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Oracle® Fusion Applications Marketing Implementation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1.2)
Part Number E20372-02
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2 Define Common Applications Configuration for Marketing

This chapter contains the following:

Common Implementation: Overview

Define Synchronization of Users and Roles from LDAP

Define Implementation Users

Define Currencies and Currency Rates

Euro Currency Derivation: Explained

FAQs for Currencies and Currency Rates

Define Enterprise Structures for Marketing

Define Social Networking

Define Workforce Profiles

Define Security for Customer Relationship Management

Define Automated Governance, Risk, and Performance Controls

Define Approval Management for Customer Relationship Management

Define Help Configuration

Define Application Toolkit Configuration

Maintain Common Reference Objects

Define WebLogic Communication Services Configuration

Click to Dial: Explained

Common Implementation: Overview

Common implementation involves accessing tasks that are available in multiple offerings, or that apply to multiple products and product families. The Define Common Applications Configuration task list and other activities include these common setup and implementation tasks.

You can find other information in support of common implementation in the Oracle Fusion Applications Concepts Guide.

In addition, you can customize and extend applications using various tools. For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Define Common Applications Configuration Task List

Use the Define Common Applications Configuration task list to set up and administer an implementation of behaviors across offerings.

Most Oracle Fusion Applications offerings include the Define Common Applications Configuration task list for implementing what is common in multiple or all Oracle Fusion applications. The task lists and tasks within Define Common Applications Configuration can be present in all offerings, some, or just a single offering.

Common implementation includes such tasks as setting up security, defining enterprise structures, configuring Oracle Fusion Applications Help, and setting options. Many of the common implementation tasks involve configuring reference objects provided by Oracle Fusion Middleware Extensions for Applications (Applications Core), such as messages, flexfields, document sequences, and profile options. Some common implementation tasks involve configuring features provided by Oracle Application Toolkit (ATK), such as the Watchlist. Other common implementation tasks involve Oracle Fusion Applications products such as the Assign Balancing Segment Values to Ledger task in Oracle Fusion General Ledger.

Other Common Setup and Maintenance Tasks

Other setup and maintenance tasks exist in multiple offerings but not in the Define Common Applications Configuration task list. Use these other task lists to define an Oracle Fusion Transactional Business Intelligence configuration, and to define extensions such as custom Oracle Enterprise Scheduler jobs.

You can access common implementation tasks and task lists by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for task lists by name. Setup and Maintenance is available from the Administration menu to users provisioned with appropriate roles. The Administration menu provides access to other tasks, such as for customization.

Define Synchronization of Users and Roles from LDAP

User and Role Synchronization: Explained

Oracle Identity Management (OIM) maintains Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) user accounts for users of Oracle Fusion applications. OIM also stores the definitions of abstract, job, and data roles and holds information about roles provisioned to users. During implementation, any existing information about users, roles, and roles provisioned to users must be copied from the LDAP directory to the Oracle Fusion Applications tables. Once the Oracle Fusion Applications tables are initialized with this information, it is maintained automatically. To perform the initialization, you run the process Retrieve Latest LDAP Changes.

Define Implementation Users

Initial Security Administration: Critical Choices

Initial security administration is performed by an administrative user who is created and provisioned with the IT Security Manager role.

Note

The Oracle Fusion Applications installation process creates a super user account, which is available for signing into Oracle Fusion Applications to create a user provisioned with the IT Security Manager role.

Initial security administration primarily establishes at least one implementation user. The IT security manager must provision the initial implementation user with sufficient access to set up the enterprise, including provisioning of the Application Implementation Consultant role to the implementation users.

Perform the following tasks to establish implementation users with appropriate access.

Creating Implementation Users

Create one or more implementation users by performing the Create Implementation Users task in Oracle Identity Management (OIM). An implementation user must exist to set up the enterprise in Oracle Fusion Applications.

Note

User and user account information is stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store. The implementation user does not need to be associated with a person in Human Resources (HR).

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the User Management Duty role, which is entitled to create and manage users (the entitlement is Manage User Principal). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Create Implementation Users task in OIM.

Creating a Data Role for Performing HCM Setup Steps

No predefined roles exist in the Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation to access the data necessary for setting up the HCM structures of the enterprise.

Setting up the HCM structures includes the following.

These setup tasks are commonly done by application implementation consultants with administrator access, for example an HCM Application Administrator View All data role.

Note

Administrator and implementation roles of the Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation are defined to access all other elements of the enterprise that need to be set up, such as the following.

Creating a Data Role for Implementation Users

Create a Human Capital Management Application Administrator View All data role.

This data role is based on the Human Capital Management Application Administrator job role and extends that role with unrestricted access to data in the secured objects that the role is authorized to access. Users assigned to this data role can perform all of the HCM setup steps.

Caution

Once an implementation user with a View All data role has completed HCM security setup, it may be prudent to revoke the role and provision it only when specific HCM security setup changes are necessary. A View All data role grants broad access to all business units, reference data sets, and so on. Security setup in other offerings are not data security enabled and do not require a View All data role for enterprise setup.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Data Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to create a data role for Human Capital Management Application Administrator (the entitlement is Manage HCM Data Role). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Create Data Role for Implementation Users task in Oracle Fusion Global Human Resources.

Provisioning Roles to Implementation Users

Provision the implementation user with one or more roles by performing the Provision Roles to Implementation Users task in Oracle Identity Manager (OIM).

For example, assign a role to the implementation user that provides the access necessary for setting up the enterprise, such as an HCM Application Administrator View All data role. Depending on the implementation, provision the predefined Applications Implementation Consultant role or a product family-specific administrator role, such as the predefined Financials Applications Administrator, to the implementation user. These predefined roles are available for selection in OIM.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Identity User Administrators and Role Administrators roles, which entitle you to provision users with roles. This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Provision Roles to Implementation Users task in OIM.

Define Currencies and Currency Rates

Defining Currencies: Points to Consider

When creating or editing currencies, consider these points relevant to entering the currency code, date range, or symbol for the currency.

Currency Codes

You cannot change a currency code after you enable the currency, even if you later disable that currency.

Date Ranges

Users can enter transactions denominated in the currency only for the dates within the specified range. If you do not enter a start date, then the currency is valid immediately. If you do not enter an end date, then the currency is valid indefinitely.

Symbols

Even if you enter a symbol for a currency, the symbol is not always displayed when an amount is displayed in this currency. Some applications use currency symbols when displaying amounts. Others, like Oracle Fusion General Ledger, do not.

Euro Currency Derivation: Explained

Use the Derivation Type, Derivation Factor, and Derivation Effective Date fields to define the relationship between the official currency (Euro) of the European Monetary Union (EMU) and the national currencies of EMU member states. For each EMU currency, you define its Euro-to-EMU fixed conversion rate and the effective starting date.

Note

If you need to use a different currency code for Euro, you can disable the predefined Euro currency and create a new one.

Derivation Type

The Euro currency derivation type is used only for the Euro, and the Euro derived derivation type identifies national currencies of EMU member states. All other currencies do not have derivation types.

Derivation Factor

The derivation factor is the fixed conversion rate by which you multiply one Euro to derive the equivalent EMU currency amount. The Euro currency itself should not have a derivation factor.

Derivation Effective Date

The derivation effective date is the date on which the relationship between the EMU currency and the Euro begins.

FAQs for Currencies and Currency Rates

When do I create or enable currencies?

Create currencies to use, for example for reporting purposes, if they are not already provided. All currencies from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 standard are provided.

Enable any currency other than USD for use in Oracle Fusion Applications, for example for displaying monetary amounts, assigning to sets of books, entering transactions, and recording balances. Only USD is enabled by default.

What's the difference between precision, extended precision, and minimum accountable unit for a currency?

Precision is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point used in regular currency transactions. Extended precision is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point used in calculations for this currency, and it must be greater than or equal to the standard precision. For example, USD would have 2 for precision because amounts are transacted as such, for example $1.00. For calculations, for example adding USD amounts, you might want the application to be more precise than two decimal digits, and would enter an extended precision accordingly.

Note

Some applications use extended precision. Others, such as Oracle Fusion General Ledger, do not.

Minimum accountable unit is the smallest denomination for the currency. For example, for USD that would be .01 for the cent. This unit does not necessarily correspond to the precision for all currencies.

What's a statistical unit currency type?

The statistical unit currency type is used only for the Statistical (STAT) currency. The Statistical currency is used to record statistics such as the number of items bought and sold. Statistical balances can be used directly in financial reports, allocation formulas, and other calculations.

Manage Conversion Rate Types

Creating Conversion Rate Types: Critical Choices

Maintain different conversion rates between currencies for the same period with the Oracle Fusion General Ledger conversion rate types functionality. Four predefined daily conversion rate types are seeded: Spot, Corporate, User, and Fixed, allowing you to use different rate types for different business needs. During journal entry, the conversion rate is provided automatically by the General Ledger based on the selected conversion rate type and currency, unless the rate type is user. For user rate types, you must enter the conversion rate. Define additional rate types as needed. Set your most frequently used rate type as the default. Conversion rate types cannot be deleted.

