

  3. Copy the default user initialization files into the directories you created for different types of users.


    # cp /etc/skel/local.cshrc /shared-dir/skel/user-type/.cshrc
    # cp /etc/skel/local.login /shared-dir/skel/user-type/.login
    # cp /etc/skel/local.profile /shared-dir/skel/user-type/.profile
    

    Note –

    If the account has profiles assigned to it, then the user has to launch a special version of the shell called a profile shell to use commands (with any security attributes) that are assigned to the profile. There are three profile shells corresponding to the types of shells: pfsh (Bourne shell), pfcsh (C shell), and pfksh (Korn shell).


  4. Edit the user initialization files for each user type and customize them based on your site's needs.

    For a detailed description on the ways to customize the user initialization files, see Customizing a User's Work Environment.

  5. Set the permissions for the user initialization files.


    # chmod 744 /shared-dir/skel/user-type/.*
    
  6. Verify that the permissions for the user initialization files are correct.


    # ls -la /shared-dir/skel/*
    

Example—Customizing User Initialization Files

The following example shows how to customize the C-shell user initialization file in the /export/skel/enduser directory designated for a particular type of user. For an example of a .cshrc file, see Example—.cshrc File.


# mkdir /export/skel/enduser
# cp /etc/skel/local.cshrc /export/skel/enduser/.cshrc
 
(Edit .cshrc file )
# chmod 744 /export/skel/enduser/.*

How to Share a User's Home Directory

  1. Become superuser or assume an equivalent role on the system that contains the home directory.

  2. Verify that the mountd daemon is running.


    # ps -ef | grep mountd
    root   176     1  0   May 02 ?        0:19 /usr/lib/nfs/mountd

    The /usr/lib/nfs/mountd line shows whether the mountd daemon is running.

  3. If the mountd daemon is not running, start it.


    # /etc/init.d/nfs.server start
    
  4. List the file systems that are shared on the system.


    # share
    
  5. Select one of the following based on whether the file system containing the user's home directory is already shared.

    1. If the user's home directory is already shared, go to the verification step below.

    2. If the user's home directory is not shared, go to Step 6.

  6. Edit the /etc/dfs/dfstab file and add the following line.


    share -F nfs /file-system
    

    file-system is the file system containing the user's home directory that you need to share. By convention, the file system is /export/home.

  7. Share the file systems listed in the /etc/dfs/dfstab file.


    # shareall -F nfs
    

    This command executes all the share commands in the /etc/dfs/dfstab file, so you do not have to wait to reboot the system.

  8. Verify that a user's home directory is shared, as follows:


    # share
    

Where to Go From Here

If the user's home directory is not located on the user's system, you have to mount the user's home directory from the system where it is located. For detailed instructions, see How to Mount a User's Home Directory.

Example—Sharing a User's Home Directory


# ps -ef | grep mountd
# /etc/init.d/nfs.server start
# share
# vi /etc/dfs/dfstab
 
(The line share -F nfs /export/home is added.)
# shareall -F nfs
# share
-               /usr/dist                ro   "" 
-               /export/home/user-name     rw   ""  

How to Mount a User's Home Directory

For information on automounting a home directory, see “Task Overview for Autofs Administration” in System Administration Guide: Resource Management and Network Services.

  1. Make sure that the user's home directory is shared.

    For more information, see How to Share a User's Home Directory.

  2. Log in as superuser on the user's system.

  3. Edit the /etc/vfstab file and create an entry for the user's home directory.


    system-name:/export/home/user-name - /export/home/user-name nfs - yes rw

    system-name

    The name of the system where the home directory is located. 

    /export/home/user-name

    The name of the user's home directory that will be shared. By convention, /export/homeuser-name contains user's home directories. However, this could be a different file system.

    -

    Required placeholders in the entry. 

    /export/home/user-name

    The name of the directory where the user's home directory will be mounted. 

    For more information about adding an entry to the /etc/vfstab file, see Chapter 39, Mounting and Unmounting File Systems (Tasks).

  4. Create the mount point for the user's home directory.


    # mkdir -p /export/home/user-name
    
  5. Mount the user's home directory.


    # mountall
    

    All entries in the current vfstab file (whose mount at boot fields are set to yes) are mounted.

  6. Verify that the home directory is mounted.


    # mount | grep user-name
    

Example—Mounting a User's Home Directory


# vi /etc/vfstab
 
(The line  venus:/export/home/ripley - /export/home/ripley
nfs - yes rw is added.)
# mkdir -p /export/home/ripley
# mountall
# mount
/ on /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 read/write/setuid/intr/largefiles/onerror=panic/dev=2200000 ...
/proc on /proc read/write/setuid/dev=3840000 on Wed Feb 28 09:49:07 2001
/dev/fd on fd read/write/setuid/dev=3900000 on Wed Feb 28 09:49:10 2001
/etc/mnttab on mnttab read/write/setuid/dev=3a00000 on Wed Feb 28 09:49:12 2001
/var/run on swap read/write/setuid/dev=1 on Wed Feb 28 09:49:12 2001
/tmp on swap read/write/setuid/dev=2 on Wed Feb 28 09:49:15 2001
/export/home on /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s7 read/write/setuid/intr/largefiles/onerror=panic/dev= ...
/export/home/ripley on venus:/export/home/ripley remote/read/write/setuid/dev=3a8001e ...

