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Oracle® Database Appliance Getting Started Guide
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7 Managing Oracle Database on Oracle Database Appliance

This chapter provides a high-level introduction to issues and tasks involved in Oracle Database administration. This chapter contains the following sections:

Managing and Maintaining Oracle Database

The following sections provide an overview of Oracle software operations:

About Oracle Database

Oracle Database is a relational database with object and Extensible Markup Language (XML) capabilities. In a relational database, all data is stored in two-dimensional tables that consist of rows and columns. Oracle Database enables you to store, update, and efficiently retrieve data with a high degree of performance, reliability, and scalability.

See Also:

About Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control

The primary product for managing your database is Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control (Database Control), a web interface. After you have installed Oracle Database, created or upgraded a database, and configured you network, use Database Control to manage your database. Database Control also provides an interface for performance advisors and for Oracle utilities such as SQL*Loader and Recovery Manager (RMAN).

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for an introduction to Database Control

About Backup and Recovery

Use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up and recover databases on Oracle Database Appliance.

About Data Loading and Migration

If you are deploying a new application, then you may skip this section. If you are loading data or migrating data from an existing database to Oracle Database Appliance, then refer to the following documents:

About Oracle Clusterware Resource Management

Oracle Clusterware provides the cluster technology required for Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). In addition, Oracle Clusterware manages applications and processes as resources that you register with Oracle Clusterware. The number of resources that you register with Oracle Clusterware to manage an application depends on the application. Applications that consist of only one process are usually represented by only one resource. More complex applications, that built on multiple processes or components, may require multiple resources.

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about making applications highly available with Oracle Clusterware

About Oracle RAC One Node Database Management

Oracle RAC One Node is a single instance of an Oracle RAC database that runs on one node in a cluster. Instead of stopping and starting instances, you may use the Oracle RAC One Node online database relocation feature to relocate an Oracle RAC One Node instance to another server.

Oracle RAC One Node databases are administered slightly differently from Oracle RAC or single-instance Oracle Databases. For administrator-managed Oracle RAC One Node databases, one node is the primary node, and the other node is a candidate node, which is available to accommodate services if the primary node fails, or is shut down for maintenance. The candidate node resides in the generic server pool. The database and database services also reside in the generic pool.

See Also:

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more information about administering Oracle RAC One Node

About Oracle Real Application Clusters Database Management

Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) provides technology that links two or more individual computers so that they function as one system. Oracle RAC deployed on Oracle Database Appliance enables each computer, or node, of a cluster to share access to the Oracle database. If one cluster node fails or is taken offline, then the other cluster node continues operating and the entire Oracle RAC database remains available. To applications, each node appears as a single computer.

See Also:

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for information about administering Oracle RAC

Creating Additional Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes

This section contains the following topics:

About Managing Multiple Databases on Oracle Database Appliance

Use Oracle Appliance Manager (oakcli) to create and manage multiple databases on Oracle Database Appliance. You may also use oakcli to manage multiple databases that have multiple homes and use different database configurations. Oracle Database Appliance supports multiple Oracle homes for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 versions 11.2.0.2, 11.2.0.3, and 11.2.0.4. Refer to Note 888888.1 for more details about the available database versions and clone files:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=888888.1

Using multiple Oracle homes enables you to run multiple releases of Oracle Database simultaneously. For example, you could install 11.2.0.3.3 and test applications on this release before you move applications from an Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2.0.2.5) database to the new release.

An Oracle home is the directory in which you install Oracle Database binaries, and from which Oracle Database runs. Oracle Appliance Manager automatically creates an Oracle Database Oracle home that is compliant with the Oracle Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines.

When you use oakcli to create multiple homes on Oracle Database Appliance, the commands start the cloning process that Oracle Grid Infrastructure uses. In the current release, the user oracle owns all of the Oracle homes.

Note:

If you are not upgrading from an earlier release, then download the Oracle Database Appliance End User Bundle for the Oracle Database version that you want to install. Refer to Note 888888.1 for more details:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=888888.1

Use oakcli to create, manage, and upgrade multiple databases on Oracle Database Appliance using the multiple Oracle home feature. The oakcli create database command enables you to create a database with minimal user input. When used without any additional options, the command creates a new database home. Alternatively, you may create a database in an existing home by using the -oh attribute.