Assign conversion rate types to automatically populate the associated rate for your period average and period end rates for the ledger. For example, you can assign the predefined rate type Spot to populate your period average rates and the predefined rate type Corporate to populate your period end rates. Period average and period end rates are used in translation of account balances.

Conversion rate types are used to automatically assign a rate when you perform the following accounting functions:

In creating new conversion rates, decide whether to do the following:

Enforce Inverse Relationships

Check the Enforce Inverse Relationship check box to specify whether or not to enforce the automatic calculation of inverse conversion rates when defining daily rates.


Action

Results

Checked

When you enter a daily rate to convert currency A to currency B, General Ledger automatically calculates the inverse rate, currency B to A, and enters it in the adjacent column. If either rate is changed, the application automatically recalculates the other rate.

You can update the application calculated inverse rate, but once you do, the related rate is updated. The check box enforces that the inverse relationship is maintained but does not prevent you from updating the rates.

Unchecked

General Ledger calculates the inverse rate but you can change the rate and update the daily rates table without the corresponding rate being updated.

Select Pivot Currencies

Select a pivot currency that is commonly used in your currency conversions. A pivot currency is the central currency that interacts with contra currencies. For example, you set up a daily rate between the US dollar (USD) and the Euro currency (EUR) and another between the USD and the Canadian dollar (CAD). USD is the pivot currency in creating a rate between EUR and CAD. EUR and CAD are the contra currencies. Select the pivot currency from the list of values which contains those currencies that are enabled, effective, and not a statistical (STAT) currency. The description of the pivot currency is populated automatically based on the currency definition.

If you want the application to create cross rates against a base currency, define the base currency as the pivot currency. Selected pivot currencies can be changed in the Rate Types page.

Select Contra Currencies

Select currencies available on the list of values as contra currencies. The available currencies are those currencies which are enabled, effective, not STAT currency, and not the pivot currency selected earlier. The description of the contra currency is populated automatically based on the currency definition. Add or delete contra currencies in the Contra Currencies region of the Rate Types page.

Enable Cross Rates and Allow Cross Rate Overrides

Check the Enable Cross Rates check box to calculate conversion rates based on defined currency rate relationships. General Ledger calculates cross rates based on your defined cross rate rules. Associate your cross rate rules with a conversion rate type, pivot currency, and contra currencies. Cross rates facilitate the creation of daily rates by automatically creating the rates between contra currencies based on their relationship to a pivot currency. If the Enable Cross Rates check box is changed to unchecked after entering contra currencies, the application stops calculating cross rates going forward for that particular rate type. All the earlier calculated cross rates for that rate type remain in the database unless you manually delete them.

For example, if you have daily rates defined for the pivot currency, USD to the contra currency, EUR, and USD to another contra currency, CAD, the application will automatically create the rates between EUR to CAD and CAD to EUR. This prevents the need to manually define the EUR to CAD and CAD to EUR rates.

Check the Allow Cross Rates Override check box to permit your users to override application generated cross rates. If you accept the default of unchecked, the application generated cross rates cannot be overridden

Maintain Cross Rate Rules

Define or update your cross rate rules at any time by adding or removing contra currency assignments. Add a contra currency to a cross rate rule and run the Daily Rates Import and Calculation program to generate the new rates. If your remove a cross rate rule or a contra currency from a rule, any cross rates generated previously for that contra currency remain unless you manually delete them. Changes to the rule are not retroactive and will not affect previously stored cross rates. The Cross Rate program generates as many rates as possible and skips currencies where one component of the set is missing.

Note

With a defined web service that extracts daily currency conversion rates from external services, for example Reuters, currency conversion rates are automatically updated for the daily rates and all cross currency relationships.

Using Rate Types: Examples

There are four seeded conversion rate types in Oracle Fusion applications:

Scenario

You are the general ledger accountant for InFusion America Inc. You are entering a journal entry to capture three transactions that were transacted in three different foreign currencies:

You enter two lines with accounts and amounts for each foreign currency transaction. Based on your company procedures, you select the appropriate rate type to populate the rate for Corporate and Spot rate types from your daily rates table. You manually enter the current rate for the User rate type.


Currency Selected

Rate Type Selected

Reason

CAD

Corporate

Entered a periodic type of transaction. Your company has established a daily rate to use for the entire month across divisions for all transactions in CAD. CAD is a stable currency that only fluctuations slightly over the month.

MXP

Spot

Entered a periodic type of transaction. Your company enters daily rates each day for MXP because this currency is unstable and fluctuates.

HKD

User

Entered a one time transaction. Your company does not maintain daily rates in HKD.

Note

Your company does not currently use the Fixed rate type. From January 1, 1999, the conversion rate of the French franc (FRF) against the euro currency (EUR) was set at a fixed rate of 1 EUR to 6.55957 FRF. Your French operations were started in 2007, so you maintain all your French business records in the EUR.

FAQs for Manage Conversion Rate Types

What's the difference between spot, corporate, user, and fixed rate types?

Spot, corporate, user, and fixed conversion rate types differ based on the fluctuations of your entered foreign currency and your company procedures for maintaining daily rates.


Rate Type

Usage

Spot

For currencies with fluctuating conversion rates or when exact currency conversion is needed.

Corporate

For establishment of a standard rate across your organization for a stable currency.

User

For infrequent entries where your daily rates for the entered foreign currency are not set up.

Fixed

For rates where the conversion is constant between two currencies.

If you have infrequent foreign currency transactions, the user rate type can simplify your currency maintenance while providing an accurate conversion rate on the date of the transaction.

Define Enterprise Structures for Marketing

Enterprise Structures: Overview

Oracle Fusion Applications have been designed to ensure your enterprise can be modeled to meet legal and management objectives. The decisions about your implementation of Oracle Fusion Applications are affected by your:

Every enterprise has three fundamental structures, legal, managerial, and functional, that are used to describe its operations and provide a basis for reporting. In Oracle Fusion, these structures are implemented using the chart of accounts and organizations. Although many alternative hierarchies can be implemented and used for reporting, you are likely to have one primary structure that organizes your business into divisions, business units, and departments aligned by your strategic objectives.

This figure is a grid in the shape
of a cube with the Business Axis representing the enterprise division,
Legal Axis representing the companies, and the Functional Axis representing
the business functions.

Legal Structure

The figure above shows a typical group of legal entities, operating various business and functional organizations. Your ability to buy and sell, own, and employ comes from your charter in the legal system. A corporation is a distinct legal entity from its owners and managers. The corporation is owned by its shareholders, who may be individuals or other corporations. There are many other kinds of legal entities, such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and government agencies.

A legally recognized entity can own and trade assets and employ people in the jurisdiction in which it is registered. When granted these privileges, legal entities are also assigned responsibilities to:

Many large enterprises isolate risk and optimize taxes by incorporating subsidiaries. They create legal entities to facilitate legal compliance, segregate operations, optimize taxes, complete contractual relationships, and isolate risk. Enterprises use legal entities to establish their enterprise's identity under the laws of each country in which their enterprise operates.

In the figure above, a separate card represents a series of registered companies. Each company, including the public holding company, InFusion America, must be registered in the countries where they do business. Each company consists of various divisions created for purposes of management reporting. These are shown as vertical columns on each card. For example, a group might have a separate company for each business in the United States (US), but have their United Kingdom (UK) legal entity represent all businesses in that country. The divisions are linked across the cards so that a business can appear on some or all of the cards. For example, the air quality monitoring systems business might be operated by the US, UK, and France companies. The list of business divisions is on the Business Axis. Each company's card is also horizontally striped by functional groups, such as the sales team and the finance team. This functional list is called the Functional Axis. The overall image suggests that information might, at a minimum, be tracked by company, business, division, and function in a group environment. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the legal structure is implemented using legal entities.

Management Structure

Successfully managing multiple businesses requires that you segregate them by their strategic objectives, and measure their results. Although related to your legal structure, the business organizational hierarchies do not need to be reflected directly in the legal structure of the enterprise. The management structure can include divisions, subdivisions, lines of business, strategic business units, and cost centers. In the figure above, the management structure is shown on the Business Axis. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the management structure is implemented using divisions and business units.

Functional Structure

Straddling the legal and business organizations is a functional organization structured around people and their competencies. For example, sales, manufacturing, and service teams are functional organizations. This functional structure is represented by the Functional Axis in the figure above. You reflect the efforts and expenses of your functional organizations directly on the income statement. Organizations must manage and report revenues, cost of sales, and functional expenses such as research and development (R&D) and selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the functional structure is implemented using departments and organizations, including sales, marketing, project, cost, and inventory organizations.

