Skip Headers
Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E17120-11
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

The Types of Resources Managed by the Resource Manager

Resource plan directives specify how resources are allocated to resource consumer groups or subplans. Each directive can specify several different methods for allocating resources to its consumer group or subplan. The following sections summarize these resource allocation methods:

CPU

To manage CPU resources, Resource Manager allocates resources among consumer groups and redistributes CPU resources that were allocated but were not used. You can also set a limit on the amount of CPU resources that can be allocated to a particular consumer group.

Resource Manager provides the following resource plan directive attributes to control CPU resource allocation:

Management Attributes

Management attributes enable you to specify how CPU resources are to be allocated among consumer groups and subplans. Multiple levels of CPU resource allocation (up to eight levels) provide a means of prioritizing CPU usage within a plan. Consumer groups and subplans at level 2 get resources that were not allocated at level 1 or that were allocated at level 1 but were not completely consumed by the consumer groups or subplans at level 1. Similarly, resource consumers at level 3 are allocated resources only when some allocation remains from levels 1 and 2. The same rules apply to levels 4 through 8. Multiple levels not only provide a way of prioritizing, but they provide a way of explicitly specifying how all primary and leftover resources are to be used.

Use the management attributes MGMT_Pn, where n is an integer between 1 and 8, to specify multiple levels of CPU resource allocation. For example, use the MGMT_P1 directive attribute to specify CPU resource allocation at level 1 and MGMT_P2 directive attribute to specify resource allocation at level 2.

Use management attributes with parallel statement directive attributes, such as Degree of Parallelism Limit and Parallel Target Percentage, to control parallel statement queuing. When parallel statement queuing is used, management attributes are used to determine which consumer group is allowed to issue the next parallel statement. For example, if you set the MGMT_P1 directive attribute for a consumer group to 80, that group has an 80% chance of issuing the next parallel statement.

See Also:

Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about parallel statement queuing

Management attributes also enable you to specify CPU resource allocation for Exadata I/O.

See Also:

The Exadata documentation for information about using management attributes for Exadata I/O

Table 27-1 illustrates a simple resource plan with three levels.

Table 27-1 A Simple Three-Level Resource Plan

Consumer Group Level 1 CPU Allocation Level 2 CPU Allocation Level 3 CPU Allocation

HIGH_GROUP

80%

   

LOW_GROUP

 

50%

 

MAINT_SUBPLAN

 

50%

 

OTHER_GROUPS

   

100%


High priority applications run within HIGH_GROUP, which is allocated 80% of CPU. Because HIGH_GROUP is at level one, it gets priority for CPU utilization, but only up to 80% of CPU. This leaves a remaining 20% of CPU to be shared 50-50 by LOW_GROUP and the MAINT_SUPLAN at level 2. Any unused allocation from levels 1 and 2 are then available to OTHER_GROUPS at level 3. Because OTHER_GROUPS has no sibling consumer groups or subplans at its level, 100% is specified.

Within a particular level, CPU allocations are not fixed. If there is not sufficient load in a particular consumer group or subplan, residual CPU can be allocated to remaining consumer groups or subplans. Thus, when there is only one level, unused allocation by any consumer group or subplan can be redistributed to other "sibling" consumer groups or subplans. If there are multiple levels, then the unused allocation is distributed to the consumer groups or subplans at the next level. If the last level has unused allocations, these allocations can be redistributed to all other levels in proportion to their designated allocations.

As an example of redistribution of unused allocations from one level to another, if during a particular period, HIGH_GROUP consumes only 25% of CPU, then 75% is available to be shared by LOW_GROUP and MAINT_SUBPLAN. Any unused portion of the 75% at level 2 is then made available to OTHER_GROUPS at level 3. However, if OTHER_GROUPS has no session activity at level 3, then the 75% at level 2 can be redistributed to all other consumer groups and subplans in the plan proportionally.

Maximum Utilization Limit

In the previous scenario, suppose that due to inactivity elsewhere, LOW_GROUP acquires 90% of CPU. Suppose that you do not want to allow LOW_GROUP to use 90% of the server because you do not want non-critical sessions to inundate the CPUs. The MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT attribute of resource plan directives can prevent this situation.

Use the MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT attribute to impose an absolute upper limit on CPU utilization for a resource consumer group. This absolute limit overrides any redistribution of CPU within a plan.

Setting the MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT attribute is optional. If you omit this attribute for a consumer group, there is no limit on the amount of CPU that the consumer group can use. Therefore, if all the other applications are idle, a consumer group that does not have MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT set can be allocated 100% of the CPU resources.

You can also use the MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT attribute as the sole means of limiting CPU utilization for consumer groups, without specifying level limits.

