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Oracle® TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2.2)

E21633-11
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Glossary

ACID transaction semantics

An acronym referring to the four fundamental properties of a transaction: atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability.

atomicity

A property of a transaction whereby either all or none of the operations of a transaction are applied to the database.

backup instance

A set of files containing backup information for a given database, residing at a given backup path. See also "backup path", "full backup" and "incremental backup".

backup path

The location of a database, specified by a directory name and an optional basename.

backup point

The time at which a backup begins. See also "backup path", "full backup" and "incremental backup".

bitmap index

Indexes are used to speed up queries on a table. Bitmap indexes are useful when searching and retrieving data from columns with low cardinality. That is, these columns can have only a few unique possible values.

cache group

A set of cached tables related through foreign keys.

cache instance

A set of rows related through foreign keys. Each cache instance contains exactly one row from the root table of a cache group and zero or more rows from the other tables in the cache group.

client/server

An approach to application design and development in which application processing is divided between components running on an end user's machine, such as the client, and a network server. Generally, user interface elements are implemented in the client component, while the server controls database access.

client data source name

See "data source name, client".

concurrency

The ability to have multiple transactions access and manipulate the database at the same time.

connection

A data path between an application and a particular ODBC data source.

connection attribute

A character string that defines a connection parameter to be used when connecting to an ODBC data source. Connection attributes have the form name=value, where name is the name of the parameter and value is the parameter value. See also connection string.

connection request

A message sent by an application through an ODBC driver to an ODBC data source to request a connection to that data source.

connection string

A character string that defines the connection parameters to be used when connecting to an ODBC data source. A connection string is expressed as one or more connection attributes separated by semicolons.

consistency

A property of transactions whereby each transaction transforms the database from one consistent state to another.

cursor

A control structure used by an application to iterate through the results of an SQL query.

data source definition

A named collection of connection attributes that defines the connection parameters to be used when connecting to an ODBC data source. See also "data source name".

data source name

A logical name by which an end user or application refers to an ODBC data source definition. Sometimes incorrectly used to mean "data source definition". See also "data source definition", ODBC.INI file.

data source name, client

A data source name defined on a TimesTen client machine that refers to a Server DSN on a server machine.

data source name, server

A system data source name (system DSN) defined on a server machine. Server Data Source Names become available to all TimesTen clients on a network when the TimesTen Server is running.

data source name, system

A data source name that is accessible by all users of a particular machine.

data source name, user

A data source name that is accessible only by the user who created the data source name.

driver

See "ODBC driver".

DSN, client

See "data source name, client".

DSN, server

See "data source name, server".

DSN, system

See "data source name, system".

DSN, user

See "data source name, user".

durability

A property of transactions whereby the effects of a committed transaction survive system failures.

environment variable

A name, value pair maintained by the operating system that can be used to pass configuration parameters to an application.

event

An activity or occurrence that can be tracked by a logging mechanism in an application, service or operating system. See also "logging", "protocol message logging" and "event viewer".

event viewer

On Windows, a utility program used to view the contents of the operating system event log.

full backup

A database backup procedure in which a complete copy of a database is created. Typically, the first backup of a database must be a full backup. See also "incremental backup".

hash index

Indexes are used to speed up queries on a table. Hash indexes are useful for finding rows with an exact match on one or more columns.

host

A computer. Typically used to refer to a computer on a network that provides services to other computers on the network.

host name

A character string name that uniquely identifies a particular computer on a network. Examples: athena, thames.mycompany.com. See also "host".

inline column

A column whose values are physically stored together with the other column values of a row.

incremental backup

A database backup procedure in which an existing backup is augmented with all the transaction log records created since its last full or incremental backup. See also "backup instance" and "full backup".

initialization file

See ODBC.INI file.

IP address

A numeric address that uniquely identifies a computer on a network and consists of four numbers separated by dots. Abbreviation for Internet Protocol address. Example: 123.61.129.91.

IPC

Inter Process Communication

isolation

A property of transactions whereby each transaction runs as if it were the only transaction in the system.

listener thread

A thread that runs on the TimesTen Server that receives and processes connection requests from TimesTen Clients.

logging

The process by which an application, service or operating system records specific events that occur during processing.

multithreading

A programming paradigm in which a process contains multiple threads of control.

network address

A host name, or IP address that uniquely identifies a particular computer on a network. Examples: 123.61.129.91, athena, thams.mycompany.com.

ODBC Administrator

A utility program used on Windows to create, configure and delete data source definitions.

ODBC data source

See "data source name" (DSN).

ODBC data source name

See "data source name" (DSN).

ODBC driver

A library that implements the function calls defined in the ODBC API and enables applications to interact with ODBC data sources.

ODBC Driver Manager

A library that acts as an intermediary between an ODBC application and one or more ODBC drivers.

ODBC initialization file (ODBC INI)

The ODBC.INI file contains a list of Data Sources and any properties for each. Each Data Source name must have a driver property defined. This enables the driver to be loaded when a connect call is made.

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

A database-independent application programming interface that enables applications to access data stored in heterogeneous relational and non-relational databases. Based on the Call-Level Interface (CLI) specification developed by X/Open's SQL Access Group and first popularized by Microsoft on the Windows platform.

Open database connectivity (ODBC), is a database access protocol that lets you connect to a database and then prepare and run SQL statements against the database. In conjunction with an ODBC driver, an application can access any data source including data stored in spreadsheets, like Excel. Because ODBC is a widely accepted standard API, applications can be written to comply to the ODBC standard. The ODBC driver performs all mappings between the ODBC standard and the particular database the application is accessing. Using a data source-specific driver, an ODBC compliant program can access any data source without any more development effort.