Enterprise Structures Business Process Model: Explained

In Oracle Fusion Applications, the Enterprise Performance and Planning Business Process Model illustrates the major implementation tasks that you perform to create your enterprise structures. This process model includes the Set Up Enterprise Structures business process, which consist of implementation activities that span many product families. Information Technology is a second Business Process Model which contains the Set Up Information Technology Management business process. Define Reference Data Sharing is one of the activities in this business process and is important in the implementation of the enterprise structures. This activity creates the mechanism to share reference data sets across multiple ledgers, business units, and warehouses, reducing the administrative burden and decreasing the time needed to implement.

The following figure and chart describes the Business Process Model structures and activities.

This diagram lists the
BPM activities: Define Enterprise, Define Enterprise Structures, Define
Legal Jurisdictions and Authorities, Define Legal Entity, Define Business
Units, Define Financial Reporting Structures, Define Chart of Accounts,
Define Ledgers, Define Accounting Configurations, Define Facilitates,
and Define Reference Data Sharing.


BPM Activities

Description

Define Enterprise

Define the enterprise to capture the name of the deploying enterprise and the location of the headquarters. There is normally a single enterprise organization in a production environment. Multiple enterprises are defined when the system is used to administer multiple customer companies, or when you choose to set up additional enterprises for testing or development.

Define Enterprise Structures

Define enterprise structures to represent an organization with one or more legal entities under common control. Define internal and external organizations to represent each area of business within the enterprise.

Define Legal Jurisdictions and Authorities

Define information for governing bodies that operate within a jurisdiction.

Define Legal Entities

Define legal entities and legal reporting units for business activities handled by the Oracle Fusion Applications.

Define Business Units

Define business units of an enterprise to allow for flexible implementation, to provide a consistent entity for controlling and reporting on transactions, and to be an anchor for the sharing of sets of reference data across applications.

Define Financial Reporting Structures

Define financial reporting structures, including organization structures, charts of accounts, organizational hierarchies, calendars, currencies and rates, ledgers, and document sequences which are used in organizing the financial data of a company.

Define Chart of Accounts

Define chart of accounts including hierarchies and values to enable tracking of financial transactions and reporting at legal entity, cost center, account, and other segment levels.

Define Ledgers

Define the primary accounting ledger and any secondary ledgers that provide an alternative accounting representation of the financial data.

Define Accounting Configurations

Define the accounting configuration that serves as a framework for how financial records are maintained for an organization.

Define Facilities

Define inventory, item, and cost organizations. Inventory organizations represent facilities that manufacture or store items. The item master organization holds a single definition of items that can be shared across many inventory organizations. Cost organizations group inventory organizations within a legal entity to establish the cost accounting policies.

Define Reference Data Sharing

Define how reference data in the applications is partitioned and shared.

Note

There are product specific implementation activities that are not listed here and depend on the applications you are implementing. For example, you can implement Define Enterprise Structures for Human Capital Management, Project Management, and Sales Management.

Global Enterprise Configuration: Points to Consider

Start your global enterprise structure configuration by discussing what your organization's reporting needs are and how to represent those needs in the Oracle Fusion Applications. Consider deployment on a single instance, or at least, on as few instances as possible, to simplify reporting and consolidations for your global enterprises. The following are some questions and points to consider as you design your global enterprise structure in Oracle Fusion.

Enterprise Configuration

What is the level of configuration needed to achieve the reporting and accounting requirements? What components of your enterprise do you need to report on separately? Which components can be represented by building a hierarchy of values to provide reporting at both detail and summary levels? Where are you on the spectrum of centralization versus decentralization?

Business Unit Management

What reporting do I need by business unit? How can you set up your departments or business unit accounts to achieve departmental hierarchies that report accurately on your lines of business? What reporting do you need to support the managers of your business units, and the executives who measure them? How often are business unit results aggregated? What level of reporting detail is required across business units?

Security Structure

What level of security and access is allowed? Are business unit managers and the people that report to them secured to transactions within their own business unit? Are the transactions for their business unit largely performed by a corporate department or shared service center?

Compliance Requirements

How do you comply with your corporate external reporting requirements and local statutory reporting requirements? Do you tend to prefer a corporate first or an autonomous local approach? Where are you on a spectrum of centralization, very centralized or decentralized?

Modeling Your Enterprise Management Structure in Oracle Fusion: Example

This example uses a fictitious global company to demonstrate the analysis that can occur during the enterprise structure configuration planning process.

Scenario

Your company, InFusion Corporation, is a multinational conglomerate that operates in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). InFusion has purchased an Oracle Fusion enterprise resource planning (ERP) solution including Oracle Fusion General Ledger and all of the Oracle Fusion subledgers. You are chairing a committee to discuss creation of a model for your global enterprise structure including both your US and UK operations.

InFusion Corporation

InFusion Corporation has 400 plus employees and revenue of $120 million. Your product line includes all the components to build and maintain air quality monitoring (AQM) systems for homes and businesses. You have two distribution centers and three warehouses that share a common item master in the US and UK. Your financial services organization provides funding to your customers for the start up costs of these systems.

Analysis

The following are elements you need to consider in creating your model for your global enterprise structure.

Global Enterprise Structure Model

The following figure and table summarize the model that your committee has designed and uses numerical values to provide a sample representation of your structure. The model includes the following recommendations:

InFusion Corporation is the enterprise
and has two division , InFusion United States (US) and InFusion United
Kingdom (UK). InFusion US has two legal entities, InFusion America,
Inc. and InFusion Financial Services, Inc. each with its own ledger.
InFusion UK has one legal entity, Infusion UK Systems, Inc. which
has on primary ledger in Great Britain Pounds (GBP) and a Reporting
Currency representation in United States Dollar (USD). Each legal
entity has its own business unit (BU). InFusion America also has a
BU that processes general and administrative transactions across all
legal entities. InFusion Corporation has a US and a UK distribution
centers with three associated warehouses. InFusion Corporation shares
one common item master.

The table indicates if the enterprise
structure entities are mandatory or optional.

In this chart, the green globe stands for mandatory and gold globe stands for optional setup. The following statements expand on the data in the chart.

Note

Some Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) implementations do not require recording of accounting transactions and therefore, do not require implementation of a ledger.

Note

The InFusion Corporation is a legal entity but is not discussed in this example.

Define Initial Configuration with the Enterprise Structures Configurator

Establishing Enterprise Structures Using the Enterprise Structures Configurator: Explained

The Enterprise Structures Configurator is an interview-based tool that guides you through the process of setting up a basic enterprise structure. By answering questions about your enterprise, the tool creates a structure of divisions, legal entities, business units, and reference data sets that reflects your enterprise structure. After you create your enterprise structure, you also follow a guided process to determine whether or not to use positions, and whether to set up additional attributes for jobs and positions. After you define your enterprise structure and your job and position structures, you can review them, make any necessary changes, and then load the final configuration.

This figure illustrates the process to configure your enterprise using the Enterprise Structures Configurator.

A figure that shows the process to
create an enterprise configuration using the ESC

To be able to use the Enterprise Structures Configurator, you must select the Enterprise Structures Guided Flow feature within the offerings in the Functional Setup Manager (FSM). If you do not select this feature, then you must set up your enterprise structure using individual tasks provided elsewhere in the offerings, and you cannot create multiple configurations to compare different scenarios.

Establish Enterprise Structures

To define your enterprise structures, you use the guided flow within the Establish Enterprise Structures task to enter basic information about your enterprise, such as the primary industry and the location of your headquarters. You then create divisions, legal entities, business units, and reference data sets. The Establish Enterprise Structures task enables you to create multiple enterprise configurations so that you can compare different scenarios. Until you load a configuration, you can continue to create and edit multiple configurations until you arrive at one that best suits your enterprise.

Establish Job and Position Structures

In addition to using the Establish Enterprise Structures task to create the basic structure of your enterprise, you also use a guided process to determine whether you want to use jobs only, or jobs and positions. The primary industry that you select in the Establish Enterprise Structures task provides the application with the information needed to make an initial recommendation. You can either accept the recommendation, or you can answer additional questions about how you manage people in your enterprise, and then make a selection. After you select whether to use jobs or positions, the guided process prompts you to set up a descriptive flexfield structure for jobs, and for positions if you have chosen to use them. Descriptive flexfields enable you to capture additional information when you create jobs and positions.

Review Configuration

After you create enterprise configurations and job and position structures, you can review a summary of the results of the two interview processes. For each configuration, the online summary lists the divisions, legal entities, business units, reference data sets, and job and position structures that the application will create when you load the configuration.

For a more detailed analysis of a configuration, you can access the Technical Summary Report. This report lists the same information as the online summary, but also lists the following information that will be created by the application when you load the configuration, based on your configuration:

The Technical Summary report also lists the default settings that will be loaded for these fields, which you access from the Manage Enterprise HCM Information task: Worker Number Generation, Employment Model and Allow Employment Terms Override. You can print the Technical Summary Report for each of your configurations and compare each scenario.

