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Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E17120-11
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Monitoring Jobs

There are several ways to monitor Scheduler jobs:

Viewing the Job Log

You can view information about job runs, job state changes, and job failures in the job log. The job log shows results for both local and remote jobs. The job log is implemented as the following two data dictionary views:

  • *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG

  • *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS

Depending on the logging level that is in effect, the Scheduler can make job log entries whenever a job is run and when a job is created, dropped, enabled, and so on. For a job that has a repeating schedule, the Scheduler makes multiple entries in the job log—one for each job instance. Each log entry provides information about a particular run, such as the job completion status.

The following example shows job log entries for a repeating job that has a value of 4 for the max_runs attribute:

SELECT job_name, job_class, operation, status FROM USER_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG;

JOB_NAME         JOB_CLASS            OPERATION       STATUS
---------------- -------------------- --------------- ----------
JOB1             CLASS1               RUN             SUCCEEDED
JOB1             CLASS1               RUN             SUCCEEDED
JOB1             CLASS1               RUN             SUCCEEDED
JOB1             CLASS1               RUN             SUCCEEDED
JOB1             CLASS1               COMPLETED

You can control how frequently information is written to the job log by setting the logging_level attribute of either a job or a job class. Table 29-11 shows the possible values for logging_level.

Table 29-11 Job Logging Levels

Logging Level Description

DBMS_SCHEDULER.LOGGING_OFF

No logging is performed.

DBMS_SCHEDULER.LOGGING_FAILED_RUNS

A log entry is made only if the job fails.

DBMS_SCHEDULER.LOGGING_RUNS

A log entry is made each time the job is run.

DBMS_SCHEDULER.LOGGING_FULL

A log entry is made every time the job runs and for every operation performed on a job, including create, enable/disable, update (with SET_ATTRIBUTE), stop, and drop.


Log entries for job runs are not made until after the job run completes successfully, fails, or is stopped.

The following example shows job log entries for a complete job lifecycle. In this case, the logging level for the job class is LOGGING_FULL, and the job is a non-repeating job. After the first successful run, the job is enabled again, so it runs once more. It is then stopped and dropped.

SELECT to_char(log_date, 'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS') TIMESTAMP, job_name,
  job_class, operation, status FROM USER_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG
  WHERE job_name = 'JOB2' ORDER BY log_date;

TIMESTAMP            JOB_NAME  JOB_CLASS  OPERATION  STATUS
-------------------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------
18-DEC-07 23:10:56   JOB2      CLASS1     CREATE
18-DEC-07 23:12:01   JOB2      CLASS1     UPDATE
18-DEC-07 23:12:31   JOB2      CLASS1     ENABLE
18-DEC-07 23:12:41   JOB2      CLASS1     RUN        SUCCEEDED
18-DEC-07 23:13:12   JOB2      CLASS1     ENABLE
18-DEC-07 23:13:18   JOB2                 RUN        STOPPED
18-DEC-07 23:19:36   JOB2      CLASS1     DROP

Run Details

For every row in *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG for which the operation is RUN, RETRY_RUN, or RECOVERY_RUN, there is a corresponding row in the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS view. Rows from the two different views are correlated with their LOG_ID columns. You can consult the run details views to determine why a job failed or was stopped.

SELECT to_char(log_date, 'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS') TIMESTAMP, job_name, status,
   SUBSTR(additional_info, 1, 40) ADDITIONAL_INFO
   FROM user_scheduler_job_run_details ORDER BY log_date;

TIMESTAMP            JOB_NAME   STATUS    ADDITIONAL_INFO
-------------------- ---------- --------- ----------------------------------------
18-DEC-07 23:12:41   JOB2       SUCCEEDED
18-DEC-07 23:12:18   JOB2       STOPPED   REASON="Stop job called by user:'SYSTEM'
19-DEC-07 14:12:20   REMOTE_16  FAILED    ORA-29273: HTTP request failed ORA-06512

The run details views also contain actual job start times and durations.

Precedence of Logging Levels in Jobs and Job Classes

Both jobs and job classes have a logging_level attribute, with possible values listed in Table 29-11. The default logging level for job classes is LOGGING_RUNS, and the default level for individual jobs is LOGGING_OFF. If the logging level of the job class is higher than that of a job in the class, then the logging level of the job class takes precedence. Thus, by default, all job runs are recorded in the job log.

For job classes that have very short and highly frequent jobs, the overhead of recording every single run might be too much and you might choose to turn the logging off or set logging to occur only when jobs fail. However, you might prefer to have a complete audit trail of everything that happens with jobs in a specific class, in which case you would enable full logging for that class.

