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Oracle® Fusion Middleware Skin Editor User's Guide for Oracle Application Development Framework
11g Release 2 (11.1.2.1.0)

Part Number E17456-03
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1 About Skinning a Web Application

This chapter introduces you to skinning, the ADF skinning framework, and the ADF skins that Oracle ADF provides to apply to your web application or to help you get started creating your own ADF skin.

This chapter includes the following sections:

1.1 Introduction to Skinning a Web Application

Skinning refers to the task of developing an ADF skin to apply to a web application that uses ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components in the user interface. An ADF skin is a special type of cascading style sheet (CSS) that allows you to customize the appearance of these components. Instead of providing a CSS file for each component, or inserting a style sheet on each page of the application, you create one ADF skin for the web application. Every component that renders in the user interface automatically uses the styles defined by the ADF skin. This means you do not have to make design-time changes to individual pages to change their appearance when you use an ADF skin.

Using an ADF skin also makes it easy for you to maintain a consistent appearance for all the pages that the application renders. Changes to the appearance of your application can easily be made should you decide to do so. You might decide, for example, to change colors to make your application adhere to your company's corporate brand. Additionally, you may want to define a style property for a component to make your application more usable. For example, Figure 1-1 shows an ADF Faces inputText component.

Figure 1-1 Writable inputText Component

Writable inputText Component

Figure 1-2 shows another ADF Faces inputText component where the background color is grayed out by the ADF skin to indicate to the end user that the inputText component is read only.

Figure 1-2 Read-Only inputText Component with Grayed-Out Background Color

Input Text Component With Grayed Out Color

Other benefits of skinning include the ability to easily change the default text labels that ADF Faces components render at runtime. For example, the default text for the dialog component's labels are OK and Cancel if you set the component's type property to okCancel. You cannot modify the values of these labels by specifying properties for the dialog component. Instead, if you want to change OK to Submit, for example, you make changes in the ADF skin that references a resource bundle with the string value, Submit. For more information, see Chapter 7, "Working With Text in an ADF Skin."

The previous examples illustrate some of the use cases for ADF skins plus the benefits of creating an ADF skin. Note that you do not have to define all the changes that you want for your application in one ADF skin. You can create different ADF skins to serve different purposes. For example, you might create ADF skins with different color schemes to adhere to the corporate brand of different companies. In addition, you can configure an application so that end users can dynamically change the ADF skin at runtime. For more information, see the "Enabling End Users to Change an Application's ADF Skin" section of the Oracle Fusion Middleware Web User Interface Developer's Guide for Oracle Application Development Framework.

Note that this guide makes the following assumptions:

1.2 Overview of Developing an ADF Skin

Developing an ADF skin is an iterative process. Before you proceed, familiarize yourself with the concepts of CSS plus the ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components. The high level steps to develop an ADF skin are:

  1. Create a source file for the ADF skin.

    You create a source file where you write the declarations for the selectors. When creating a source file using the visual editor in JDeveloper or the ADF Skin Editor, you must choose an existing ADF skin to extend from. If this ADF skin is the first ADF skin that you create, you choose from one of the ADF skins that Oracle ADF provides. For more information, see Section 11.4, "ADF Skins Provided by Oracle ADF." For information about the inheritance relationship between these ADF skins, see Section 1.4, "Inheritance Relationship of the ADF Skins Provided by Oracle ADF." If you create subsequent ADF skins, you can choose to extend from an ADF skin that you created previously.

    For more information about creating an ADF skin, see Section 4.4, "Creating an ADF Skin File."

  2. Define values for the ADF skin properties and CSS properties. You can write values for these properties using the selectors exposed by the ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components through the ADF skinning framework.

    For a description of the different categories of selectors, rules, and pseudo-elements, see Chapter 2, "Working with ADF Skin Selectors."

    For information about how to define values for the selectors exposed by the ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components, see Section 5, "Working with Component-Specific Selectors."

  3. If applicable, import images that you want your ADF skin to reference at runtime in the Fusion web application. For more information, see Chapter 6, "Working with Images in Your ADF Skin."

    Tip:

    If you choose to extend an ADF skin from the Fusion Simple family of ADF skins, described in Section 11.4, "ADF Skins Provided by Oracle ADF," you can use the Images window to import and edit images in the project for your ADF skin. For more information about the Images window, see Section 6.3, "Working with the Images Window."
  4. If applicable, override the default text labels defined for the ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components by entering new values in a resource bundle. For more information, see Chapter 7, "Working With Text in an ADF Skin."

  5. If applicable, edit or create themes in your ADF skin. Themes are a way of implementing a look and feel at a component level. For more information, see Section 5.6, "Applying Themes to ADF Faces Components."

  6. Preview and test the changes that you made to the ADF skin to verify that the results are what you want. Modify the ADF skin as necessary. For more information about previewing and testing an ADF skin, see Section 10.2, "Testing Changes in Your ADF Skin."

  7. Once you complete development of the ADF skin, you may want to package it for distribution. For more information, see Section 10.3, "Packaging an ADF Skin into an ADF Library JAR."