Load Configuration

You can load only one configuration. When you load a configuration, the application creates the divisions, legal entities, business units, and so on. After you load the configuration, you then use individual tasks to edit, add, and delete enterprise structures.

Designing an Enterprise Configuration: Example

This example illustrates how to set up an enterprise based on a global company operating mainly in the US and the UK with a single primary industry.

Scenario

InFusion Corporation is a multinational enterprise in the high technology industry with product lines that include all the components that are required to build and maintain air quality monitoring (AQM) systems for homes and businesses. Its primary locations are in the US and the UK, but it has smaller outlets in France, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Enterprise Details

In the US, InFusion employs 400 people and has a company revenue of $120 million. Outside the US, InFusion employs 200 people and has revenue of $60 million.

Analysis

InFusion requires three divisions. The US division will cover the US locations. The Europe division will cover the UK and France. Saudi Arabia and the UAE will be covered by the Middle East division.

InFusion requires legal entities with legal employers, payroll statutory units, tax reporting units, and legislative data groups for the US, UK, France, Saudi Arabia, and UAE, in order to employ and pay its workers in those countries.

InFusion requires a number of departments across the enterprise for each area of business, such as sales and marketing, and a number of cost centers to track and report on the costs of those departments.

InFusion requires business units for human capital management (HCM) purposes. Infusion has general managers responsible for business units within each country. Those business units may share reference data. Some reference data can be defined within a reference data set that multiple business units may subscribe to. Business units are also required for financial purposes. Financial transactions are always processed within a business unit.

Resulting Enterprise Configuration

Based on this analysis, InFusion requires an enterprise with multiple divisions, ledgers, legal employers, payroll statutory units, tax reporting units, legislative data groups, departments, cost centers, and business units.

This figure illustrates the enterprise configuration that results from the analysis of InFusion Corporation.

A figure of an enterprise configuration

Division: Explained

Managing multiple businesses requires that you segregate them by their strategic objectives and measure their results. Responsibility to reach objectives can be delegated along the management structure. Although related to your legal structure, the business organizational hierarchies do not need to reflect directly the legal structure of the enterprise. The management entities and structure can include divisions and subdivisions, lines of business, and other strategic business units, and include their own revenue and cost centers. These organizations can be included in many alternative hierarchies and used for reporting, as long as they have representation in the chart of accounts.

Divisions

A division refers to a business oriented subdivision within an enterprise, in which each division organizes itself differently to deliver products and services or address different markets. A division can operate in one or more countries, and can be comprised of many companies or parts of different companies that are represented by business units.

A division is a profit center or grouping of profit and cost centers, where the division manager is responsible for attaining business goals including profit goals. A division can be responsible for a share of the company's existing product lines or for a separate business. Managers of divisions may also have return on investment goals requiring tracking of the assets and liabilities of the division. The division manager reports to a top corporate executive.

By definition a division can be represented in the chart of accounts. Companies may choose to represent product lines, brands, or geographies as their divisions: their choice represents the primary organizing principle of the enterprise. This may coincide with the management segment used in segment reporting.

Oracle Fusion Applications supports a qualified management segment and recommends that you use this segment to represent your hierarchy of business units and divisions. If managers of divisions have return on investment goals, make the management segment a balancing segment. Oracle Fusion applications allows up to three balancing segments. The values of the management segment can be comprised of business units that roll up in a hierarchy to report by division.

Historically, divisions were implemented as a node in a hierarchy of segment values. For example, Oracle E-Business Suite has only one balancing segment, and often the division and legal entity are combined into a single segment where each value stands for both division and legal entity.

Use of Divisions in Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM)

Divisions are used in HCM to define the management organization hierarchy, using the generic organization hierarchy. This hierarchy can be used to create organization based security profiles.

Legal Entities: Explained

A legal entity is a recognized party with rights and responsibilities given by legislation.

Legal entities have the right to own property, the right to trade, the responsibility to repay debt, and the responsibility to account for themselves to regulators, taxation authorities, and owners according to rules specified in the relevant legislation. Their rights and responsibilities may be enforced through the judicial system. Define a legal entity for each registered company or other entity recognized in law for which you want to record assets, liabilities, and income, pay transaction taxes, or perform intercompany trading.

A legal entity has responsibility for elements of your enterprise for the following reasons:

The Role of Your Legal Entities

In configuring your enterprise structure in Oracle Fusion Applications, you need to understand that the contracting party on any transaction is always the legal entity. Individual legal entities own the assets of the enterprise, record sales and pay taxes on those sales, make purchases and incur expenses, and perform other transactions.

Legal entities must comply with the regulations of jurisdictions, in which they register. Europe now allows for companies to register in one member country and do business in all member countries, and the US allows for companies to register in one state and do business in all states. To support local reporting requirements, legal reporting units are created and registered.

You are required to publish specific and periodic disclosures of your legal entities' operations based on different jurisdictions' requirements. Certain annual or more frequent accounting reports are referred to as statutory or external reporting. These reports must be filed with specified national and regulatory authorities. For example, in the United States (US), your publicly owned entities (corporations) are required to file quarterly and annual reports, as well as other periodic reports, with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), who enforces statutory reporting requirements for public corporations.

Individual entities privately held or held by public companies do not have to file separately. In other countries, your individual entities do have to file in their own name, as well as at the public group level. Disclosure requirements are diverse. For example, your local entities may have to file locally to comply with local regulations in a local currency, as well as being included in your enterprise's reporting requirements in different currency.

A legal entity can represent all or part of your enterprise's management framework. For example, if you operate in a large country such as the United Kingdom or Germany, you might incorporate each division in the country as a separate legal entity. In a smaller country, for example Austria, you might use a single legal entity to host all of your business operations across divisions.

Creating Legal Entities in the Enterprise Structures Configurator: Points to Consider

Using the Enterprise Structures Configurator (ESC), you can create legal entities for your enterprise automatically, based on the countries in which divisions of your business operate, or you can upload a list of legal entities from a spreadsheet.

Automatically Creating Legal Entities

If you are not certain of the number of legal entities that you need, you can create them automatically. To use this option, you first identify all of the countries in which your enterprise operates. The application opens the Map Divisions by Country page, which contains a matrix of the countries that you identified, your enterprise, and the divisions that you created. You select the check boxes where your enterprise and divisions intersect with the countries to identify the legal entities that you want the application to create. The enterprise is included for situations where your enterprise operates in a country and acts on behalf of several divisions within the enterprise and is a legal employer in a country. If you select the enterprise for a country, the application creates a country holding company.

The application automatically creates the legal entities that you select, and identifies them as payroll statutory units and legal employers. For each country that you indicated that your enterprise operates in, and for each country that you created a location for, the application also automatically creates a legislative data group.

Any legal entities that you create automatically cannot be deleted from the Create Legal Entities page within the Enterprise Structures Configurator. You must return to the Map Divisions by Country page and deselect the legal entities that you no longer want.

Example: Creating Legal Entities Automatically

InFusion Corporation is using the ESC to set up their enterprise structure. They have identified two divisions, one for Lighting, and one for Security. The Lighting division operates in Japan and the US, and the Security division operates in the UK and India.

This figure illustrates InFusion Corporation's enterprise structure.

A figure that shows an enterprise with
divisions and countries in which the divisions operate

This table represents the selections that InFusion Corporation makes when specifying which legal entities to create on the Map Divisions by Country page.


Country

Enterprise

InFusion Lighting

InFusion Security

Japan

No

Yes

No

US

No

Yes

No

UK

No

No

Yes

India

No

No

Yes

Based on the selections made in the preceding table, the ESC creates the following four legal entities:

Creating Legal Entities Using a Spreadsheet

If you have a list of legal entities already defined for your enterprise, you can upload them from a spreadsheet. To use this option, you first download a spreadsheet template, then add your legal entity information to the spreadsheet, and then upload directly to your enterprise configuration. You can export and import the spreadsheet multiple times to accommodate revisions.

Legal Entity in Oracle Fusion: Points to Consider

Oracle Fusion Applications support the modeling of your legal entities. If you make purchases from or sell to other legal entities, define these other legal entities in your customer and supplier registers, which are part of the Oracle Fusion Trading Community Architecture. When your legal entities are trading with each other, you represent both of them as legal entities and also as customers and suppliers in your customer and supplier registers. Use legal entity relationships to determine which transactions are intercompany and require intercompany accounting. Your legal entities can be identified as legal employers and therefore, are available for use in Human Capital Management (HCM) applications.

There are several decisions that need to be considered in creating your legal entities.

The Importance of Legal Entity in Transactions

All of the assets of the enterprise are owned by individual legal entities. Oracle Fusion Financials allow your users to enter legal entities on transactions that represent a movement in value or obligation.