To ensure that there is an audit trail for all jobs, the individual job creator must not be able to turn logging off. The Scheduler supports this by making the class-specified level the minimum level at which job information is logged. A job creator can only enable more logging for an individual job, not less. Thus, leaving all individual job logging levels set to LOGGING_OFF ensures that all jobs in a class get logged as specified in the class.

This functionality is provided for debugging purposes. For example, if the class-specific level is set to record job runs and logging is turned off at the job level, the Scheduler still logs job runs. If, however, the job creator turns on full logging and the class-specific level is set to record runs only, the higher logging level of the job takes precedence and all operations on this individual job are logged. This way, an end user can test his job by turning on full logging.

To set the logging level of an individual job, you must use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure on that job. For example, to turn on full logging for a job called mytestjob, issue the following statement:

BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE (
   'mytestjob', 'logging_level', DBMS_SCHEDULER.LOGGING_FULL);
END;
/

Only a user with the MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege can set the logging level of a job class.

See Also:

"Monitoring and Managing Window and Job Logs" for more information about setting the job class logging level

Monitoring Multiple Destination Jobs

For multiple-destination jobs, the overall parent job state depends on the outcome of the child jobs. For example, if all child jobs succeed, the parent job state is set to SUCCEEDED. If all fail, the parent job state is set to FAILED. If some fail and some succeed, the parent job state is set to SOME FAILED.

Due to situations that might arise on some destinations that delay the start of child jobs, there might be a significant delay before the parent job state is finalized. For repeating multiple-destination jobs, there might even be a situation in which some child jobs are on their next scheduled run while others are still working on the previous scheduled run. In this case, the parent job state is set to INCOMPLETE. Eventually, however, lagging child jobs may catch up to their siblings, in which case the final state of the parent job can be determined.

Table Table 29-12 lists the contents of the job monitoring views for multiple-destination jobs.

Table 29-12 Scheduler Data Dictionary View Contents for Multiple-Destination Jobs

View Name Contents

*_SCHEDULER_JOBS

One entry for the parent job

*_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS

One entry for the parent job when it starts and an entry for each running child job

*_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG

One entry for the parent job when it starts (operation = 'MULTIDEST_START'), one entry for each child job when the child job completes, and one entry for the parent job when the last child job completes and thus the parent completes (operation = 'MULTIDEST_RUN')

*_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS

One entry for each child job when the child job completes, and one entry for the parent job when the last child job completes and thus the parent completes

*_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS

One entry for each destination of the parent job


In the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views, you can determine the unique job destination ID (job_dest_id) that is assigned to each child job. This ID represents the unique combination of a job, a credential, and a destination. You can use this ID with the STOP_JOB procedure. You can also monitor the job state of each child job with the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views.

Monitoring Job State with Events Raised by the Scheduler

This section contains:

About Job State Events

You can configure a job so that the Scheduler raises an event when the job changes state. The Scheduler can raise an event when a job starts, when a job completes, when a job exceeds its allotted run time, and so on. The consumer of the event is your application, which takes some action in response to the event. For example, if due to a high system load, a job is still not started 30 minutes after its scheduled start time, the Scheduler can raise an event that causes a handler application to stop lower priority jobs to free up system resources. The Scheduler can raise job state events for local (regular) jobs, remote database jobs, local external jobs, and remote external jobs.

Table 29-13 describes the job state event types raised by the Scheduler.

Table 29-13 Job State Event Types Raised by the Scheduler

Event Type Description

job_all_events

Not an event, but a constant that provides an easy way for you to enable all events

job_broken

The job has been disabled and has changed to the BROKEN state because it exceeded the number of failures defined by the max_failures job attribute

job_chain_stalled

A job running a chain was put into the CHAIN_STALLED state. A running chain becomes stalled if there are no steps running or scheduled to run and the chain evaluation_interval is set to NULL. No progress will be made in the chain unless there is manual intervention.

job_completed

The job completed because it reached its max_runs or end_date

job_disabled

The job was disabled by the Scheduler or by a call to SET_ATTRIBUTE

job_failed

The job failed, either by throwing an error or by abnormally terminating

job_over_max_dur

The job exceeded the maximum run duration specified by its max_run_duration attribute.

job_run_completed

A job run either failed, succeeded, or was stopped

job_sch_lim_reached

The job's schedule limit was reached. The job was not started because the delay in starting the job exceeded the value of the schedule_limit job attribute.

job_started

The job started

job_stopped

The job was stopped by a call to STOP_JOB

job_succeeded

The job completed successfully


You enable the raising of job state events by setting the raise_events job attribute. By default, a job does not raise any job state events.