Table 27-2 shows a variation of the previous plan. In this plan, using MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT, CPU utilization is capped at 75% for LOW_GROUP, 50% for MAINT_SUBPLAN, and 75% for OTHER_GROUPS. (Note that the sum of all maximum utilization limits can exceed 100%. Each limit is applied independently.)

Table 27-2 A Three-Level Resource Plan with Maximum Utilization Limits

Consumer Group Level 1 CPU Allocation Level 2 CPU Allocation Level 3 CPU Allocation Maximum Utilization Limit

HIGH_GROUP

80%

     

LOW_GROUP

 

50%

 

75%

MAINT_SUBPLAN

 

50%

 

50%

OTHER_GROUPS

   

100%

75%


In the example described in Table 27-2, if HIGH_GROUP is using only 10% of the CPU at a given time, then the remaining 90% is available to LOW_GROUP and the consumer groups in MAINT_SUBPLAN at level 2. If LOW_GROUP uses only 20% of the CPU, then 70% can be allocated to MAINT_SUBPLAN. However, MAINT_SUBPLAN has a MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT of 50%. Therefore, even though more CPU resources are available, the server cannot allocate more than 50% of the CPU to the consumer groups that belong to the subplan MAINT_SUBPLAN.

You can set MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT for both a subplan and the consumer groups that the subplan contains. In such cases, the limit for a consumer group is computed using the limits specified for the subplan and that consumer group. For example, the MAINT_SUBPLAN contains the consumer groups MAINT_GROUP1 and MAINT_GROUP2. MAINT_GROUP1 has MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT set to 40%. However, the limit for MAINT_SUBPLAN is set to 50%. Therefore, the limit for consumer group MAINT_GROUP1 is computed as 40% of 50%, or 20%. For an example of how to compute MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT for a consumer group when limits are specified for both the consumer group and the subplan to which the group belongs, see "Example 4 - Specifying a Maximum Utilization Limit for Consumer Groups and Subplans".

Degree of Parallelism Limit

You can limit the maximum degree of parallelism for any operation within a consumer group. The degree of parallelism is the number of parallel execution servers that are associated with a single operation. Use the PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT_P1 directive attribute to specify the degree of parallelism for a consumer group.

See Also:

Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for more information about degree of parallelism in producer/consumer operations

The degree of parallelism limit applies to one operation within a consumer group; it does not limit the total degree of parallelism across all operations within the consumer group. However, you can combine both the PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT_P1 and the PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE directive attributes to achieve the desired control. For more information about the PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE attribute, see "Parallel Target Percentage".

Parallel Target Percentage

It is possible for a single consumer group to launch enough parallel statements to use all the available parallel servers. If this happens, when a high-priority parallel statement from a different consumer group is run, then no parallel servers are available to allocate to this group. You can avoid such a scenario by limiting the number of parallel servers that can be used by a particular consumer group.

Note:

This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).

Use the PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE directive attribute to specify the maximum percentage of the parallel server pool that a particular consumer group can use. The number of parallel servers used by a particular consumer group is counted as the sum of the parallel servers used by all sessions in that consumer group.

See Also:

Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about parallel statement queuing

For example, assume that the total number of parallel servers is 32, as set by the PARALLEL_SERVERS_TARGET initialization parameter, and the PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE directive attribute for the consumer group MY_GROUP is set to 50%. This consumer group can use a maximum of 50% of 32, or 16 parallel servers.

If your resource plan has management attributes (MGMT_P1, MGMT_P2, and so on), then a separate parallel statement queue is managed as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue for each management attribute.

If your resource plan does not have any management attributes, then a single parallel statement queue is managed as a FIFO queue.

In the case of an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, the target number of parallel servers is the sum of (PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE * PARALLEL_SERVERS_TARGET / 100) across all Oracle RAC instances. If a consumer group is using the number of parallel servers computed above or more, then it has exceeded its limit, and its parallel statements will be queued.

If a consumer group does not have any parallel statements running within an Oracle RAC database, then the first parallel statement is allowed to exceed the limit specified by PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE.

Note:

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, the PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE attribute applies to the entire cluster and not to a single instance.

Managing Parallel Statement Queuing Using Parallel Target Percentage

The PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE attribute enables you to specify when parallel statements from a consumer group can be queued. Oracle Database maintains a separate parallel statement queue for each consumer group.

A parallel statement from a consumer group is not run and instead added to the parallel statement queue of that consumer group if the following conditions are met:

  • PARALLEL_DEGREE_POLICY is set to AUTO.

    Setting this parameter to AUTO enables automatic degree of parallelism (Auto DOP), parallel statement queuing, and in-memory parallel execution.

    Note that parallel statements which have PARALLEL_DEGREE_POLICY set to MANUAL or LIMITED are executed immediately and not added to the parallel statement queue.

