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Oracle® Fusion Middleware Configuring Log Files and Filtering Log Messages for Oracle WebLogic Server
12c Release 1 (12.1.1)

Part Number E24428-02
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5 Subscribing to Messages

This chapter describes creating and subscribing a message handler. When WebLogic Server message catalogs and the NonCatalogLogger generate messages, they distribute their messages to a java.util.logging.Logger object. The Logger object allocates a WLLogRecord object to describe the message and publishes the WLLogRecord to any message handler that has subscribed to the Logger.

This chapter includes the following sections:

For more information about WebLogic Server loggers and handlers, see The Role of Logger and Handler Objects.

Overview of Message Handlers

WebLogic Server instantiates and subscribes a set of message handlers that receive and print log messages. You can also create your own message handlers and subscribe them to the WebLogic Server Logger objects (see Figure 5-1).

Figure 5-1 Subscribing a Handler

Description of Figure 5-1 follows
Description of "Figure 5-1 Subscribing a Handler"

For example, if your application runs in a client JVM and you want the application to listen for the messages that your application generates, you can create a handler and subscribe it to the Logger object in the client JVM. If your application receives a log message that signals the failure of a specific subsystem, it can perform actions such as:

Creating and Subscribing a Handler: Main Steps

A handler that you create and subscribe to a Logger object receives all messages that satisfy the level and filter criteria of the logger. Your handler can specify additional level and filter criteria so that it responds only to a specific set of messages that the logger publishes.

To create and subscribe a handler:

  1. Create a handler class that includes the following minimal set of import statements:

    import java.util.logging.Handler;
    import java.util.logging.LogRecord;
    import java.util.logging.ErrorManager;
    import weblogic.logging.WLLogRecord;
    import weblogic.logging.WLLevel;
    import weblogic.logging.WLErrorManager;
    import weblogic.logging.LoggingHelper;
    
  2. In the handler class, extend java.util.logging.Handler.

  3. In the handler class, implement the Handler.publish(LogRecord record) method.

    This method:

    1. Casts the LogRecord objects that it receives as WLLogRecord objects.

    2. Applies any filters that have been set for the handler.

    3. If the WLLogRecord object satisfies the criteria of any filters, the method uses WLLogRecord methods to retrieve data from the messages.

    4. Optionally writes the message data to one or more resources.

  4. In the handler class, implement the Handler.flush and Handler.close methods.

    All handlers that work with resources should implement the flush method so that it flushes any buffered output and the close method so that it closes any open resources.

    When the parent Logger object shuts down, it calls the Handler.close method on all of its handlers. The close method calls the flush method and then executes its own logic.

  5. Create a filter class that specifies which types of messages your Handler object should receive. See Setting a Filter for Loggers and Handlers.

  6. Create a class that invokes one of the following LoggingHelper methods:

    • getClientLogger if the current context is a client JVM.

    • getServerLogger if the current context is a server JVM and you want to attach a handler to the server Logger object.

    • getDomainLogger if the current context is the Administration Server and you want to attach a handler to the domain Logger object.

      LoggingHelper.getDomainLogger() retrieves the Logger object that manages the domain log. You can subscribe a custom handler to this logger and process log messages from all the servers in a single location.

  7. In this class, invoke the Logger.addHandler(Handler myHandler) method.

  8. Optional. Invoke the Logger.setFilter(Filter myFilter) method to set a filter.

Example: Subscribing to Messages in a Server JVM

This example creates a handler that connects to a JDBC data source and issues SQL statements that insert messages into a database table. The example implements the following classes:

Example: Implementing a Handler Class

The example Handler class in Example 5-1 writes messages to a database by doing the following:

  1. Extends java.util.logging.Handler.

  2. Constructs a javax.naming.InitialContext object and invokes the Context.lookup method to look up a data source named myPoolDataSource.

  3. Invokes the javax.sql.DataSource.getConnection method to establish a connection with the data source.

  4. Implements the setErrorManager method, which constructs a java.util.logging.ErrorManager object for this handler.

    If this handler encounters any error, it invokes the error manager's error method. The error method in this example:

    1. Prints an error message to standard error.

    2. Disables the handler by invoking LoggingHelper.getServerLogger().removeHandler(MyJDBCHandler.this).

      Note:

      Instead of defining the ErrorManager class in a separate class file, the example includes the ErrorManager as an anonymous inner class.

    For more information about error managers, see the API documentation for the java.util.logging.ErrorManager class at http://docs.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/logging/ErrorManager.html.