The Scheduler uses Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing to raise events. When raising a job state change event, the Scheduler enqueues a message onto a default event queue. Your applications subscribe to this queue, dequeue event messages, and take appropriate actions.

After you enable job state change events for a job, the Scheduler raises these events by enqueuing messages onto the Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE. This queue is a secure queue, so depending on your application, you may have to configure the queue to enable certain users to perform operations on it. See Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for information on secure queues.

To prevent unlimited growth of the Scheduler event queue, events raised by the Scheduler expire in 24 hours by default. (Expired events are deleted from the queue.) You can change this expiry time by setting the event_expiry_time Scheduler attribute with the SET_SCHEDULER_ATTRIBUTE procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information.

Altering a Job to Raise Job State Events

To enable job state events to be raised for a job, you use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure to turn on bit flags in the raise_events job attribute. Each bit flag represents a different job state to raise an event for. For example, turning on the least significant bit enables job started events to be raised. To enable multiple state change event types in one call, you add the desired bit flag values together and supply the result as an argument to SET_ATTRIBUTE.

The following example enables multiple state change events for job dw_reports. It enables the following event types, both of which indicate some kind of error.

  • JOB_FAILED

  • JOB_SCH_LIM_REACHED

BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('dw_reports', 'raise_events',
   DBMS_SCHEDULER.JOB_FAILED + DBMS_SCHEDULER.JOB_SCH_LIM_REACHED);
END;
/

Note:

You do not need to enable the JOB_OVER_MAX_DUR event with the raise_events job attribute; it is always enabled.

See Also:

The discussion of DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for the names and values of job state bit flags

Consuming Job State Events with your Application

To consume job state events, your application must subscribe to the Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE. This queue is a secure queue and is owned by SYS. To create a subscription to this queue for a user, do the following:

  1. Log in to the database as the SYS user or as a user with the MANAGE ANY QUEUE privilege.

  2. Subscribe to the queue using a new or existing agent.

  3. Run the package procedure DBMS_AQADM.ENABLE_DB_ACCESS as follows:

    DBMS_AQADM.ENABLE_DB_ACCESS(agent_name, db_username);
    

    where agent_name references the agent that you used to subscribe to the events queue, and db_username is the user for whom you want to create a subscription.

There is no need to grant dequeue privileges to the user. The dequeue privilege is granted on the Scheduler event queue to PUBLIC.

As an alternative, the user can subscribe to the Scheduler event queue using the ADD_EVENT_QUEUE_SUBSCRIBER procedure, as shown in the following example:

DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_EVENT_QUEUE_SUBSCRIBER(subscriber_name);

where subscriber_name is the name of the Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) agent to be used to subscribe to the Scheduler event queue. (If it is NULL, an agent is created whose name is the user name of the calling user.) This call both creates a subscription to the Scheduler event queue and grants the user permission to dequeue using the designated agent. The subscription is rule-based. The rule permits the user to see only events raised by jobs that the user owns, and filters out all other messages. After the subscription is in place, the user can either poll for messages at regular intervals or register with AQ for notification.

See Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for more information.

Scheduler Event Queue

The Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE is of type scheduler$_event_info. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on this type.

Monitoring Job State with E-mail Notifications

This section contains:

About E-mail Notifications

You can configure a job to send e-mail notifications when it changes state. The job state events for which e-mails can be sent are listed in Table 29-13. E-mail notifications can be sent to multiple recipients, and can be triggered by any event in a list of job state events that you specify. You can also provide a filter condition, and only job state events that match the filter condition generate notifications. You can include variables like job owner, job name, event type, error code, and error message in both the subject and body of the message. The Scheduler automatically sets values for these variables before sending the e-mail notification.

You can configure many job state e-mail notifications for a single job. The notifications can differ by job state event list, recipients, and filter conditions.

For example, you can configure a job to send an e-mail to both the principle DBA and one of the senior DBAs whenever the job fails with error code 600 or 700. You can also configure the same job to send a notification to only the principle DBA if the job fails to start at its scheduled time.

Before you can configure jobs to send e-mail notifications, you must set the Scheduler attribute email_server to the address of the SMTP server to use to send the e-mail. You may also optionally set the Scheduler attribute email_sender to a default sender e-mail address for those jobs that do not specify a sender.