For example, the creation of a sales order creates an obligation for the legal entity that books the order to deliver the goods on the acknowledged date, and an obligation of the purchaser to receive and pay for those goods. Under contract law in most countries, damages can be sought for both actual losses, putting the injured party in the same state as if they had not entered into the contract, and what is called loss of bargain, or the profit that would have made on a transaction.

In another example, if you revalued your inventory in a warehouse to account for raw material price increases, the revaluation and revaluation reserves must be reflected in your legal entity's accounts. In Oracle Fusion Applications, your inventory within an inventory organization is managed by a single business unit and belongs to one legal entity.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Business Units

A business unit can process transactions on behalf of many legal entities. Frequently, a business unit is part of a single legal entity. In most cases the legal entity is explicit on your transactions. For example, a payables invoice has an explicit legal entity field. Your accounts payables department can process supplier invoices on behalf of one or many business units.

In some cases, your legal entity is inferred from your business unit that is processing the transaction. For example, your business unit A agrees on terms for the transfer of inventory to your business unit B. This transaction is binding on your default legal entities assigned to each business unit. Oracle Fusion Procurement, Oracle Fusion Projects, and Oracle Fusion Supply Chain applications rely on deriving the legal entity information from the business unit.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Divisions

The division is an area of management responsibility that can correspond to a collection of legal entities. If desired, you can aggregate the results for your divisions by legal entity or by combining parts of other legal entities. Define date-effective hierarchies for your cost center or legal entity segment in your chart of accounts to facilitate the aggregation and reporting by division. Divisions and legal entities are independent concepts.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Ledgers

One of your major responsibilities is to file financial statements for your legal entities. Map legal entities to specific ledgers using the Oracle Fusion General Ledger Accounting Configuration Manager. Within a ledger, you can optionally map a legal entity to one or more balancing segment values.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Balancing Segments

Oracle Fusion General Ledger supports up to three balancing segments, Best practices recommend that one of these segments represents your legal entity to ease your requirement to account for your operations to regulatory agencies, tax authorities, and investors. Accounting for your operations means you must produce a balanced trial balance sheet by legal entity. If you account for many legal entities in a single ledger, you must:

  1. Identify the legal entities within the ledger

  2. Balance transactions that cross legal entity boundaries through intercompany transactions

  3. Decide which balancing segments correspond to each legal entity and assign them in Oracle Fusion General Ledger Accounting Configuration Manager. Once you assign one balancing segment value in a ledger, then all your balancing segment values must be assigned. This recommended best practice facilitates reporting on assets, liabilities, and income by legal entity.

Represent your legal entities by at least one balancing segment value. You may represent it by two or three balancing segment values if more granular reporting is required. For example, if your legal entity operates in multiple jurisdictions in Europe, you might define balancing segment values and map them to legal reporting units. You can represent a legal entity by more than one balancing segment value, do not use a single balancing segment value to represent more than one legal entity.

In Oracle Fusion General Ledger, there are three balancing segments. You can use separate balancing segments to represent your divisions or strategic business units to enable management reporting at the balance sheet level for each division or business unit. For example, use this solution to empower your business unit and divisional managers to track and assume responsibility for their asset utilization or return on investment. Using multiple balancing segments is also useful when you know at the time of implementation that you are disposing of a part of a legal entity and need to isolate the assets and liabilities for that entity.

Note

Implementing multiple balancing segments requires every journal entry that is not balanced by division or business unit, to generate balancing lines. Also, you cannot change to multiple balancing segments easily after you have begun to use the ledger because your historical data is not balanced by the new multiple balancing segments. Restating historical data must be done at that point.

To use this feature for disposal of a part of a legal entity, implement multiple balancing segments at the beginning of the legal entity's corporate life or on conversion to Oracle Fusion.

If you decided to account for each legal entity in a separate ledger, there is no requirement to identify the legal entity with a balancing segment value within the ledger.

Note

While transactions that cross balancing segments don't necessarily cross legal entity boundaries, all transactions that cross legal entity boundaries must cross balancing segments. If you make an acquisition or are preparing to dispose of a portion of your enterprise, you may want to account for that part of the enterprise in its own balancing segment even if it is not a separate legal entity. If you do not map legal entities sharing the same ledger to balancing segments, you will not be able to distinguish them using the intercompany functionality or track their individual equity.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Consolidation Rules

In Oracle Fusion Applications you can map legal entities to balancing segments and then define consolidation rules using your balancing segments. You are creating a relationship between the definition of your legal entities and their role in your consolidation.

Legal Entity and its Relationship to Intercompany Transactions

Use Oracle Fusion Intercompany functionality for automatic creation of intercompany entries across your balancing segments. Intercompany processing updates legal ownership within the enterprise's groups of legal entities. Invoices or journals are created as needed. To limit the number of trading pairs for your enterprise, set up intercompany organizations and assign then to your authorized legal entities. Define processing options and intercompany accounts to use when creating intercompany transactions and to assist in consolidation elimination entries. These accounts are derived and automatically entered on your intercompany transactions based on legal entities assigned to your intercompany organizations.

Intracompany trading, in which legal ownership isn't changed but other organizational responsibilities are, is also supported. For example, you can track assets and liabilities that move between your departments within your legal entities by creating departmental level intercompany organizations.

Note

In the Oracle Fusion Supply Chain applications, model intercompany relationships using business units, from which legal entities are inferred.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Worker Assignments and Legal Employer

Legal entities that employ people are called legal employers in the Oracle Fusion Legal Entity Configurator. You must enter legal employers on worker assignments in Oracle Fusion HCM.

Legal Entity and Payroll Reporting

Your legal entities are required to pay payroll tax and social insurance such as social security on your payroll. In Oracle Fusion Applications, you can register payroll statutory units to pay and report on payroll tax and social insurance on behalf of many of your legal entities. As the legal employer, you might be required to pay payroll tax, not only at the national level, but also at the local level. You meet this obligation by establishing your legal entity as a place of work within the jurisdiction of a local authority. Set up legal reporting units to represent the part of your enterprise with a specific legal reporting obligation. You can also mark these legal reporting units as tax reporting units if the legal entity must pay taxes as a result of establishing a place of business within the jurisdiction.

Business Units: Explained

A business unit is a unit of an enterprise that performs one or many business functions that can be rolled up in a management hierarchy. A business unit can process transactions on behalf of many legal entities. Normally, it will have a manager, strategic objectives, a level of autonomy, and responsibility for its profit and loss. Roll business units up into divisions if you structure your chart of accounts with this type of hierarchy. In Oracle Fusion Applications, you assign your business units to one primary ledger. For example, if a business unit is processing payables invoices they will need to post to a particular ledger. This assignment is mandatory for your business units with business functions that produce financial transactions.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, use business unit as a securing mechanism for transactions. For example, if you run your export business separately from your domestic sales business, secure the export business data to prevent access by the domestic sales employees. To accomplish this security, set up the export business and domestic sales business as two separate business units.

The Oracle Fusion Applications business unit model:

Business units process transactions using reference data sets that reflect your business rules and policies and can differ from country to country. With Oracle Fusion Application functionality, you can choose to share reference data, such as payment terms and transaction types, across business units, or you can choose to have each business unit manage its own set depending on the level at which you wish to enforce common policies.

In countries where gapless and chronological sequencing of documents is required for subledger transactions, define your business units in alignment with your ledger definition, because the uniqueness of sequencing is only ensured within a ledger. In these cases, define a single ledger and assign one legal entity and business unit.

In summary, use business units in the following ways:

Brief Overview of Business Unit Security

Business units are used by a number of Oracle Fusion Applications to implement data security. You assign data roles to your users to give them access to data in business units and permit them to perform specific functions on this data. When a business function is enabled for a business unit, the application can trigger the creation of data roles for this business unit base on the business function's related job roles.

For example, if a payables invoicing business function is enabled, then it is clear that there are employees in this business unit that perform the function of payables invoicing, and need access to the payables invoicing functionality. Therefore, based on the correspondence between the business function and the job roles, appropriate data roles are generated automatically. Use Human Capital Management (HCM) security profiles to administer security for employees in business units.

Creating Business Units in the Enterprise Structures Configurator: Points to Consider

Business units are used within Oracle Fusion applications for management reporting, processing of transactions, and security of transactional data. Using the Enterprise Structures Configurator (ESC), you create business units for your enterprise either automatically or manually.

Automatically Creating Business Units

To create business units automatically, you must specify the level at which to create business units. Business units within your enterprise may be represented at the business function level, such as Sales, Consulting, Product Development, and so on, or they may be represented at a more detailed level, where a business unit exists for each combination of countries in which you operate and the functions in those countries.

