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Linker and Libraries Guide     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
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Part I Using the Link-Editor and Runtime Linker

1.  Introduction to the Oracle Solaris Link Editors

2.  Link-Editor

Invoking the Link-Editor

Direct Invocation

Using a Compiler Driver

Cross Link-Editing

Specifying the Link-Editor Options

Input File Processing

Archive Processing

Shared Object Processing

Linking With Additional Libraries

Library Naming Conventions

Linking With a Mix of Shared Objects and Archives

Position of an Archive on the Command Line

Directories Searched by the Link-Editor

Directories Searched by the Runtime Linker

Initialization and Termination Sections

Symbol Processing

Symbol Resolution

Simple Resolutions

Complex Resolutions

Fatal Resolutions

Undefined Symbols

Generating an Executable Output File

Generating a Shared Object Output File

Weak Symbols

Tentative Symbol Order Within the Output File

Defining Additional Symbols

Defining Additional Symbols with the -u option

Defining Symbol References

Defining Absolute Symbols

Defining Tentative Symbols

Augmenting a Symbol Definition

Reducing Symbol Scope

Symbol Elimination

External Bindings

String Table Compression

Generating the Output File

Identifying Capability Requirements

Identifying a Platform Capability

Identifying a Machine Capability

Identifying Hardware Capabilities

Identifying Software Capabilities

Creating a Family of Symbol Capabilities Functions

Creating a Family of Symbol Capabilities Data Items

Converting Object Capabilities to Symbol Capabilities

Exercising a Capability Family

Relocation Processing

Displacement Relocations

Stub Objects

Debugging Aids

3.  Runtime Linker

4.  Shared Objects

5.  Interfaces and Versioning

6.  Establishing Dependencies with Dynamic String Tokens

Part II Quick Reference

7.  Link-Editor Quick Reference

8.  Versioning Quick Reference

Part III Advanced Topics

9.  Direct Bindings

10.  Mapfiles

11.  Extensibility Mechanisms

Part IV ELF Application Binary Interface

12.  Object File Format

13.  Program Loading and Dynamic Linking

14.  Thread-Local Storage

Part V Appendices

A.  Linker and Libraries Updates and New Features

B.  System V Release 4 (Version 1) Mapfiles


Chapter 2


The link-editing process creates an output file from one or more input files. Output file creation is directed by the options that are supplied to the link-editor and the input sections provided by the input files.

All files are represented in the executable and linking format (ELF). For a complete description of the ELF format see Chapter 12, Object File Format. For this introduction, two ELF structures are introduced, sections and segments.

Sections are the smallest indivisible units that can be processed within an ELF file. Segments are a collection of sections that represent the smallest individual units that can be mapped to a memory image by exec(2) or by the runtime linker

Although many types of ELF section exist, sections fall into two categories with respect to the link-editing phase.

Basically, the link-editor concatenates the program data sections into the output file. The link-editing information sections are interpreted by the link-editor to modify other sections. The information sections are also used to generate new output information sections used in later processing of the output file.

The following simple breakdown of link-editor functionality introduces the topics that are covered in this chapter.

The process of concatenating like sections and associating sections to segments is carried out using default information within the link-editor. The default section and segment handling provided by the link-editor is usually sufficient for most link-edits. However, these defaults can be manipulated using the -M option with an associated mapfile. See Appendix B, System V Release 4 (Version 1) Mapfiles.