Note:

Use oakcli to create new databases in either existing Oracle homes or in new Oracle homes.

oakcli create database

Use the oakcli create database command to create additional databases on Oracle Database Appliance.

syntax

oakcli create database -db db_name [-oh home | -version version] [-params params_file]

Parameters

Table 7-1 oakcli create database Command Parameters

Parameter Description

-db db_name

db_name is the name of the database that you want to create

-oh home

home is the name of an existing Oracle home to use when creating the database; by default, the command creates a new database home

-version version

version is the version that you want to install. By default, Oracle Database Appliance uses the latest version.

-params params_file

params_file is the configuration file. By default, Oracle Database Appliance uses the default configuration file and automatically appends a file extension to the file name that you provide.


Examples

# oakcli create database -db sales1 -version 11.2.0.4
# oakcli create database -db sales2 -oh home2 -params salesdbtemplate

oakcli create db_config_params

Use the oakcli create db_config_params -conf filename command to create a configuration file for configuring multiple databases on Oracle Database Appliance, where filename is the name of the configuration file that you generate:

Syntax

oakcli create db_config_params -conf filename

When you run this command, respond to each prompt by entering the number that corresponds with the option you want to apply to your database. When a default is supplied and is the value you want to use, typically shown as option 1, then accept that value by clicking the Enter key. When there are many options, then you may need to click 0 to reveal all of the options if the value you want is not displayed.

Example

The following is an example of the configuration dialog for the oakcli create db_config_params command:

# oakcli create db_config_params -conf rsfile

Please select one of the following for Database Block Size  [1 .. 4]:
1 ==> 4096
2 ==> 8192
3 ==> 16384
4 ==> 32768
2
Selected value is: 8192

Specify the  Database Language (1. AMERICAN 2. Others) [1]:
Selected value is: AMERICAN

Specify the  Database Characterset (1. AL32UTF8 2. Others) [1]:2

Please select one of the following for Database Characterset [0 .. 10] :0 => Others1 => AL32UTF82 => AR8ADOS7103 => AR8ADOS710T4 => AR8ADOS7205 => AR8ADOS720T6 => AR8APTEC7157 => AR8APTEC715T8 => AR8ARABICMACS9 => AR8ASMO708PLUS10 => AR8ASMO8X1Selected value is: AL32UTF8

Specify the  Database Territory (1. AMERICA 2. Others) [1]:2

Please select one of the following for Database Territory [0 .. 10] :
0 => Others
1 => ALBANIA
2 => ALGERIA
3 => AMERICA
4 => ARGENTINA
5 => AUSTRALIA
6 => AUSTRIA
7 => AZERBAIJAN
8 => BAHRAIN
9 => BANGLADESH
10 => BELARUS
3
Selected value is: AMERICA

Specify the  Component Language (1. en 2. Others) [1]:2

Please select one of the following for Component Language [0 .. 10] :
0 => Others
1 => en : English
2 => fr : French
3 => ar : Arabic
4 => bn : Bengali
5 => pt_BR : Brazilian Portuguese
6 => bg : Bulgarian
7 => fr_CA : Canadian French
8 => ca : Catalan
9 => hr : Croatian
10 => cs : Czech
1
Selected value is: en
Successfully generated the Database parameter file 'rsfile'

To see your existing database configuration files, use the oakcli show db_config_params command. For example:

# oakcli show db_config_params 
Available DB configuration files are: 
default 
largedb
extralargedb
mytest.params

Note that only non-default extensions are included in the output, the default extension, .dbconf, is not shown.

To use a database configuration file to create a database, or many databases with identical profiles, use the oakcli create database command and include the -params -conf file_name option where file_name is the name of the required configuration file.

Remove unwanted database configuration files with the oakcli delete db_config_params -conf command, providing your configuration file name as the -conf parameter value. As with other Oracle Appliance Manager commands related to database configuration files, you do not need to include the extension if your file has the default extension value, which is .dbconf.