TimesTen provides the ODBC interface so that applications of any type that are ODBC compliant can access TimesTen using the ODBC driver provided by TimesTen.

out-of-line column

A column whose values are physically stored separately from the other column values of a row.

phantom

A row that appears during one read but not during another read within the same transaction, due to the actions of other concurrently executing transactions.

ping

A utility that tests the connection between two computers on a network by sending a message from one computer to the other and measuring how long it takes for the receiving system to confirm that the message was received. Typically packaged with network software.

port number

See "TCP/IP port number".

procedure

See "stored procedure".

process

An instance of a program in execution.

propagate

When using TimesTen Cache to send table or row modifications from a TimesTen Cache to an Oracle database. Compare with "replicate".

protocol message logging

The process that the TimesTen Server uses to record each message it receives through the TimesTen network protocol.

range index

Indexes are used to speed up queries on a table. A range index is similar in functionality to a B+-tree index and is best used for retrieving rows with column values within a certain range.

replicate

The sending of table or row modifications from one database to another. Compare with "propagate".

result set

A collection of zero or more rows of data that represent the result of an SQL query.

rollback

To undo the actions of a transaction, thereby returning all items modified by the transaction to their original state.

row buffering

A performance enhancement used by the TimesTen Client in which the client receives multiple result rows of an SQL query in each message from the TimesTen Server to reduce network communication.

RPC

Remote Procedure Call.

scalability

The degree to which a system or application can handle increasing demands on system resources without significant performance degradation.

schema

A schema is automatically created for a user upon user creation. A schema is the namespace for a given user, where all objects owned by this user belong and all objects are identified by schema qualified names. For example, user PAT belongs to the PAT schema. In addition, the object EMPLOYEES owned by PAT is identified as PAT.EMPLOYEES.

If a user refers to an object without the schema name, TimesTen first tries to resolve the name to the user's schema. If this object does not exist, TimesTen tries to resolve the name to SYS.EMPLOYEES.

A user always has all privileges to all objects in their own schema. These privileges can never be revoked.

server data source name

See "data source name, server".

server DSN

See "data source name, server".

system DSN

See "data source name, system".

shorthand name

A logical name used to refer to a particular TimesTen Server. Shorthand names relieve the end user of having to enter a host name and port number to connect to a TimesTen Server.

SMP

Symmetric multi-processing. A hardware configuration in which two or more similar processors are connected via a high-bandwidth link and managed by one operating system, where each processor has equal access to I/O devices.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol. Used to manage nodes on a network.

SQL

Structured Query Language.

stack overflow condition

An error condition in which the stack usage of a thread or process exceeds the amount of space allocated for the stack.

stored procedure

An executable object or named entity stored in a database that can be invoked with input and output parameters and which can return result sets similar to those returned by an SQL query.

system account

A special account on Windows used by the operating system and certain operating system services. The TimesTen service and the TimesTen Server run under the system account.

system DSN

See "data source name, system".

TCP/IP

The communications protocol used by computers on the Internet. Abbreviation for Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TCP/IP port number

A number used by TCP/IP that identifies the end point for a connection to a host that supports multiple simultaneous connections.

telnet

A utility program and protocol that enables a user on one computer to open a virtual terminal, log in to a remote host and interact as a terminal user of that host.

thread

An independent sequence of execution of program code inside a process. See also "process".

thread-safe ODBC driver

An ODBC driver that supports multithreaded servers and clients. The TimesTen data manager driver and the TimesTen Client driver are thread-safe.

timeout error

An error condition indicating that the requested operation did not complete within the given amount of time. See also "timeout interval".

timeout interval

A configuration parameter that specifies the maximum amount of time that an operation should take to complete. See also "timeout error".

TimesTen Client

(1) An ODBC driver that enables end users to access data sources through a TimesTen Server. (2) A computer on which the TimesTen Client software has been installed. Using the TimesTen Client driver, an end user or application can access any data source managed by an available TimesTen Server.

TimesTen Client/Server network protocol

The protocol used by TimesTen Clients and TimesTen Servers to exchange data over a standard TCP/IP network connection.

TimesTen Data Server

(1) An application program that makes TimesTen data sources available to the TimesTen Clients on a network. (2) A computer on which the TimesTen Data Server software is running.

TimesTen Server address

The host name or IP address used during installation of the TimesTen Server to identify the computer on which the software is being installed.

transaction

An operation or set of operations performed against data in a database. The operations defined in a transaction must be completed as a whole; if any part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails. See also "ACID transaction semantics".

UCS-4

A fixed-width, 32-bit Unicode character set. Each character occupies 32 bits of storage. The UCS-2 characters are the first 65,536 code points in this standard, so it can be viewed as a 32-bit extension of UCS-2.

UTF-16

An encoding scheme defined by the ISO/IEC 10646 standard in which each Unicode character is represented by either a two-byte integer or a pair of two-byte integers. Characters from European scripts and most Asian scripts are represented in two bytes. Surrogate pairs are represented in four bytes. Surrogate pairs represent characters such as infrequently used Asian characters that were not included in the original range of two-byte characters.

user account

The combination of a user name, password and access permissions that gives an individual user access to an operating system.

user data source name

See"data source name, user".

user DSN

See "data source name, user".

User Manager

A Windows utility program used to create user accounts and assign access rights and group membership.

Windows sockets (Winsock)

An API that defines a standard binary interface for TCP/IP transports on Windows platforms. This API adds Windows-specific extensions to the Berkeley Sockets interface originally defined in Berkeley UNIX.