  5. Implements the Handler.publish(LogRecord record) method. The method does the following:

    1. Casts each LogRecord object that it receives as a WLLogRecord objects.

    2. Calls an isLoggable method to apply any filters that are set for the handler. The isLoggable method is defined at the end of this handler class.

    3. Uses WLLogRecord methods to retrieve data from the messages.

      For more information about WLLogRecord methods, see the description of the weblogic.logging.WLLogRecord class in the Oracle WebLogic Server API Reference.

    4. Formats the message data as a SQL prepareStatement and executes the database update.

      The schema for the table used in the example is as follows:

    Table 5-1 Schema for Database Table in Handler Example

    Name Null? Type
    MSGID
    

    n/a

    CHAR(25)
    
    LOGLEVEL
    

    n/a

    CHAR(25)
    
    SUBSYSTEM
    

    n/a

    CHAR(50)
    
    MESSAGE
    

    n/a

    CHAR(1024)
    

  6. Invokes a flush method to flush the connection.

  7. Implements the Handler.close method to close the connection with the data source.

    When the parent Logger object shuts down, it calls the Handler.close method, which calls the Handler.flush method before executing its own logic.

Example 5-1 illustrates the steps described in this section.

Example 5-1 Example: Implementing a Handler Class

import java.util.logging.Handler;
import java.util.logging.LogRecord;
import java.util.logging.Filter;
import java.util.logging.ErrorManager;
import weblogic.logging.WLLogRecord;
import weblogic.logging.WLLevel;
import weblogic.logging.WLErrorManager;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import javax.naming.NamingException;
import javax.sql.DataSource;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Statement;
import java.sql.PreparedStatement;
import weblogic.logging.LoggingHelper;
public class MyJDBCHandler extends Handler {
   private Connection con = null;
   private PreparedStatement stmt = null;
   public MyJDBCHandler() throws NamingException, SQLException {
      InitialContext ctx = new InitialContext();
      DataSource ds = (DataSource)ctx.lookup("myPoolDataSource");
      con = ds.getConnection();
      PreparedStatement stmt = con.prepareStatement
      setErrorManager(new ErrorManager() {
          public void error(String msg, Exception ex, int code) {
              System.err.println("Error reported by MyJDBCHandler " 
                                + msg + ex.getMessage());
              //Removing any prior istantiation of this handler
              LoggingHelper.getServerLogger().removeHandler(
                                MyJDBCHandler.this);
          }
      });
   }
   public void publish(LogRecord record) {
      WLLogRecord rec = (WLLogRecord)record;
      if (!isLoggable(rec)) return;
      try {
          ("INSERT INTO myserverLog VALUES (?, ?, ? ,?)");
          stmt.setEscapeProcessing(true);
          stmt.setString(1, rec.getId());
          stmt.setString(2, rec.getLevel().getLocalizedName());
          stmt.setString(3, rec.getLoggerName());
          stmt.setString(4, rec.getMessage());
          stmt.executeUpdate();
          flush();
      } catch(SQLException sqex) {
          reportError("Error publihsing to SQL", sqex,
                            ErrorManager.WRITE_FAILURE);
      }
   }
   public void flush() {
      try {
          con.commit();
      } catch(SQLException sqex) {
          reportError("Error flushing connection of MyJDBCHandler", 
                              sqex, ErrorManager.FLUSH_FAILURE);
      }
   }
    public boolean isLoggable(LogRecord record) {
        Filter filter = getFilter();
        if (filter != null) {
            return filter.isLoggable(record);
        } else {
           return true;
        }
    }
   public void close() {
      try {
          con.close();
      } catch(SQLException sqex) {
           reportError("Error closing connection of MyJDBCHandler", 
                              sqex, ErrorManager.CLOSE_FAILURE);
      }
   }
}

Example: Subscribing to a Logger Class

The example Logger class in Example 5-2 does the following:

  1. Invokes the LoggingHelper.getServerLogger method to retrieve the Logger object.

  2. Invokes the Logger.addHandler(Handler myHandler) method.

  3. Invokes the Logger.getHandlers method to retrieve all handlers of the Logger object.

  4. Iterates through the array until it finds myHandler.

  5. Invokes the Handler.setFilter(Filter myFilter) method.

If you wanted your handler and filter to subscribe to the server's Logger object each time the server starts, you could deploy this class as a WebLogic Server startup class. For information about startup classes, see "Use custom classes to configure servers" in the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console Online Help.

