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|Oracle Solaris Administration: Devices and File Systems Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library|
Before you can access the files on a file system, you need to mount the file system. When you mount a file system, you attach that file system to a directory (mount point) and make it available to the system. The root (/) file system is always mounted. Any other file system can be connected or disconnected from the root (/) file system.
Most file systems are automatically mounted by SMF services at system boot time. Generally, you do not need to mount or unmount file systems manually. For more information about mounting different file system types, see Mounting and Unmounting Oracle Solaris File Systems.
When you mount a file system, any files or directories in the underlying mount point directory are unavailable as long as the file system is mounted. These files are not permanently affected by the mounting process. They become available again when the file system is unmounted. However, mount directories are typically empty because you usually do not want to obscure existing files.
For step-by-step instructions on how to mount file systems, see Mounting and Unmounting Oracle Solaris File Systems.
Whenever you mount or unmount a file system, the /etc/mnttab (mount table) file is modified with the list of currently mounted file systems. You can display the contents of this file by using the cat or more commands. However, you cannot edit this file. Here is an example of an /etc/mnttab file:
$ more /etc/mnttab rpool/ROOT/zfsBE / zfs dev=40d0002 0 /devices /devices devfs dev=9500000 1307562777 /dev /dev dev dev=9580000 1307562777 ctfs /system/contract ctfs dev=95c0001 1307562777 proc /proc proc dev=9540000 1307562777 mnttab /etc/mnttab mntfs dev=9600001 1307562777 swap /system/volatile tmpfs xattr,dev=9640001 1307562777 objfs /system/object objfs dev=9680001 1307562777 sharefs /etc/dfs/sharetab sharefs dev=96c0001 1307562777 fd /dev/fd fd rw,dev=97c0001 1307562811 swap /tmp tmpfs xattr,dev=9640002 1307562812 rpool/export /export zfs rw,devices,setuid,nonbmand,exec,rstchown, xattr,atime,dev=40d0003 1307562818 rpool/export/home /export/home zfs rw,devices,setuid,nonbmand, exec,rstchown,xattr,atime,dev=40d0004 1307562818
Most file systems are mounted automatically by an SMF service at system boot time.
You might need to edit the /etc/vfstab file to mount legacy file systems or to make changes to the ZFS swap volume. For information about changing a ZFS swap volume, see Chapter 19, Configuring Additional Swap Space (Tasks).
To add an entry for mounting a legacy file system, the information you need to specify is as follows:
The device where the file system resides
The file system mount point
File system type
Whether you want the file system to mount automatically when the system boots (by using the mountall command)
Any mount options
The following vfstab example if from a system that runs a ZFS root file system.
# cat /etc/vfstab #device device mount FS fsck mount mount #to mount to fsck point type pass at boot options # fd - /dev/fd fd - no - /proc - /proc proc - no - /dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap - - swap - no - /devices - /devices devfs - no - sharefs - /etc/dfs/sharetabsharefs - no - ctfs - /system/contract ctfs - no - objfs - /system/object objfs - no - swap - /tmp tmpfs - yes -
ZFS file systems are mounted automatically by the SMF service at boot time. You can mount ZFS file systems from the vfstab by using the legacy mount feature. For more information, see Oracle Solaris Administration: ZFS File Systems.
For descriptions of each /etc/vfstab field and information on how to edit and use the file, see vfstab(4).
NFS is a distributed file system service that can be used to share resources (files or directories) from one system, typically a server, with other systems on the network. For example, you might want to share third-party applications or source files with users on other systems.
NFS makes the actual physical location of the resource irrelevant to the user. Instead of placing copies of commonly used files on every system, NFS allows you to place one copy on one system's disk and let all other systems access it from the network. Under NFS, remote files are virtually indistinguishable from local files.
For more information, see Chapter 4, Managing Network File Systems (Overview), in Oracle Solaris Administration: Network Services.
When you share a resource, you make it available for mounting by remote systems.
You can share a resource in these ways:
Create a ZFS share by using the ZFS share property.
For a complete description of NFS, see Chapter 4, Managing Network File Systems (Overview), in Oracle Solaris Administration: Network Services.
Oracle's implementation of the NFS version 4 distributed file access protocol is included in the Oracle Solaris release.
NFS version 4 integrates file access, file locking, and mount protocols into a single, unified protocol to ease traversal through a firewall and improve security. The Oracle Solaris implementation of NFS version 4 is fully integrated with Kerberos V5, also known as SEAM, thus providing authentication, integrity, and privacy. NFS version 4 also enables the negotiation of security flavors to be used between the client and the server. With NFS version 4, a server can offer different security flavors for different file systems.
For more information about NFS Version 4 features, see What’s New With the NFS Service in Oracle Solaris Administration: Network Services.
You can mount NFS file system resources by using a client-side service called automounting (or autofs). The autofs service enables a system to automatically mount and unmount NFS resources whenever you access them. The resource remains mounted as long as you remain in the directory and are using a file within that directory. If the resource is not accessed for a certain period of time, it is automatically unmounted.
The autofs service provides the following features:
NFS resources don't need to be mounted when the system boots, which saves booting time.
Users don't need to know the root password to mount and unmount NFS resources.
Network traffic might be reduced because NFS resources are mounted only when they are in use.
The autofs service is initialized by the automount utility, which runs automatically when a system is booted. The automountd daemon runs continuously and is responsible for the mounting and unmounting of NFS file systems on an as-needed basis. By default, the /home file system is mounted by the automount daemon.
With autofs, you can specify multiple servers to provide the same file system. This way, if one of these servers is down, autofs can try to mount the file system from another machine.
For complete information on how to set up and administer autofs, see Chapter 5, Network File System Administration (Tasks), in Oracle Solaris Administration: Network Services.
The Oracle Solaris OS provides a Server Message Block (SMB) protocol server and client implementation that includes support for numerous SMB dialects including NT LM 0.12 and Common Internet File System (CIFS). The terms CIFS and SMB can be considered interchangeable.
The Solaris SMB server allows a native Oracle Solaris system to serve files as SMB shares to SMB enabled clients that mount the file system shares. A Windows, Mac OS, or Solaris client can interoperate with the Solaris SMB server as it would with a Windows server. A Solaris SMB server can operate in either workgroup mode or in domain mode. In workgroup mode, the Solaris SMB server is responsible for authenticating users locally when access is requested to shared resources. This authentication process is referred to as local login. In domain mode, the Solaris SMB server uses pass-through authentication, in which user authentication is delegated to a domain controller.
For more information, see Oracle Solaris Administration: SMB and Windows Interoperability.