  • The number of active parallel servers across all consumer groups exceeds the PARALLEL_SERVERS_TARGET initialization parameter setting. This condition applies regardless of whether you specify PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE. If PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE is not specified, then it defaults to 100%.

  • The sum of the number of active parallel servers for the consumer group and the degree of parallelism of the parallel statement exceeds the target number of active parallel servers.

    The target number of active parallel servers is computed as follows:

    PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE/100 * PARALLEL_SERVERS_TARGET

Parallel Queue Timeout

When you use parallel statement queuing, if the database does not have sufficient resources to execute a parallel statement, the statement is queued until the required resources become available. However, there is a chance that a parallel statement may be waiting in the parallel statement queue for longer than is desired. You can prevent such scenarios by specifying the maximum time a parallel statement can wait in the parallel statement queue.

Note:

This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).

The PARALLEL_QUEUE_TIMEOUT directive attribute enables you to specify the maximum time, in seconds, that a parallel statement can wait in the parallel statement queue before it is timed out. The PARALLEL_QUEUE_TIMEOUT attribute can be set for each consumer group. This attribute is applicable even if you do not specify other management attributes (MGMT_P1, MGMT_P2, and so on) in your resource plan.

See Also:

Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for more information about parallel statement queuing

Note:

Because the parallel statement queue is clusterwide, all directives related to the parallel statement queue are also clusterwide.

When a parallel statement is timed out, the statement execution ends with the following error message:

ORA-07454: queue timeout, n second(s), exceeded

If you want more per-workload management, then you must use the following directive attributes:

  • MGMT_Pn

    Management attributes control how a parallel statement is selected from the parallel statement queue for execution. You can prioritize the parallel statements of one consumer group over another by setting a higher value for the management attributes of that group.

  • PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE

  • PARALLEL_QUEUE_TIMEOUT

  • PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT_P1

See Also:

"Example of Managing Parallel Statements Using Directive Attributes" for more information about the combined use of all the parallel server directive attributes

Although parallel server usage is monitored for all sessions, the parallel server directive attributes you set affect only sessions for which parallel statement queuing is enabled (PARALLEL_DEGREE_POLICY is set to AUTO). If a session has the PARALLEL_DEGREE_POLICY set to MANUAL, parallel statements from this session are not queued. However, any parallel servers used by such sessions are included in the count that is used to determine the limit for PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE. Even if this limit is exceeded, parallel statements from this session are not queued.

Active Session Pool with Queuing

You can control the maximum number of concurrently active sessions allowed within a consumer group. This maximum defines the active session pool. An active session is a session that is actively processing a transaction or SQL statement. Specifically, an active session is either in a transaction, holding a user enqueue, or has an open cursor and has not been idle for over 5 seconds. An active session is considered active even if it is blocked, for example waiting for an I/O request to complete. When the active session pool is full, a session that is trying to process a call is placed into a queue. When an active session completes, the first session in the queue can then be removed from the queue and scheduled for execution. You can also specify a period after which a session in the execution queue times out, causing the call to terminate with an error.

Active session limits should not be used for OLTP workloads. In addition, active session limits should not be used to implement connection pooling or parallel statement queuing.

To manage parallel statements, you must use parallel statement queuing with the PARALLEL_TARGET_PERCENTAGE attribute and management attributes (MGMT_P1, MGMT_P2, and so on).

Automatic Consumer Group Switching

This method enables you to control resource allocation by specifying criteria that, if met, causes the automatic switching of a session to a specified consumer group. Typically, this method is used to switch a session from a high-priority consumer group—one that receives a high proportion of system resources—to a lower priority consumer group because that session exceeded the expected resource consumption for a typical session in the group.

See "Specifying Automatic Switching by Setting Resource Limits" for more information.

Canceling SQL and Terminating Sessions

You can also specify directives to cancel long-running SQL queries or to terminate long-running sessions based on the amount of system resources consumed. See "Specifying Automatic Switching by Setting Resource Limits" for more information.

Execution Time Limit

You can specify a maximum execution time allowed for an operation. If the database estimates that an operation will run longer than the specified maximum execution time, then the operation is terminated with an error. This error can be trapped and the operation rescheduled.

Undo Pool

You can specify an undo pool for each consumer group. An undo pool controls the total amount of undo for uncommitted transactions that can be generated by a consumer group. When the total undo generated by a consumer group exceeds its undo limit, the current DML statement generating the undo is terminated. No other members of the consumer group can perform further data manipulation until undo space is freed from the pool.

Idle Time Limit

You can specify an amount of time that a session can be idle, after which it is terminated. You can also specify a more stringent idle time limit that applies to sessions that are idle and blocking other sessions.