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Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E17120-11
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About Database Resident Connection Pooling

Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP) provides a connection pool in the database server for typical Web application usage scenarios where the application acquires a database connection, works on it for a relatively short duration, and then releases it. DRCP pools "dedicated" servers. A pooled server is the equivalent of a server foreground process and a database session combined.

DRCP complements middle-tier connection pools that share connections between threads in a middle-tier process. In addition, DRCP enables sharing of database connections across middle-tier processes on the same middle-tier host and even across middle-tier hosts. This results in significant reduction in key database resources needed to support a large number of client connections, thereby reducing the database tier memory footprint and boosting the scalability of both middle-tier and database tiers. Having a pool of readily available servers also has the additional benefit of reducing the cost of creating and tearing down client connections.

DRCP is especially relevant for architectures with multi-process single threaded application servers (such as PHP/Apache) that cannot perform middle-tier connection pooling. The database can still scale to tens of thousands of simultaneous connections with DRCP.

See Also:

When To Use Database Resident Connection Pooling

Database resident connection pooling is useful when multiple clients access the database and when any of the following apply:

Advantages of Database Resident Connection Pooling

Using database resident connection pooling provides the following advantages:

Database Resident Connection Pooling and LOGON/LOGOFF Triggers

LOGON triggers fire for every authentication and every time a new session is created in DRCP.

LOGOFF triggers fire on every log off and every time a session is released in DRCP. Therefore, a LOGOFF trigger fires when a session is terminated due to an idle time limit.

Comparing DRCP to Dedicated Server and Shared Server

Table 5-1 lists the differences between dedicated server, shared server, and database resident connection pooling.

Table 5-1 Dedicated Servers, Shared Servers, and Database Resident Connection Pooling

Dedicated Server Shared Server Database Resident Connection Pooling

When a client request is received, a new server process and a session are created for the client.

When the first request is received from a client, the Dispatcher process places this request on a common queue. The request is picked up by an available shared server process. The Dispatcher process then manages the communication between the client and the shared server process.

When the first request is received from a client, the Connection Broker picks an available pooled server and hands off the client connection to the pooled server.

If no pooled servers are available, the Connection Broker creates one. If the pool has reached its maximum size, the client request is placed on the wait queue until a pooled server is available.

Releasing database resources involves terminating the session and server process.

Releasing database resources involves terminating the session.

Releasing database resources involves releasing the pooled server to the pool.

Memory requirement is proportional to the number of server processes and sessions. There is one server and one session for each client.

Memory requirement is proportional to the sum of the shared servers and sessions. There is one session for each client.

Memory requirement is proportional to the number of pooled servers and their sessions. There is one session for each pooled server.

Session memory is allocated from the PGA.

Session memory is allocated from the SGA.

Session memory is allocated from the PGA.


Example of Memory Usage for Dedicated Server, Shared Server, and Database Resident Connection Pooling

Consider an application in which the memory required for each session is 400 KB and the memory required for each server process is 4 MB. The pool size is 100 and the number of shared servers used is 100.

If there are 5000 client connections, the memory used by each configuration is as follows:

  • Dedicated Server

    Memory used = 5000 X (400 KB + 4 MB) = 22 GB

  • Shared Server

    Memory used = 5000 X 400 KB + 100 X 4 MB = 2.5 GB

    Out of the 2.5 GB, 2 GB is allocated from the SGA.

  • Database Resident Connection Pooling

    Memory used = 100 X (400 KB + 4 MB) + (5000 X 35KB)= 615 MB

Restrictions on Using Database Resident Connection Pooling

You cannot perform the following activities with pooled servers:

  • Shut down the database

  • Stop the database resident connection pool

  • Change the password for the connected user

  • Use shared database links to connect to a database resident connection pool

  • Use Advanced Security Option (ASO) options such as encryption, certificates, and so on

  • Use migratable sessions on the server side directly by using the OCI_MIGRATE option or indirectly through OCIConnectionPool

DDL statements that pertain to database users in the pool need to be performed carefully, as the pre-DDL sessions in the pool can still be given to clients post-DDL. For example, while dropping users, ensure that there are no sessions of that user in the pool and no connections to the Broker that were authenticated as that user.

Sessions with explicit roles enabled, that are released to the pool, can be later handed out to connections (of the same user) that need the default logon role. Avoid releasing sessions with explicit roles, and instead terminate them.