You can automatically create business units at the following levels:

Select the option that best meets your business requirements, but consider the following:

After you select a business unit level, the application generates a list of business units, and you select the ones you want the application to create. If you select a level that has two components, such as country and division, then the system displays a table listing both components, and you select the check boxes at the intersections of the components.

The business units listed by the application are suggestions only, and are meant to simplify the process to create business units. You are not required to select all of the business units suggested. When you navigate to the next page in the ESC guided flow, which is the Manage Business Units page, you cannot delete any of the business units that were created automatically. You must return to the Create Business Units page and deselect any business units that you no longer want.

Example: Selecting Business Unit Levels

InFusion Corporation is using the Enterprise Structures Configurator to set up their enterprise structure. They have identified two divisions, one for Lighting, and one for Security. They operate in four countries: US, UK, Japan, and India, and they have created a legal entity for each of the countries. The sales and marketing functions are based in both India and Japan, while the US and the UK have only the sales function.

This figure illustrates InFusion Corporation's enterprise structure.

A figure of an enterprise with divisions,
legal entities, and functions

The following table lists the options for business unit levels and the resulting business units that the application suggests for InFusion Corporation.


Business Unit Level

Suggested Business Units

Country

  • US

  • UK

  • Japan

  • India

Country and Division

  • InFusion Lighting: Japan

  • InFusion Lighting: US

  • Infusion Security: UK

  • Infusion Security: India

Country and business function

  • Sales: Japan

  • Marketing: Japan

  • Sales: US

  • Sales: UK

  • Marketing: India

  • Sales: India

Division

  • InFusion Lighting

  • InFusion Security

Division and Legal Entity

  • InFusion Lighting: Japan

  • InFusion Lighting: US

  • Infusion Security: UK

  • Infusion Security: India

Division and Business Function

  • InFusion Lighting, Sales

  • InFusion Lighting, Marketing

  • InFusion Security, Sales

  • InFusion Security, Marketing

Business Function

  • Sales

  • Marketing

Legal Entity

  • Legal Entity: Japan

  • Legal Entity: US

  • Legal Entity: UK

  • Legal Entity India

Legal Entity and Business Function

  • Legal Entity: Japan, Sales

  • Legal Entity: Japan, Marketing

  • Legal Entity: US, Sales

  • Legal Entity: UK, Sales

  • Legal Entity India, Marketing

  • Legal Entity India, Sales

Manually Creating Business Units

If none of the levels for creating business units meets your business needs, you can create business units manually, and you create them on the Manage Business Units page. If you create business units manually, then no reference data sets are created automatically. You must create them manually as well.

Reference Data Sets and Sharing Methods: Explained

Oracle Fusion Applications reference data sharing feature is also known as SetID. The reference data sharing functionality supports operations in multiple ledgers, business units, and warehouses, thereby reducing the administrative burden and decreasing the time needed to implement new business units. For example, you can share sales methods, transaction types, or payment terms across business units or selected other data across asset books, cost organizations, or project units.

The reference data sharing features use reference data sets to which reference data is assigned. The reference data sets group assigned reference data. The sets can be understood as buckets of reference data assigned to multiple business units or other application components.

Reference Data Sets

You begin this part of your implementation by creating and assigning reference data to sets. Make changes carefully as changes to a particular set will affect all business units or application components using that set. You can assign a separate set to each business unit for the type of object that is being shared. For example, assign separate sets for payment terms, transaction types, and sales methods to your business units.

Your enterprise can decide that some aspects of corporate policy should affect all business units and leave other aspects to the discretion of the business unit manager. This allows your enterprise to balance autonomy and control for each business unit. For example, if your enterprise holds business unit managers accountable for their profit and loss, but manages working capital requirements at a corporate level, you can let managers define their own sales methods, but define payment terms centrally. In this case, each business unit would have its own reference data set for sales methods, and there would be one central reference data set for payment terms assigned to all business units.

The reference data sharing is especially valuable for lowering the cost of setting up new business units. For example, your enterprise operates in the hospitality industry. You are adding a new business unit to track your new spa services. The hospitality divisional reference data set can be assigned to the new business unit to quickly setup data for this entity component. You can establish other business unit reference data in a business unit specific reference data set as needed

Reference Data Sharing Methods

There are variations in the methods used to share data in reference data sets across different types of objects. The following list identifies the methods:

Note: Oracle Fusion Applications contains a reference data set called Enterprise. Define any reference data that affects your entire enterprise in this set.

Business Units and Reference Data Sets: How They Work Together

Reference data sharing is a feature within Oracle Fusion that enables you to group set-enabled reference data such as jobs or grades so that the data can be shared across different parts of the organization. Sets also enable you to filter reference data at the transaction level so that only data that has been assigned to certain sets is available to select. To filter reference data, Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM), applications use the business unit on the transaction. To set up reference data sharing in Oracle Fusion HCM, you create business units and sets, and then assign the sets to the business units.

Common Set Versus Specific Sets

Some reference data in your organization may be considered global, and should therefore be made available for use within the entire enterprise. You can assign this type of data to the Common Set, which is a predefined set. Regardless of the business unit on a transaction, reference data that has been assigned to the Common Set will always be available, in addition to the reference data that has been assigned to the set that corresponds to the business unit on the transaction.

Other types of reference data may be specific to certain business units, so you want to restrict the use of the data to those business units. In this case, you can create sets specifically for this type of data, and assign the sets to the business units.

Business Unit Set Assignment

When you assign reference data sets to business units, you assign a default reference data set that will be used for all reference data types for that business unit. You can override the set assignment for one or more data types.

Example: Assigning Sets to Business Units

InFusion Corporation has two divisions: Lighting and Security, and the divisions each have two locations. Each location has one or more business functions.

The following figure illustrates the structure of InFusion Corporation.

A table that illustrates an enterprise
structure

When deciding how to create business units, InFusion decides to create them using the country and business function level. Therefore, they created the following business units:

Because locations, departments, and grades are specific to each business unit, InFusion does not want to share these types of reference data across business units. They will create a reference data set for each business unit so that data of those types can be set up separately. Because the jobs in the Sales business function are the same across many locations, InFusion decides to create one additional set called Jobs and they will override the set assignment for the Jobs reference data group and assign it to the Jobs set. Based on these requirements, they create the following sets:

InFusion assigns business units to sets as follows:


Business Unit

Default Set Assignment

Set Assignment Overrides

Sales_Japan

Sales_Japan_Set for grades, departments, and locations

Jobs set for jobs

Marketing_Japan

Mktg_Japan_Set for grades, departments, and locations

None

Sales_US

Sales_US_Set for grades, departments, and locations

Jobs set for jobs

Sales_UK

Sales_UK_Set for grades, departments, and locations

Jobs set for jobs

Marketing_India

Mktg_India_Set for grades, departments, and locations

None

Sales_India

Sales_India_Set for grades, departments, and locations

Jobs set for jobs

When setting up grades, departments, and locations for the business units, InFusion will assign the data to the default set for each business unit. When setting up jobs, they will assign the Jobs set and will assign the Common Set to any jobs that may be used throughout the entire organization.

When using grades, departments, and locations at the transaction level, users will be able to select data from the set that corresponds to the business unit that they enter on the transaction, and any data that was assigned to the Common Set. For example, for transactions for the Marketing_Japan business unit, grades, locations, and departments from the Mktg_Japan_Set will be available to select, as well as from the Common Set.

When using jobs at the transaction level, users will be able to select jobs from the Jobs set and from the Common Set when they enter one of the Sales business units on the transaction. For example, when a manager hires an employee for the Sales_India business unit, the list of jobs will be filtered to show jobs from the Jobs set and from the Common Set.

The following figure illustrates what sets of jobs can be accessed when a manager creates an assignment for a worker.

A figure that shows the jobs that can
be accessed

Creating Reference Data Sets in the Enterprise Structures Configurator: Explained

If you created business units automatically, then the Enterprise Structures Configurator automatically creates reference data sets for you. The Enterprise Structures Configurator creates one reference data set for each business unit. You can add additional sets, but you cannot delete any of the sets that were created automatically.

A standard set called the Enterprise set is predefined.

Common Set

The common set is a predefined set that enables you to share reference data across business units. When you select set-enabled data at the transaction level, the list of values includes data in both the common set and the set associated with the data type for the business unit on the transaction. For example, when you create an assignment, the list of values for grades will include both grades in the common set and in the set that is assigned to grades for the business unit in which you creating the assignment.

Jobs and Positions: Critical Choices

Jobs and positions represent roles that enable you to distinguish between tasks and the individuals who perform those tasks. The key to whether to use jobs or positions is how each is used. Positions offer a well-defined space independent of the person performing the job. Jobs are a space defined by the person. A job can be defined globally in the Common Set, whereas a position is defined within one business unit.

You can update the job and department of a position at any time. This is useful if you hire someone into a new role and want to transfer the position to another department.