  8. Having completed the ADF skin and distributed it, you configure your Fusion web application so that it uses it. For more information, see Section 10.4, "Applying an ADF Skin to Your Web Application."

Tip:

Consider completing the Changing an Application's Look and Feel by Using Skins tutorial that is available on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). This tutorial provides a step-by-step guide to developing an ADF skin using the visual editor for ADF skins in JDeveloper. The tutorial also provides an accompanying sample application for you to use. For more information, navigate to: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/adf/overview/index.html.

1.3 Taking a Look at an ADF Skin

An ADF skin is a type of cascading style sheet. It differs from a cascading style sheet in a number of ways. One way it differs is that you can specify properties for the selectors that the ADF skinning framework exposes in the source file for the ADF skin. A selector exposed by the ADF skinning framework is similar to a CSS selector in that it identifies the ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components for which you want to change the appearance and allows you to specify one or more style properties for the component.

A selector exposed by the ADF skinning framework differs from a CSS selector in that it allows you to set values both for CSS properties and ADF skin properties exposed by the ADF skinning framework. CSS properties are interpreted directly by the end user's browser. ADF skin properties are prefaced by the characters -tr-. Some of these ADF skin properties are read and interpreted by the Fusion web application. These properties are also known as server-side properties. A component that renders in the user interface may read these properties before it decides what to render. Other types of ADF skin properties, for example -tr-rule-ref or -tr-property-ref, enhance the capabilities of the ADF skinning framework, as described in Section 2.3, "Properties in the ADF Skinning Framework."

Example 1-1 shows the selector for the gauge component that sets values for the ADF skin properties -tr-graphic-antialiasing and -tr-animation-indicators, plus the CSS properties background-color and font-family.

Example 1-1 Gauge Component's Selector with ADF Skin and CSS Properties

af|dvt-gauge
{
  /** ADF skin properties */ 
  -tr-graphic-antialiasing: false;
  -tr-animation-indicators: none;
  /** CSS properties */
  font-family: Geneva, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
  background-color: rgb(243,255,185);
}

As Example 1-1 demonstrates, you can set values for CSS properties and ADF skin properties within the declaration of a selector exposed by the ADF skinning framework. The ADF skinning framework exposes the ADF skin properties that you can define. In addition to ADF skin properties, the ADF skinning framework defines a number of pseudo classes and rules that you can specify in an ADF skin. Examples of supported rules and pseudo classes include @platform, @agent, @accessibility-profile, :rtl, and @locale. For more information, see Chapter 2, "Working with ADF Skin Selectors."

At runtime, the Fusion web application reads the source file for the ADF skin, converts the entries in the ADF skin to style classes that it dynamically adds to the generated HTML output for an ADF Faces component.

Figure 1-3 demonstrates the impact that an ADF skin can have on the appearance of an application's page. The page on the left renders using the fusion ADF skin. The page on the right renders using the simple ADF skin. Each ADF skin defines values for colors and fonts. The fusion ADF skin uses many more colors, in addition to referencing an image for the Oracle logo.

Figure 1-3 File Explorer Application Using the Fusion ADF Skin and the Simple ADF Skin

Page Using the Fusion Skin and the Simple Skin

Note:

An ADF skin can affect the time it takes a client to render the user interface. The more styles that an ADF skin uses, the more the client has to load. This can affect performance in low bandwidth or high latency environments.

1.4 Inheritance Relationship of the ADF Skins Provided by Oracle ADF

Oracle ADF provides a number of ADF skin families that you can use in your application or extend when you create an ADF skin. The ADF skins provided by Oracle ADF offer increasing levels of customization for the appearance rendered by ADF Faces and ADF Data Visualization components at runtime. Figure 1-4 illustrates the inheritance relationship between the different ADF skin families where, for example, the fusion-base ADF skin inherits the style properties defined in the simple ADF skin in addition to defining more style properties. All ADF Faces components use, at a minimum, styles defined in the simple ADF skin as this is the skin from which the others extend from. The simple ADF skin defines the minimum style properties that ADF Faces components require to render in an ADF application. If you want to create an ADF skin with a minimal amount of customization, you create an ADF skin that extends from the simple ADF skin. If you want to create an ADF skin that resembles the Fusion family of ADF skins but is easier to modify (because it uses fewer colors and fonts), consider creating an ADF skin that extends from the Fusion Simple family of ADF skins.

Figure 1-4 Inheritance Relationship of ADF Skin Families Provided by Oracle ADF

Hierarchy of ADF Skins Provided by Oracle ADF

Note:

The Blafplus family of ADF skins shown in Figure 1-4 is deprecated.

You can apply any of the ADF skins in Figure 1-4 or an ADF skin that you create yourself to an application. For more information, see Section 10.4, "Applying an ADF Skin to Your Web Application."

For a more detailed description of the ADF skins that Oracle ADF provides, see Section 11.4, "ADF Skins Provided by Oracle ADF."