Example 5-2 Example: Subscribing to a Logger Class

import java.util.logging.Logger;
import java.util.logging.Handler;
import java.util.logging.Filter;
import java.util.logging.LogRecord;
import weblogic.logging.LoggingHelper;
import weblogic.logging.FileStreamHandler;
import weblogic.logging.WLLogRecord;
import weblogic.logging.WLLevel;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
import weblogic.jndi.Environment;
import javax.naming.Context;
public class LogConfigImpl {
    public void configureLogger() throws RemoteException {
        Logger logger = LoggingHelper.getServerLogger();
        try {
            Handler h = null;
            h = new MyJDBCHandler();
            logger.addHandler(h);
            h.setFilter(new MyFilter());
        } catch(Exception nmex) {
            System.err.println("Error adding MyJDBCHandler to logger " 
                               + nmex.getMessage());
            logger.removeHandler(h);
        } 
    }
    public static void main(String[] argv) throws Exception {
        LogConfigImpl impl = new LogConfigImpl();
        impl.configureLogger();
    }
}

Example: Implementing a Log4j Appender Class

The example Appender class in Example 5-3 connects to a JDBC data source and issues SQL statements that insert messages into a database table:

  1. Extends AppenderSkelton.

  2. Constructs a javax.naming.InitialContext object and invokes the Context.lookup method to look up a data source named MyDataSource.

  3. Invokes the javax.sql.DataSource.getConnection method to establish a connection with the data source.

  4. Implements the append(LoggingEvent event) method. The method does the following:

    1. Casts each LoggingEvent object that it receives as a WLLog4jLogEvent.

    2. Uses WLLog4jLogEvent methods to retrieve data from the messages.

      For more information about WLLog4jLogEvent methods, see the description of the weblogic.logging.log4j.WLLog4jLogEvent class in the Oracle WebLogic Server API Reference.

    3. Creates a SQL prepareStatement and executes the database update whenever a logging event arrives.

      The schema for the table used in the example is as follows:

    Table 5-2 Schema for Database Table in Log4j Appender Example

    Name Null? Type
    SERVERNAME
    

    n/a

    CHAR(30)
    
    MSGID
    

    n/a

    CHAR(20)
    
    SEVERITYLEVEL
    

    n/a

    CHAR(20)
    
    LOGGERNAME
    

    n/a

    CHAR(100)
    
    MESSAGE
    

    n/a

    VARCHAR(2048)
    
    TIMESTAMP 
    

    n/a

    LONG
    

  5. Implements the close method to close the connection with the data source.

Example 5-3 illustrates the steps described in this section.

Example 5-3 Example: Log4j Appender Examples Startup

package weblogic.logging.examples;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import org.apache.log4j.AppenderSkeleton;
import org.apache.log4j.PropertyConfigurator;
import org.apache.log4j.Logger;
import org.apache.log4j.spi.Filter;
import org.apache.log4j.spi.LoggingEvent;
import weblogic.logging.LoggerNotAvailableException;
import weblogic.logging.NonCatalogLogger;
import weblogic.logging.Severities;
import weblogic.logging.log4j.AppenderNames;
import weblogic.logging.log4j.Log4jLoggingHelper;
import weblogic.logging.log4j.WLLog4jLevel;
import weblogic.logging.log4j.WLLog4jLogEvent;
import org.apache.log4j.jdbc.JDBCAppender;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import weblogic.logging.log4j.WLLog4jLogEvent;
import weblogic.logging.Severities;
/**
 * This class sets up a Log4j Appender as a listener to the
 * Server Logger for log events.
 */
public class Log4jAppenderExampleStartup {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    try {
      System.out.println("Invoked the appender example startup class");
      Logger serverLogger = Log4jLoggingHelper.getLog4jServerLogger();
      // Configure the JDBC appender
      MyJDBCAppender jdbcAppender = new MyJDBCAppender();
      // Now add the JDBC appender to the server logger
      serverLogger.addAppender(jdbcAppender);
      // Now test the filter
      NonCatalogLogger nc = new NonCatalogLogger("MyAppenderTest"); 
      nc.info("Test INFO message");
      nc.warning("Test WARNING message"); 
    } catch(Exception ex) {
      System.err.println("Init failure " + ex.getMessage());
      ex.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
  private static class MyJDBCAppender extends AppenderSkeleton {
    private Connection connection;
    private java.sql.PreparedStatement stmt;
    public MyJDBCAppender() throws javax.naming.NamingException, SQLException {
      InitialContext ctx = new InitialContext();
      javax.sql.DataSource ds 
          = (javax.sql.DataSource) ctx.lookup ("MyDataSource");
      connection = ds.getConnection();
      // Table schema creation SQL command
      // Create table SERVER_LOG (server_name char(30),msg_id char(20), 
      // severity_level char(20),logger_name char(100),message varchar(2048),
      // timestamp long);
      stmt = connection.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO SERVER_LOG VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?)");
            stmt.setEscapeProcessing(true);
            connection.setAutoCommit(true);
        }
        // Override execute method
        public void append(LoggingEvent event) {
        WLLog4jLogEvent wlsEvent = (WLLog4jLogEvent) event;
        try {
          stmt.setString(1, wlsEvent.getServerName());
          stmt.setString(2, wlsEvent.getId());
          stmt.setString(3, Severities.severityNumToString(wlsEvent.getSeverity()));
          stmt.setString(4, wlsEvent.getSubsystem());
          stmt.setString(5, wlsEvent.getMessage().toString());
          stmt.setLong(6, wlsEvent.getTimestamp());
          stmt.executeUpdate(); 
        } catch (SQLException e) {
          System.err.println(e.toString());
        }
      }
      public boolean requiresLayout() {
        return false;
      }
      public void close() {
        try {
          stmt.close();
          connection.close();
        } catch(SQLException sqlex) {
          System.err.println("Error closing JDBC appender");
          sqlex.printStackTrace();
        }
      }
    }
  }

