Authentication is the way in which an entity (a user, an application, or a component) determines that another entity is who it claims to be. An entity uses security credentials to authenticate itself. The credentials might be a user name and password, a digital certificate, or something else. Usually, servers or applications require clients to authenticate themselves. Additionally, clients might require servers to authenticate themselves. When authentication is bidirectional, it is called mutual authentication.
When an entity tries to access a protected resource, Enterprise Server uses the authentication mechanism configured for that resource to determine whether to grant access. For example, a user can enter a user name and password in a web browser, and if the application verifies those credentials, the user is authenticated. The user is associated with this authenticated security identity for the remainder of the session.
Within its deployment descriptors, an application specifies the type of authentication that it uses. Enterprise Server supports the following types of authentication:
Uses the server's built-in login dialog box. The communication protocol is HTTP (SSL optional). There is no user-credentialed encryption unless using SSL.
The application provides its own custom login and error pages. The communication protocol is HTTP (SSL optional). There is no user-credentialed encryption unless using SSL.
The server authenticates the client using a public key certificate. The communication protocol is HTTPS (HTTP over SSL). User-credentialed encryption is SSL.
Passwords are your first line of defense against unauthorized access to the components and data of Enterprise Server. For information on how to use passwords for Enterprise Server, see Administering Passwords.
The administration password, also known as the admin password, is used to invoke the Administration Console and the asadmin utility. This password is usually set during installation, but it can be changed. For instructions, see To Change the Administration Password.
Files that contain encoded passwords need to be protected using file system permissions. These files include the following:
This file contains the encoded master password and should be protected with file system permissions 600.
Any password file created to pass as an argument by using the --passwordfile argument to the asadmin utility should be protected with file system permissions 600.
For instructions, see To Set a Password From a File.
With single sign-on, a user who logs in to one application becomes implicitly logged in to other applications that require the same authentication information. Single sign-on is based on groups. All web applications whose deployment descriptor defines the same group and uses the same authentication method (BASIC, FORM, or CLIENT-CERT) share single sign-on.
On Enterprise Server, single sign-on is enabled by default for virtual servers, allowing multiple applications in one virtual server to share the user authentication state.