About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Administrative Groups and Users

During configuration, two administrative accounts are created for Oracle Database Appliance: the Grid Infrastructure installation owner, grid, UID 1000, and the Oracle Database installation owner, oracle, UID 1001.

The grid user is a member of the Oracle ASM system privileges groups asmadmin, GID 1006, asmdba, GID 1004, and asmoper, GID 1005; the Oracle Database system privileges group racoper, GID 1003 (the OPER database system privileges); and the Oracle Inventory system privileges group, oinstall, GID 1001.

The oracle user is a member of the Oracle ASM system access privileges group asmdba; the Oracle Database system privileges groups dba (the OSDBA system privileges) and racoper (the OPER database system privileges); and the Oracle Inventory system privileges group, oinstall. These user names, UIDs, group names, and GIDs are pre-configured and you cannot change them. Note that all database ORACLE_HOMES are owned by the oracle user.

See Also:

About Oracle RAC Database Administration on Oracle Database Appliance

When you review the database resource for an administrator-managed database, you see a server pool defined with the same name as the Oracle database. This server pool is part of a special Oracle-defined server pool called Generic. Oracle RAC manages the Generic server pool to support administrator-managed databases. When you add or remove an administrator-managed database using either the Oracle Server Control Utility (SRVCTL) or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), Oracle RAC creates or removes the server pools that are members of Generic. You cannot use SRVCTL or Oracle Clusterware Control Utility (CRSCTL) commands to modify the Generic server pool.

Note:

Oracle Database Appliance currently supports only administrator-managed databases.

Converting Single-Instance Databases to Oracle RAC or Oracle RAC One Node

Use the command line utility, rconfig, to convert a single-instance database to Oracle RAC or to Oracle RAC One Node, depending on the values that you provide in the ConvertToRAC.xml file.

See Also:

Appendix C, "Converting to Oracle RAC and Oracle RAC One Node from Single-Instance Oracle Databases" in Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation and Configuration Guide for instructions to convert a single-instance database

Managing Multiple Database Instances Using Instance Caging

Oracle Database provides a method for managing CPU allocations on a multi-CPU server that runs multiple database instances. This method is called instance caging. Instance caging and Oracle Resource Manager (the Resource Manager) collaborate to support your desired service levels across multiple instances.

See Also:

Upgrading Oracle Database on Oracle Database Appliance

To upgrade Oracle Database on Oracle Database Appliance, you apply the appropriate patches, beginning with any necessary Grid Control patches. This section contains the instructions for each of the available upgrades you may apply.

Upgrading the Database

Upgrade the database by installing a rolling upgrade patch which automatically patches Node 1 after patching Node 0. Follow the steps in the section that covers your specific upgrade requirements:

Upgrading to Oracle Database 11.2.0.2.10 from Earlier 11.2.0.2 Releases

  1. Run the oakcli show databases command, on Node 0 only, to confirm that you have a database with the appropriate release number for this upgrade. The command and output should look something like the following example.

    # /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show databases
    Database Name      Database Type     Database HomeName      
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version                  tpcc               RAC               dbhome11202 
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1   11.2.0.2.5(13923804,13696242)
    
  2. Run the oakcli update -patch 2.6.0.0.0 --database command on Node 0 only. If you have more than one database home that could be patched, then the software provides a select list from which you pick one, some, or all of the database homes to upgrade. Use the commands shown in the following example:

    cd /opt/oracle/oak/bin
    ./oakcli update -patch 2.6.0.0.0 --database
    
  3. After the command completes, verify your database version with the oakcli show databases command on Node 0 again. The command and output should now look something like the following example.

    # /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show databases
    Database Name      Database Type     Database HomeName      
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version                  tpcc               RAC               dbhome11202 
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1   11.2.0.2.10(16056267,16166868)
    11.2.0.2.10 (16056267,16166868)
    

Upgrading to Oracle Database 11.2.0.3.6 from Earlier 11.2.0.3 Releases

  1. Run the oakcli show databases command, on Node 0 only, to confirm that you have a database with the appropriate release number for this upgrade. The command and output should look something like the following example.