Maintaining User Accounts (Task Map)

Task 

Description 

Instructions 

Modify a Group 

You can modify a group's name or the users in a group by using the Groups Tool. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

Delete a Group  

You can delete a group if its no longer needed. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

Modify a User Account  

Disable a User Account

You can temporarily disable a user account if it will be needed in the future. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

 

Change a User's Password

You might need to change a user's password if the user forgets it. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

 

Change Password Aging

You can force users to change their passwords periodically with User Account tool's Password Options menu. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

Delete a User Account  

You can delete a user account if it is no longer needed. 

See Solaris Management Console online help 

Solaris User Registration

Solaris User Registration is a tool for getting information about new Solaris releases, upgrade offers, and promotions. This graphical user interface (GUI) automatically starts when you first log into your desktop. The GUI lets you register now, later, or never. The registration process also provides Sun with the user's Solaris version, survey type, platform, hardware, and locale.

Accessing Solaris Solve

Completing the Solaris User Registration process provides access to Solaris SolveSM, an exclusive web site that offers valuable Solaris product information and solutions—all in one convenient location. It provides a quick and easy method for getting the most recent information on what's happening around the latest Solaris release. Solaris Solve also provides a preview to additional Sun contract and service opportunities.

Basically, the steps for completing Solaris User Registration and accessing Solaris Solve are:

  1. Fill in the electronic Solaris User Registration profile.

  2. Submit the profile by email or print the profile to fax or mail.

  3. Create your login ID and password to access the Solaris Solve site.

    Even if you do not access the Solaris Solve site immediately, we recommend that you create your Solaris Solve login ID and password during the Solaris User Registration process. A Solaris Solve login ID and password should contain 6 to 8 alphanumeric characters without spaces and colons.

  4. Access the Solaris Solve site.


Note –

Solaris User Registration is not invoked if the system administrator or user is logged in as superuser.


If you choose to register, a copy of the completed form is stored in $HOME/.solregis/uprops. If you choose to never register and change your mind later, you can start User Registration by:

For more information, see solregis(1).

Troubleshooting Solaris User Registration Problems

This section provides troubleshooting tips for solving Solaris User Registration problems.

The following table describes problems that may occur when you try to register, and actions required to resolve these conflicts.

Table 5–1 Registration Problem Descriptions and Suggested Resolutions

Problem Description 

How to Resolve the Problem 

The registration form failed to initialize: Web page window displays and requests user see system administrator to resolve problem that prevents registration setup. 

Check for missing registration files. 

The form could not be emailed: Dialog box displays and requests user see system administrator to resolve problem. 

Check to see if email is configured correctly. Also check if CDE is on user's system since it must be present to email completed registration form. Alternatively, users can print the form and fax or mail it. 

The form could not be printed: Dialog box displays and requests user to see system administrator to resolve problem. 

Check to see if the printer is configured correctly. Alternatively, the user can email form. 

The form could not be saved: Dialog box displays and verifies that registration succeeded; however, the registration information cannot be recalled when updating registration in the future. 

Check the user's home directory. Required action depends on the system's configuration. 

You forgot your Solaris Solve login ID and password. 

Send a mail message describing the problem to SolarisSolve@sun.com or see How to Restart Solaris User Registration.

You want to restart the registration process. 

How to Restart Solaris User Registration.

How to Restart Solaris User Registration

Use the following procedure to restart the Solaris User Registration process.

  1. Change to the $HOME/.solregis directory.


    % cd $HOME/.solregis
    
  2. Remove the uprops file.


    % rm uprops
    
  3. Restart the registration process.


    % /usr/dt/bin/solregis &
    

How To Disable User Registration

The following table shows how to disable User Registration before and after installing Solaris software. Before disabling Solaris User Registration, Sun recommends that system administrators register for their organization.

Table 5–2 Ways to Disable User Registration

Before or After Solaris Installation 

Description 

For More Information 

Before Solaris software is installed 

  • Deselect the SUNWsregu package (interactive installation)

  • Modify a custom JumpStart profile to not install the SUNWsregu package

  • Create and run a finish script that creates a file named solregis in the /etc/default directory on one or more systems with the following line in it: DISABLE=1

Solaris 9 Installation Guide

solregis(1)

After Solaris software is installed 

  • Use the pkgrm command to remove the SUNWsregu package

  • Add the solregis file in the /etc/default directory (custom JumpStart installation only)

Chapter 23, Managing Software (Tasks)

Solaris 9 Installation Guide

solregis(1)