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System Administration Guide: IP Services     Oracle Solaris 11 Express 11/10
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Part I TCP/IP Administration

1.  Planning an IPv4 Addressing Scheme (Tasks)

2.  Planning an IPv6 Addressing Scheme (Overview)

3.  Planning an IPv6 Network (Tasks)

4.  Configuring TCP/IP Network Services and IPv4 Addressing (Tasks)

5.  Enabling IPv6 on a Network (Tasks)

6.  Administering a TCP/IP Network (Tasks)

7.  Configuring IP Tunnels

8.  Troubleshooting Network Problems (Tasks)

9.  TCP/IP and IPv4 in Depth (Reference)

10.  IPv6 in Depth (Reference)


11.  About DHCP (Overview)

12.  Planning for DHCP Service (Tasks)

13.  Configuring the DHCP Service (Tasks)

14.  Administering DHCP (Tasks)

15.  Configuring and Administering the DHCP Client

16.  Troubleshooting DHCP (Reference)

17.  DHCP Commands and Files (Reference)

Part III IP Security

18.  IP Security Architecture (Overview)

Introduction to IPsec

IPsec RFCs

IPsec Terminology

IPsec Packet Flow

IPsec Security Associations

Key Management in IPsec

IPsec Protection Mechanisms

Authentication Header

Encapsulating Security Payload

Security Considerations When Using AH and ESP

Authentication and Encryption Algorithms in IPsec

Authentication Algorithms in IPsec

Encryption Algorithms in IPsec

IPsec Protection Policies

Transport and Tunnel Modes in IPsec

Virtual Private Networks and IPsec

IPsec and NAT Traversal

IPsec and SCTP

IPsec and Solaris Zones

IPsec and Logical Domains

IPsec Utilities and Files

19.  Configuring IPsec (Tasks)

20.  IP Security Architecture (Reference)

21.  Internet Key Exchange (Overview)

22.  Configuring IKE (Tasks)

23.  Internet Key Exchange (Reference)

24.  IP Filter in Oracle Solaris (Overview)

25.   IP Filter (Tasks)

Part IV Networking Performance

26.  Integrated Load Balancer Overview

27.  Configuration of Integrated Load Balancer Tasks

28.  Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (Overview)

29.  VRRP Configuration (Tasks)

30.  Implementing Congestion Control

Part V IP Quality of Service (IPQoS)

31.  Introducing IPQoS (Overview)

32.  Planning for an IPQoS-Enabled Network (Tasks)

33.  Creating the IPQoS Configuration File (Tasks)

34.  Starting and Maintaining IPQoS (Tasks)

35.  Using Flow Accounting and Statistics Gathering (Tasks)

36.  IPQoS in Detail (Reference)



Transport and Tunnel Modes in IPsec

The IPsec standards define two distinct modes of IPsec operation, transport mode and tunnel mode. The modes do not affect the encoding of packets. The packets are protected by AH, ESP, or both in each mode. The modes differ in policy application when the inner packet is an IP packet, as follows:

In transport mode, the outer header, the next header, and any ports that the next header supports, can be used to determine IPsec policy. In effect, IPsec can enforce different transport mode policies between two IP addresses to the granularity of a single port. For example, if the next header is TCP, which supports ports, then IPsec policy can be set for a TCP port of the outer IP address. Similarly, if the next header is an IP header, the outer header and the inner IP header can be used to determine IPsec policy.

Tunnel mode works only for IP-in-IP datagrams. Tunneling in tunnel mode can be useful when computer workers at home are connecting to a central computer location. In tunnel mode, IPsec policy is enforced on the contents of the inner IP datagram. Different IPsec policies can be enforced for different inner IP addresses. That is, the inner IP header, its next header, and the ports that the next header supports, can enforce a policy. Unlike transport mode, in tunnel mode the outer IP header does not dictate the policy of its inner IP datagram.

Therefore, in tunnel mode, IPsec policy can be specified for subnets of a LAN behind a router and for ports on those subnets. IPsec policy can also be specified for particular IP addresses, that is, hosts, on those subnets. The ports of those hosts can also have a specific IPsec policy. However, if a dynamic routing protocol is run over a tunnel, do not use subnet selection or address selection because the view of the network topology on the peer network could change. Changes would invalidate the static IPsec policy. For examples of tunneling procedures that include configuring static routes, see Protecting a VPN With IPsec.

In the Solaris OS, tunnel mode can be enforced only on an IP tunneling network interface. For information about tunneling interfaces, see Chapter 7, Configuring IP Tunnels. The ipsecconf command provides a tunnel keyword to select an IP tunneling network interface. When the tunnel keyword is present in a rule, all selectors that are specified in that rule apply to the inner packet.

In transport mode, ESP, AH, or both, can protect the datagram.

The following figure shows an IP header with an unprotected TCP packet.

Figure 18-3 Unprotected IP Packet Carrying TCP Information

Diagram shows the IP header followed by the TCP header. The TCP header is not protected.

In transport mode, ESP protects the data as shown in the following figure. The shaded area shows the encrypted part of the packet.

Figure 18-4 Protected IP Packet Carrying TCP Information

Diagram shows the ESP header between the IP header and the TCP header. The TCP header is encrypted by the ESP header.

In transport mode, AH protects the data as shown in the following figure.

Figure 18-5 Packet Protected by an Authentication Header

Diagram shows the AH header between the IP header and the TCP header.

AH actually covers the data before the data appears in the datagram. Consequently, the protection that is provided by AH, even in transport mode, covers some of the IP header.

In tunnel mode, the entire datagram is inside the protection of an IPsec header. The datagram in Figure 18-3 is protected in tunnel mode by an outer IPsec header, and in this case ESP, as is shown in the following figure.

Figure 18-6 IPsec Packet Protected in Tunnel Mode

Diagram shows the ESP header after the IP header and before an IP header and a TCP header. The last 2 headers are protected by encryption.

The ipsecconf command includes keywords to set tunnels in tunnel mode or transport mode.