    # /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show databases
    Database Name      Database Type     Database HomeName      
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version                  tpcc               RAC               dbhome11203 
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1   11.2.0.3.2(13696216,13696251)
    EE                 RACOneNode        dbhome11203
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1   11.2.0.3.2(13696216,13696251)
    
  2. Run the oakcli update -patch 2.6.0.0.0 --database command on Node 0 only. If you have more than one database home that could be patched, then the software provides a select list from which you pick one, some, or all of the database homes to upgrade. Use the commands shown in the following example.

    cd /opt/oracle/oak/bin
    ./oakcli update -patch 2.6.0.0.0 --database
    

    Note:

    You cannot perform database-specific upgrades from Release 11.2.0.3.x to 11.2.0.3.6. All databases running the homes that you upgrade, such as the two databases listed in the example in Step 1, will be patched to Oracle Database 11.2.0.3.6.
  3. After the command completes, verify your database version with the oakcli show databases command on Node 0 again. The command and output should now look something like the following example.

    # /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show databases
    Database Name      Database Type     Database HomeName      
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version                  tpcc               RAC               dbhome11203 
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1   11.2.0.3.6(16056266,16083653)
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version                  EE                 RACOneNode        dbhome11203 
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1   11.2.0.3.6(16056266,16083653)
    

Upgrading to Oracle Database 11.2.0.3.6 from Release 11.2.0.2.x

  1. Ensure that you have an 11.2.0.3.6 database home by completing the following actions on Node 0:

    • Run the command /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show dbhome. If the output from the command includes an 11.2.0.3.6 home, as in the following example:

      Oracle Home Name       Oracle Home version                   
                                   Home Location
      dbhome11202           11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)                                                        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1
      OraDb11203_home1       11.2.0.3.6(16056266,16083653)       
                                   /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1
      

      then continue with Step 2. If there is no 11.2.0.3.6 home, as in the following example:

      Oracle Home Name       Oracle Home version                   
                                   Home Location
      dbhome11202            11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)        
                                   /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1
      

      then complete the following actions before proceeding to Step 2:

      • Download the 11.2.0.3.6 DB clone file from My Oracle Support, patch # 14777276

      • Create an 11.2.0.3.6 database home on Node 0 with the following two commands:

        cd /opt/oracle/oak/bin
        /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli create dbhome -version 11.2.0.3.6
        
      • Return to the start of Step 1 and repeat the actions, beginning with the /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show dbhome command, until you have an 11.2.0.3.6 database home.

  2. Run the oakcli show databases command, on Node 0 only, to confirm that you have a database with the appropriate release number for this upgrade. The command and output should look something like the following example, which shows three databases that are candidates to be upgraded.

    # /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show databases
    Database Name      Database Type     Database HomeName      
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version
    tpcc               RAC               dbhome11202                      
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1   11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)
    RACOne             RACOneNode        dbhome11202                      
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1   11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)       11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)
    EE                 SINGLE            dbhome11202                      
       /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1    11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)
    
  3. Upgrade a database by running the oakcli upgrade database command, on Node 0 only, providing the name of the database to upgrade and the 11.2.0.3.6 database home name from Step 1. The following example shows how to upgrade the tpcc database, listed in Step 2, using the OraDb11203_home1 identified in Step 1:

    cd /opt/oracle/oak/bin
    ./oakcli upgrade database -db tpcc -to OraDb11203_home1
    
  4. After the command completes, verify your database version with the oakcli show databases command on Node 0 again. The command and output should now look something like the following example:

    # /opt/oracle/oak/bin/oakcli show databases
    Database Name      Database Type     Database HomeName      
        Database HomeLocation                       Database Version
    tpcc               RAC               OraDb11203_home1                      
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.3/dbhome_1   11.2.0.3.6(16056266,16083653)
    RACOne             RACOneNode        dbhome11202                      
        /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1   11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)       11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)
    EE                 SINGLE            dbhome11202                      
       /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.2/dbhome_1    11.2.0.2.5(13343424,13343447)