The Scheduler includes support for the SSL and TLS protocols when communicating with the SMTP server. The Scheduler also supports SMTP servers that require authentication.

See Also:

"Setting Scheduler Preferences" for details about setting e-mail notification–related attributes

Adding E-mail Notifications for a Job

You use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION package procedure to add e-mail notifications for a job.

BEGIN
 DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION (
  job_name   =>  'EOD_JOB',
  recipients =>  'jsmith@example.com, rjones@example.com',
  sender     =>  'do_not_reply@example.com',
  subject    =>  'Scheduler Job Notification-%job_owner%.%job_name%-%event_type%',
  body       =>   '%event_type% occurred at %event_timestamp%. %error_message%',
  events     =>  'JOB_FAILED, JOB_BROKEN, JOB_DISABLED, JOB_SCH_LIM_REACHED');
END;
/

Note the variables, enclosed in the '%' character, used in the subject and body arguments. When you specify multiple recipients and multiple events, each recipient is notified when any of the specified events is raised. You can verify this by querying the view USER_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS.

SELECT JOB_NAME, RECIPIENT, EVENT FROM USER_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS;

JOB_NAME    RECIPIENT            EVENT
----------- -------------------- -------------------
EOD_JOB     jsmith@example.com   JOB_FAILED
EOD_JOB     jsmith@example.com   JOB_BROKEN
EOD_JOB     jsmith@example.com   JOB_SCH_LIM_REACHED
EOD_JOB     jsmith@example.com   JOB_DISABLED
EOD_JOB     rjones@example.com   JOB_FAILED
EOD_JOB     rjones@example.com   JOB_BROKEN
EOD_JOB     rjones@example.com   JOB_SCH_LIM_REACHED
EOD_JOB     rjones@example.com   JOB_DISABLED

You call ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION once for each different set of notifications that you want to configure for a job. You must specify job_name and recipients. All other arguments have defaults. The default sender is defined by a Scheduler attribute, as described in the previous section. See the ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for defaults for the subject, body, and events arguments.

The following example configures an additional e-mail notification for the same job for a different event. This example accepts the defaults for the sender, subject, and body arguments.

BEGIN
 DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION (
  job_name         =>  'EOD_JOB',
  recipients       =>  'jsmith@example.com',
  events           =>  'JOB_OVER_MAX_DUR');
END;
/

This example could have also omitted the events argument to accept event defaults.

The next example is similar to the first, except that it uses a filter condition to specify that an e-mail notification is to be sent only when the error number that causes the job to fail is 600 or 700.

BEGIN
 DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION (
  job_name         => 'EOD_JOB',
  recipients       => 'jsmith@example.com, rjones@example.com',
  sender           => 'do_not_reply@example.com',
  subject          => 'Job Notification-%job_owner%.%job_name%-%event_type%',
  body             =>  '%event_type% at %event_timestamp%. %error_message%',
  events           => 'JOB_FAILED',
  filter_condition => ':event.error_code=600 or :event.error_code=700');
END;
/

See Also:

The ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference

Removing E-mail Notifications for a Job

You use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION package procedure to remove e-mail notifications for a job.

BEGIN
 DBMS_SCHEDULER.REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION (
  job_name   =>  'EOD_JOB',
  recipients =>  'jsmith@example.com, rjones@example.com',
  events     =>  'JOB_DISABLED, JOB_SCH_LIM_REACHED');
END;
/

When you specify multiple recipients and multiple events, the notification for each specified event is removed for each recipient. Running the same query as that of the previous section, the results are now the following:

SELECT JOB_NAME, RECIPIENT, EVENT FROM USER_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS;

JOB_NAME    RECIPIENT            EVENT
----------- -------------------- -------------------
EOD_JOB     jsmith@example.com   JOB_FAILED
EOD_JOB     jsmith@example.com   JOB_BROKEN
EOD_JOB     rjones@example.com   JOB_FAILED
EOD_JOB     rjones@example.com   JOB_BROKEN

Additional rules for specifying REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION arguments are as follows:

  • If you leave the events argument NULL, notifications for all events for the specified recipients are removed.

  • If you leave recipients NULL, notifications for all recipients for the specified events are removed.

  • If you leave both recipients and events NULL, then all notifications for the job are removed.

  • If you include a recipient and event for which you did not previously create a notification, no error is generated.

See Also:

The REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference

Viewing Information About E-mail Notifications

As demonstrated in the previous sections, you can view information about current e-mail notifications by querying the views *_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS.

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for details on these views