During implementation, one of the earliest decisions you will make is whether to use jobs or a combination of jobs and positions. The determinants for this decision are:

Primary Industry of Your Enterprise

Primary industries and how they usually set up their workforce are listed in the table below.


Primary Industry

Workforce Setup

Mining

Positions

Utilities

Positions

Manufacturing

Positions

Retail Trade

Positions

Transportation and Warehousing

Positions

Educational Services

Positions

Public Transportation

Positions

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

Jobs

Construction

Jobs

Wholesale Trade

Jobs

Information

Jobs

Finance and Insurance

Jobs

Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

Jobs

Management of Companies and Enterprises

Jobs

Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services

Jobs

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Jobs

Accommodation and Food Services

Jobs

Other Services (Except Public Administration)

Jobs

Management of People

The following table displays suggestions of whether to use jobs or a combination of jobs and positions based on your industry and how you manage your employees when there is turnover.


Industry

We always replace employees by rehiring to same role

We replace the head count, but the manager can use the head count in a different job

We rehire to the same position, but the manager can request a reallocation of budget to a different post

Project (An industry that supports project-based forms of organization in which teams of specialists from both inside and outside the company report to project managers.)

Positions

Jobs

Jobs

Controlled (An industry that is highly structured in which all aspects of work and remuneration are well organized and regulated.)

Positions

Positions

Positions

Manufacturing

Positions

Jobs

Positions

Retail

Positions

Jobs

Positions

Education

Positions

Jobs

Positions

Other

Positions

Jobs

Jobs

Positions: Examples

Positions are typically used by industries that use detailed approval rules, which perform detailed budgeting and maintain head counts, or have high turnover rates.

Retail Industry

ABC Corporation has high turnover. It loses approximately 5% of their cashiers monthly. The job of cashier includes three positions: front line cashier, service desk cashier, and layaway cashier. Each job is cross trained to take over another cashier position. When one cashier leaves from any of the positions, another existing cashier from the front line, service desk or layaway can assist where needed. . But to ensure short lines and customer satisfaction, ABC must replace each cashier lost to turnover.

Since turnover is high in retail it is better for this industry to use positions. There is an automatic vacancy when an employee terminates employment. The position exists even when there are no holders. This is important if the person who leaves the company is a manager or supervisor with direct reports. All direct reports continue reporting to the position even if it is empty. You do not need to reassign these employees to another manager or supervisor; the replacement manager is assigned to the existing position.

Also, an advantage to using positions is that when you hire somebody new many of the attributes are defaulted in from the position. This speeds up the hiring process.

This figure illustrates the retail position setup.

Position example set up for retail
industry

Health Care Industry

The hospital has a structured head count and detailed budgeting. For example, a specific number of surgeons, nurses, and interns of various types are needed. These positions need to be filled in order for the hospital to run smoothly. Use jobs and positions if you need to apply detailed head count rules.

Health care is an industry that needs to regulate employment, roles, and compensation according to strict policies and procedures. Fixed roles tend to endure over time, surviving multiple incumbents. Industries that manage roles rather than individuals, where roles continue to exist after individuals leave, typically model the workforce using positions.

This figure illustrates the hospital position setup.

Position example set up for a health
care industry

Jobs: Example

Jobs are typically used without positions by service industries where flexibility and organizational change are key features.

Software Industry

For example, XYZ Corporation has a director over the departments for developers, quality assurance, and technical writers. Recently, three developers have left the company. The director decides to redirect the head count to other areas. Instead of hiring all three back into development, one person is hired to each department, quality assurance, and technical writing.

In software industries, the organization is fluid. Using jobs gives an enterprise the flexibility to determine where to use head count, because the job only exists through the person performing it. In this example, when the three developers leave XYZ Corporation, their jobs no longer exist, therefore the corporation has the flexibility to move the headcount to other areas.

This figure illustrates the software industry job setup.

Jobs setup example

Job and Position Structures: Explained

Job and position structures identify the descriptive flexfield structure that enables you to specify additional attributes that you want to capture when you define jobs and positions. Job and position attributes provide further detail to make jobs and positions more specific. You also use attributes to define the structure of your jobs and positions. You can specify attributes at the enterprise level for jobs and positions, at the business unit level for positions, and at the reference data set level for jobs. Job and position structures are optional.

Enterprise-Level Job Attributes

When you define a job, you enter a value for the name of the job. To make job names more specific, set up attributes that enable you to identify additional details about the job, such as the nature of the work that is performed or the relative skill level required for the job. If these attributes apply to all jobs within your enterprise, set up enterprise-level job attributes. Standard capabilities mean that you can use the different segments of the name to identify common jobs or job holders for analysis or compensation, or for grouping records in reports, for example, to find all jobs of a specific job type. You should not use attributes with values that change regularly, for example, salary ranges or expense approval levels that change every year.

This figure illustrates how job type and job level provide further details for the HR Application Specialist job.

A figure that illustrates additional
attributes for a job

Enterprise-Level Position Attributes

Position attributes at the enterprise level are similar to those for jobs. Each position that you define identifies a specific role in the enterprise, which you can manage independently of the person in the position, and it will belong to one specific department or organization. The name of each position must be unique. To simplify the process of managing unique names for positions, set up enterprise-level attributes to identify separate components of the position name. For example, you can set up an attribute for position title and one for position number. When defining the attributes that make up the structure of a position name you should also consider if any of your attributes are part of the definition of a common job type. Using job types for a position can help you manage common information that applies to many different positions. For example you can define a job type of Manager.Level 1 and use this for comparison of positions across departments or lines or business, or for setting common job requirements. You can then define multiple manager type positions in your HR department, each of which has responsibility for a different management function or group.

This figure illustrates how title and position number provide further details for the manager position.

A figure that illustrates additional
attributes for a position

Business Unit-Level Attributes for Positions

If you have information that you want to capture for positions that is specific to each business unit, then you can define attributes at the business unit level for positions. When you create positions, these attributes appear in addition to any enterprise-level attributes. For example, you may want to identify the sales region for all positions in the sales business unit. You can set up a text attribute called Sales Region and use it to enter the necessary information when creating positions for the sales business unit.

Reference Data Set-Level Attributes for Jobs

If you have information for jobs that applies to specific reference data sets, set up attributes for jobs at the reference data set level. When you create jobs, these attributes appear in addition to any enterprise-level attributes. For example, you may want to identify all information technology (IT) jobs within a specific set. You can set up a text attribute called Function and use it to enter IT in jobs that you create that perform an IT function within a specific set.

What happens if I don't use the Enterprise Structures Configurator to set up my enterprise structures?

The Enterprise Structures Configurator is an interview-based tool that guides you through setting up divisions, legal entities, business units, and reference data sets. The tool also enables you to assign reference data sets to business units and locations. You can set up multiple configurations to perform what-if scenarios, and then print each configuration to compare the resulting enterprise structure. If you do not use the Enterprise Structures Configurator, then you must set up your enterprise structure using the individual tasks that correspond to each enterprise component. In addition, you will not be able to set up multiple configurations and compare different scenarios. It is recommended that you use the Enterprise Structures Configurator.

What's an ultimate holding company?

The legal entity that represents the top level in your organization hierarchy, as defined by the legal name entered for the enterprise. This designation is used only to create an organization tree, with the ultimate holding company as the top level, divisions and country holding companies as the second level, and legal employers as the third level.

What's the default reference data set?

The reference data set that is assigned to a business unit for all reference data groups, such as grades, locations, departments, and jobs. You can override the default reference data set for any reference data group.

Define Enterprise for Marketing

Enterprise: Explained

An enterprise consists of legal entities under common control and management.

Enterprise Defined

When implementing Oracle Fusion Applications you operate within the context of an enterprise that has already been created in the application for you. This is either a predefined enterprise or an enterprise that has been created in the application by a system administrator.

An enterprise organization captures the name of the deploying enterprise and the location of the headquarters. There is normally a single enterprise organization in a production environment. Multiple enterprises are defined when the system is used to administer multiple customer companies, for example, multiple tenants, or when a customer chooses to set up additional enterprises for testing or development.

Oracle Fusion Applications offers capabilities for multiple tenants to share the same applications instance for some human resources processes. If you offer business process outsourcing services to a set of clients, each of those clients may be represented as an enterprise within an Oracle Fusion Application instance. To support this functionality, system owned reference data such as sequences, sets, and flexfields are also defined within an enterprise.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, an organization classified as an enterprise is defined before defining any other organizations in the HCM Common Organization Model. All other organizations are defined as belonging to an enterprise.

Managing Enterprise Information for Non-Oracle Fusion HCM Users: Explained

The Manage Enterprise HCM Information task includes default settings for your enterprise such as the employment model, worker number generation, and so on. If you are not implementing Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM), then the only action you may need to perform using this task is to change the enterprise name, if necessary. The other settings are HCM-specific and are not relevant outside of Oracle Fusion HCM.

