JavaScript is required to for searching.
Skip Navigation Links
Exit Print View
Oracle Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
search filter icon
search icon

Document Information


1.  About DTrace

2.  D Programming Language

3.  Aggregations

4.  Actions and Subroutines

5.  Buffers and Buffering

6.  Output Formatting

7.  Speculative Tracing

8.  dtrace(1M) Utility

9.  Scripting

Interpreter Files

Macro Variables

Macro Arguments

Target Process ID

10.  Options and Tunables

11.  Providers

12.  User Process Tracing

13.  Statically Defined Tracing for User Applications

14.  Security

15.  Anonymous Tracing

16.  Postmortem Tracing

17.  Performance Considerations

18.  Stability

19.  Translators

20.  Versioning

Macro Variables

The D compiler defines a set of built-in macro variables that you can use when writing D programs or interpreter files. Macro variables are identifiers that are prefixed with a dollar sign ($) and are expanded once by the D compiler when processing your input file. The D compiler provides the following macro variables:

Table 9-1 D Macro Variables

macro arguments
effective group-ID
effective user-ID
real group-ID
process ID
process group ID
parent process ID
project ID
session ID
target process ID
task ID
real user-ID

Except for the $[0-9]+ macro arguments and the $target macro variable, the macro variables all expand to integers corresponding to system attributes such as the process ID and user ID. The variables expand to the attribute value associated with the current dtrace process itself, or whatever process is running the D compiler.

Using macro variables in interpreter files enables you to create persistent D programs that do not need to be edited each time you want to use them. For example, to count all system calls except those executed by the dtrace command, you can use the following D program clause containing $pid:

/pid != $pid/
        @calls = count();

This clause always produces the desired result, even though each invocation of the dtrace command will have a different process ID. Macro variables can be used anywhere an integer, identifier, or string can be used in a D program.

Macro variables are expanded only once (that is, not recursively) when the input file is parsed. Each macro variable is expanded to form a separate input token, and cannot be concatenated with other text to yield a single token. For example, if $pid expands to the value 456, the D code:


would expand to the two adjacent tokens 123 and 456, resulting in a syntax error, rather than the single integer token 123456.

Macro variables are expanded and concatenated with adjacent text inside of D probe descriptions at the start of your program clauses. For example, the following clause uses the DTrace pid provider to instrument the dtrace command:


Macro variables are only expanded once within each probe description field; they may not contain probe description delimiters (:).