Comparison of Java Logging Handlers with JMX Listeners

Prior to WebLogic Server 8.1, the only technique for receiving messages from the WebLogic logging services was to create a Java Management Extensions (JMX) listener and register it with a LogBroadcasterRuntimeMBean. With the release of WebLogic Server 8.1, you can also use Java Logging handlers to receive (subscribe to) log messages.

While both techniques - Java Logging handlers and JMX listeners - provide similar results, the Java Logging APIs include a Formatter class that a Handler object can use to format the messages that it receives. JMX does not offer similar APIs for formatting messages. For more information about formatters, see the API documentation for the Formatter class at http://docs.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/logging/Formatter.html.

In addition, the Java Logging Handler APIs are easier to use and require fewer levels of indirection than JMX APIs. For example, the following lines of code retrieve a Java Logging Logger object and subscribe a handler to it:

Logger logger = LoggingHelper.getServerLogger();
Handler h = null;
h = new MyJDBCHandler();
logger.addHandler(h)

To achieve a similar result by registering a JMX listener, you must use lines of code similar to Example 5-4. The code looks up the MBeanHome interface, looks up the RemoteMBeanServer interface, looks up the LogBroadcasterRuntimeMBean, and then registers the listener.

Optimally, you would use Java Logging handlers to subscribe to log messages on your local machine and JMX listeners to receive log messages from a remote machine. If you are already using JMX for monitoring and you simply want to listen for log messages, not to change their formatting or reroute them to some other output, use JMX listeners. Otherwise, use the Java Logging handlers.

Example 5-4 Registering a JMX Listener

MBeanHome home = null;
RemoteMBeanServer rmbs = null;
//domain variables
String url = "t3://localhost:7001";
String serverName = "Server1";
String username = "weblogic";
String password = "weblogic";
//Using MBeanHome to get MBeanServer.
try {
    Environment env = new Environment();
    env.setProviderUrl(url);
    env.setSecurityPrincipal(username);
    env.setSecurityCredentials(password);
    Context ctx = env.getInitialContext();
    //Getting the Administration MBeanHome.
    home = (MBeanHome) ctx.lookup(MBeanHome.ADMIN_JNDI_NAME);
    System.out.println("Got the Admin MBeanHome: " + home );
    rmbs = home.getMBeanServer();
} catch (Exception e) {
    System.out.println("Caught exception: " + e);
}
try {
    //Instantiating your listener class.
    MyListener listener = new MyListener();
    MyFilter filter = new MyFilter();
    //Construct the WebLogicObjectName of the server's
    //log broadcaster.
    WebLogicObjectName logBCOname = new
             WebLogicObjectName("TheLogBroadcaster",
           "LogBroadcasterRuntime", domainName, serverName);
    //Passing the name of the MBean and your listener class to the
    //addNotificationListener method of MBeanServer.
    rmbs.addNotificationListener(logBCOname, listener, filter, null);
    } catch(Exception e) {
        System.out.println("Exception: " + e);
    }
}