#include <stdlib.h>double strtod(const char *str, char **endptr);
The strtod() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by str to type double representation. First it decomposes the input string into three parts: an initial, possibly empty, sequence of white-space characters (as specified by isspace(3C)); a subject sequence interpreted as a floating-point constant; and a final string of one or more unrecognized characters, including the terminating null byte of the input string. Then it attempts to convert the subject sequence to a floating-point number, and returns the result.
The expected form of the subject sequence is an optional + or - sign, then a non-empty sequence of digits optionally containing a radix character, then an optional exponent part. An exponent part consists of e or E, followed by an optional sign, followed by one or more decimal digits. The subject sequence is defined as the longest initial subsequence of the input string, starting with the first non-white-space character, that is of the expected form. The subject sequence is empty if the input string is empty or consists entirely of white-space characters, or if the first character that is not white space is other than a sign, a digit or a radix character.
If the subject sequence has the expected form, the sequence starting with the first digit or the radix character (whichever occurs first) is interpreted as a floating constant of the C language, except that the radix character is used in place of a period, and that if neither an exponent part nor a radix character appears, a radix character is assumed to follow the last digit in the string. If the subject sequence begins with a minus sign, the value resulting from the conversion is negated. A pointer to the final string is stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.
The radix character is defined in the program's locale (category LC_NUMERIC). In the POSIX locale, or in a locale where the radix character is not defined, the radix character defaults to a period (.).
In other than the POSIX locale, other implementation-dependent subject sequence forms may be accepted.
If the subject sequence is empty or does not have the expected form, no conversion is performed; the value of str is stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.
The atof(str) function call is equivalent to strtod(str, (char **)NULL).
Upon successful completion, strtod() returns the converted value. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned and errno may be set to EINVAL.
If the correct value is outside the range of representable values, ±HUGE is returned (according to the sign of the value), and errno is set to ERANGE. When the -Xc or -Xa compilation options are used, HUGE_VAL is returned instead of HUGE.
If the correct value would cause an underflow, 0 is returned and errno is set to ERANGE.
If str is NaN, then atof() returns NaN.
The strtod() function will fail if:
The value to be returned would cause overflow or underflow. The strtod() function may fail if:
No conversion could be performed.
Because 0 is returned on error and is also a valid return on success, an application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to 0, then call strtod(), then check errno and if it is non-zero, assume an error has occurred.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE||ATTRIBUTE VALUE|
|MT-Level||MT-Safe with exceptions|
The strtod() and atof() functions can be used safely in multithreaded applications, as long as setlocale(3C) is not called to change the locale.
The DESCRIPTION and RETURN VALUES sections above are very similar to the wording used by the Single UNIX Specification version 2 and the 1989 C Standard to describe the behavior of the strtod() function. Since some users have reported that they find the description confusing, the following notes may be helpful.
The strtod() function does not modify the string pointed to by str and does not malloc() space to hold the decomposed portions of the input string.
If endptr is not (char **)NULL, strtod() will set the pointer pointed to by endptr to the first byte of the "final string of unrecognized characters". (If all input characters were processed, the pointer pointed to by endptr will be set to point to the null character at the end of the input string.)
The "subject sequence" was not an empty string, but evaluated to 0.0. (In this case, errno will be left unchanged.)
The "subject sequence" was an empty string. (In this case, the Single UNIX Specification version 2 allows errno to be set to EINVAL or to be left unchanged. The C Standard does not specify any specific behavior in this case.)
The "subject sequence" specified a numeric value that would cause a floating point underflow. (In this case, errno may be set to ERANGE or may be left unchanged.)
Note that the standards do not require that implementations distinguish between these three cases. An application can determine case (b) by making sure that there are no leading white-space characters in the string pointed to by str and giving strtod() an endptr that is not (char **)NULL. If endptr points to the first chartacter of str when strtod() returns, you have detected case (b). Case (c) can be detected by looking for a non-zero digit before the exponent part of the "subject sequence". Note, however, that the decimal-point character is locale-dependent.
If +HUGE_VAL is returned and errno is set to ERANGE, a floating point overflow occurred while processing a positive value.
If -HUGE_VAL is returned and errno is set to ERANGE, a floating point overflow occurred while processing a negative value.
If strtod() does not set errno to ERANGE, the value specified by the "subject string" converted to +HUGE_VAL or -HUGE_VAL, respectively.
Note that if errno is set to ERANGE when strtod() is called, case (c) is indistinguishable from cases (a) and (b).