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System Administration Guide: Security Services     Oracle Solaris 11 Express 11/10
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Document Information


Part I Security Overview

1.  Security Services (Overview)

Part II System, File, and Device Security

2.  Managing Machine Security (Overview)

3.  Controlling Access to Systems (Tasks)

4.  Virus Scanning Service (Tasks)

5.  Controlling Access to Devices (Tasks)

6.  Using the Basic Audit Reporting Tool (Tasks)

7.  Controlling Access to Files (Tasks)

Part III Roles, Rights Profiles, and Privileges

8.  Using Roles and Privileges (Overview)

9.  Using Role-Based Access Control (Tasks)

10.  Role-Based Access Control (Reference)

11.  Privileges (Tasks)

12.  Privileges (Reference)

Part IV Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Services

13.  Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework (Overview)

14.  Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework (Tasks)

15.  Oracle Solaris Key Management Framework

Part V Authentication Services and Secure Communication

16.  Using Authentication Services (Tasks)

17.  Using PAM

18.  Using SASL

19.  Using Solaris Secure Shell (Tasks)

20.  Solaris Secure Shell (Reference)

Part VI Kerberos Service

21.  Introduction to the Kerberos Service

22.  Planning for the Kerberos Service

23.  Configuring the Kerberos Service (Tasks)

24.  Kerberos Error Messages and Troubleshooting

25.  Administering Kerberos Principals and Policies (Tasks)

26.  Using Kerberos Applications (Tasks)

27.  The Kerberos Service (Reference)

Part VII Oracle Solaris Auditing

28.  Oracle Solaris Auditing (Overview)

29.  Planning for Oracle Solaris Auditing

Planning Oracle Solaris Auditing (Task Map)

Planning Oracle Solaris Auditing (Tasks)

How to Plan Auditing in Zones

How to Plan Storage for Audit Records

How to Plan Who and What to Audit

Determining Audit Policy

Audit Policies for Asynchronous and Synchronous Events

Controlling Auditing Costs

Cost of Increased Processing Time of Audit Data

Cost of Analysis of Audit Data

Cost of Storage of Audit Data

Auditing Efficiently

30.  Managing Oracle Solaris Auditing (Tasks)

31.  Oracle Solaris Auditing (Reference)



Planning Oracle Solaris Auditing (Tasks)

You want to be selective about what kinds of activities are audited. At the same time, you want to collect useful audit information. You also need to carefully plan who to audit and what to audit. If you are using the default audit_binfile plugin, audit files can quickly grow to fill the available space, so you must allocate enough disk space.

How to Plan Auditing in Zones

If your system has implemented zones, you have two audit configuration possibilities:

For a discussion of the trade-offs, see Auditing on a System With Zones.

How to Plan Storage for Audit Records

The audit_binfile plugin creates an audit trail. The audit trail requires dedicated file space. This space must be available and secure. Best practice is to configure several audit directories for audit files. Laying out the audit directories is one of your first tasks before you enable auditing on any systems. The following procedure covers the issues that you must resolve when you plan for audit trail storage.

Before You Begin

If you are implementing non-global zones, complete How to Plan Auditing in Zones before using this procedure.

You are using the audit_binfile plugin.

  1. Determine how much auditing your site needs.

    Balance your site's security needs against the availability of disk space for the audit trail.

    For guidance on how to reduce space requirements while still maintaining site security, as well as how to design audit storage, see Controlling Auditing Costs and Auditing Efficiently.

  2. Determine which systems are to be audited.

    On those systems, allocate space for at least one local audit directory. To specify the audit directories, see How to Assign Audit Space for the Audit Trail.

  3. Name the audit directories.

    Create a list of all the audit directories that you plan to use. For naming guidelines, see Storing and Managing the Audit Trail and auditreduce Command.

How to Plan Who and What to Audit

Before You Begin

If you are implementing non-global zones, review How to Plan Auditing in Zones before using this procedure.

  1. Determine if you want a single-system image audit trail.

    Note - This step applies only to the audit_binfile plugin.

    Systems within a single administrative domain can create a single-system image audit trail. If your systems use different naming services, start with Step 2. Then, complete the rest of the planning steps for every system.

    A single-system image audit trail treats the systems that are being audited as one system. To create a single-system image audit trail for a site, every system in the installation should be configured as follows:

    • Use the same naming service for all systems.

      To interpret the audit records, two commands are used, auditreduce and praudit. For correct interpretation of the audit records, the passwd, group, and hosts files must be consistent.

    • Use the same audit service settings for all systems. For information about displaying and modifying the service settings, see the auditconfig(1M) man page.

    • Use the same audit_warn, audit_event, and audit_class files for all systems.

    • Configure policy, audit class preselections, and plugins identically for all systems.

  2. Determine the audit policy.

    By default, only the cnt policy is enabled.

    Use the auditconfig -lspolicy command to see a short description of available policy options.

  3. Determine if you want to modify event-to-class mappings.

    In almost all situations, the default mapping is sufficient. However, if you add new classes, change class definitions, or determine that a record of a specific system call is not useful, you might want to modify event-to-class mappings.

    For an example, see How to Change an Audit Event's Class Membership.

  4. Determine which audit classes to preselect.

    The best time to add audit classes or to change the default classes is before users log in to the system.

    The audit classes that you preselect with the -setflags and -setnaflags options to the auditconfig command apply to all users and processes. You can preselect a class for success, for failure, or for both.

    For an alphabetical list of audit classes, see Audit Classes.

  5. Determine user exceptions to the system-wide preselections.

    If you decide that some users should be audited differently from the system, use the audit_flags keyword to the useradd, usermod, roleadd, or rolemod command. You can also use the profiles command to add this keyword to the prof_attr database.

    For the procedure, see How to Configure a User's Audit Characteristics.

  6. Decide how to manage the audit_warn email alias.

    The audit_warn script is run whenever the audit system detects a situation that requires administrative attention. By default, the audit_warn script sends email to an audit_warn alias and sends a message to the console.

    To set up the alias, see How to Configure the audit_warn Email Alias.

  7. Decide in which format and where to collect audit records.

    You have three choices.

  8. Determine when to warn the administrator about shrinking disk space.

    Note - This step applies only to the audit_binfile plugin.

    When disk space on an audit file system drops below the minimum free space percentage, or soft limit, the audit service switches to the next available audit directory. The service then sends a warning that the soft limit has been exceeded. The default is no minimum free percentage, hence no warning.

    To set a minimum free space percentage, see Example 30-16.

  9. Decide what action to take when all the audit directories are full.

    Note - This step applies only to the audit_binfile plugin.

    In the default configuration, the audit_binfile plugin is active and the cnt policy is set. In this configuration, when the kernel audit queue is full, the system continues to work. The system counts the audit records that are dropped, but does not record the events. For greater security, you can disable the cnt policy, and enable the ahlt policy. The ahlt policy stops the system when an asynchronous event cannot be placed in the audit queue.

    For a discussion of these policy options, see Audit Policies for Asynchronous and Synchronous Events. To configure these policy options, see Example 30-6.

    However, if the audit_binfile queue is full and the queue for another active plugin is not full, then the kernel queue will continue to send records to the plugin that is not full. When the audit_binfile queue can again accept records, the audit service will resume sending records to it.

    Note - The cnt or ahlt policy is not triggered if the queue for at least one plugin is accepting audit records.