Locations: Explained

A location identifies physical addresses of a workforce structure, such as a department or a job. You can also create locations to enter the addresses of external organizations that you want to maintain, such as employment agencies, tax authorities, and insurance or benefits carriers.

The locations that you create exist as separate structures that you can use for reporting purposes, and also in rules that determine employee eligibility for various types of compensation and benefits. You enter information about a location only once. Subsequently, when you set up other workforce structures you select the location from a list.

Location Sets

When you create a location, you must associate it with a set. Only those users who have access to the set's business unit can access the location set and other associated workforce structure sets, such as those that contain departments and jobs.

You can also associate the location to the common set so that users across your enterprise can access the location irrespective of their business unit. When users search for locations, they can see the locations that they have access to along with the locations in the common set.

The following figure shows how locations sets restrict access to users.

Controlling access to locations using
sets

FAQs for Define Enterprise for Marketing

Why can't I see my location in the search results?

You can search for approved locations only. Also, if you created a location in Oracle Fusion Trading Community Model, then you can't access that location from Oracle Fusion Global Human Resources. For use in Oracle Fusion HCM, you must recreate the location from the Manage Locations page.

What happens if I select a geographic hierarchy node when I'm creating or editing a location?

The calendar events that were created for the geographical node start to apply for the location and may impact the availability of worker assignments at that location. The geographical hierarchy nodes available for selection on the Locations page display from a predefined geographic hierarchy.

What happens if I select an inventory organization when I'm creating or editing a location?

The location is available for selection in purchase documents of that inventory organization in Oracle Fusion Inventory Management. If you don't select an inventory organization, then the location is available in purchase documents across all inventory organizations.

What happens if I inactivate a location?

Starting from the effective date that you entered, you can no longer associate the location with other workforce structures, assignments, or applications. If the location is already in use, it will continue to be available to the components that currently use it.

How can I associate a location with an inventory organization?

From the Manage Locations page in Oracle Fusion Global Human Resources.

To appear on the Create or Edit Location pages, your inventory organization must be effective on today's date and must exist in the location set that you selected.

Define Geographies

Defining Address Cleansing: Explained

Address cleansing provides a way to validate, correct, and standardize addresses that are entered in a user interface. Geography validation only validates the geography attributes of an address, for example, State, City, and Postal codes; address cleansing validates both the geography attributes and the address line attributes.

Address cleansing can only be used through the Oracle Fusion Trading Community Data Quality product, because the feature is delivered using Data Quality integration. You need to ensure that you have a license for the countries that will use Trading Community Data Quality data cleansing.

You can specify the real time address cleansing level for each country by choosing either None, meaning that there is no real time address cleansing, or by choosing Optional, meaning that you will have the choice to cleanse addresses. Once you have enabled address cleansing for a country a Verify Address icon appears at address entry points in the application. You can then click the icon to perform address cleansing and receive a corrected, standardized address. If Trading Community Data Quality does not find a matching address the application will alert you.

Geography Structure, Hierarchy, and Validation: How They Fit Together

There are three components that are dependent on each other when defining a country: geography structure, geography hierarchy, and geography validation. Every country has to have the geography structure defined first before the hierarchy can be defined, and the geography hierarchy has to be defined before the validation can be defined.

Geography Structure

Firstly, you need to create a geography structure for each country to define which geography types are part of the country structure, and how the geography types are hierarchically related within the country structure. For example, you can create geography types called State, City, and Postal Code. Then you can rank the State geography type as the highest level within the country, the City as the second level, and the Postal Code as the lowest level within the country structure. Geography structure can be defined using the Manage Geographies task, or can be imported using tasks in the Define Geographies activity.

Geography Hierarchy

Once the geography structure is defined, the geographies for each geography type can be added to the hierarchy. For example, below the United States you can create a geography called California using a State geography type.

As part of managing the geography hierarchy you can view, create, edit, and delete the geographies for each geography type in the country structure. You can also add a primary and alternate name and code for each geography. A geography hierarchy can be created using the Manage Geographies task, or can be imported using tasks in the Define Geographies activity.

Geography Validation

After defining the geography hierarchy, you need to specify the geography validations for the country. You can choose which address style formats you would like to use for the country, and for each selected address style format you can map geography types to address attributes. You can also select which geography types should be included in geography or tax validation, and which geography types will display in a list of values during address entry in other user interfaces. The geography validation level for the country, such as error or warning, can also be selected.

Geography Structures: Explained

A geography structure is a hierarchical grouping of geography types for a country. For example, the geography structure for the United States is the geography type of State at the top, then followed by the County, then the City, and finally the Postal Code.

You can use the geography structure to establish:

How Geographies Can Be Related

You can determine how a country's geographies are hierarchically related by creating the hierarchy of the geography types in the geography structure. When you define a country's structure the country geography type is implicitly at the top of the geography structure, and the numbering of the subsequent levels start with 1 as the next geography level after country.

You must add a geography type as a level in the country structure before you can define a geography for that geography type in a country. For example, before defining the state of California, the State geography type must be added to the United States country structure. Only one geography type can be used for each level, you cannot define more than one geography type at the same level.

Note

After you first define a country structure you can only add geography types below the current lowest level, and delete geography types without defined geographies.

To simplify the creation of a country structure you can copy a structure from another country, and then amend the geography type hierarchy for the country.

The Types of Geographies You Can Define for the Country

The application provides you with a set of available master reference geography types. If required, you can create a geography type before adding it to the country structure. Each geography type is added below the current lowest level.

Note

If you want to delete a geography type that is not at the lowest level in the country structure, then you have to delete the geography type level and all the levels below it.

A geography type that you create within the country structure can be used for other country structures as well.

Geography Hierarchy: Explained

Geography hierarchy is a data model that lets you establish conceptual parent-child relationships between geographies. A geography, such as Tokyo or Peru, describes a boundary on the surface of the earth. The application can extrapolate information based on this network of hierarchical geographical relationships.

For example, in the geography hierarchy the state of California is defined as the parent of San Mateo county, which is the parent of Redwood City, which is the parent of the postal code 94065. If you enter just 94065, the application can determine that the postal code is in California, or that the corresponding city is Redwood City.

The application leverages geography hierarchy information to facilitate business processes that rely on geography information, for example, tax calculation, order sourcing rules, sales territory definition. The geography hierarchy information is centrally located in the Trading Community Model and shared among other application offerings.

The top level of the geography hierarchy is Country, so the hierarchy essentially contains countries and their child geographies. Other aspects of the geography hierarchy include:

Geography

A geography is a boundary such as a country, state, province or city. It is a physical space with boundaries that is a defined instance of a geography type. For example, San Jose is a geography of the City geography type.

Geography Type

Geography types are a divisional grouping of geographies, which can be either geopolitical (for example, City, Province, and District) or user defined (for example, Continent, Country Regions, Tax Regions).

Geography Usage

Geography usage indicates how a geography type or geography is used in the application. A master reference geography always has the usage of Master Reference. User defined zones can have the usages of Tax, Shipping, or Territory, based on what is relevant for their purpose.

Master Reference Geography Hierarchy

The geography hierarchy data is considered to be the single source of truth for geographies. It is all the data, including geography types and geographies, that you define and maintain in the Trading Community Model tables.

The geography usage for the entire hierarchy is the master reference, and defined geography types and geographies are considered as master reference geography types and geographies. For example, Country is a universally recognized geography type, and United States is considered a master geography.

User Defined Zones

User defined zones are a collection of geographical data, created from master reference data for a specific purpose. For example, territory zones are collections of master reference geographies ordered in a hierarchy. Tax and shipping zones are collections of master reference geographies without a hierarchical grouping.

Geography Validation: Explained

Geography validation determines the geography mapping and validation for a country's address styles, as well as the overall geography validation control for a country.

The No Styles Format address style format is the default address style format for a country. By defining the mapping and validation for this format you will ensure that validations can be performed for any address in the country. After the No Styles Format is defined you can set up additional mapping for specific address styles.

For each address style format, you can define the following:

Map to Attribute

For every address style format, you can map each geography type to an address attribute. For example, you can map the State geography type to the State address attribute for the United States, or map the State geography type to the County address attribute for the United Kingdom. The geography types that appear are based on how the country structure is defined. The list of address attributes that appear are based on address formats delivered with the application, or your customer defined address formats.

Note

You only need to map geography types that you want to use for geography or tax validation purposes.

Enable List of Values

Once a geography type is mapped to an attribute, then you can specify whether the geography type will appear in a list of values during address entry in user interfaces. It is very important to review carefully if you want to enable a list of values. You should only enable a list of values if you have sufficient geography data imported or created for that geography. Once you have enabled a list of values for an address attribute, you can only select the geography data available for the geography type. This means that if a specific geography value is not available in the geography hierarchy, you cannot create an address with a different geography value.

Tax Validation

You can also specify whether a geography type will be included in tax validation. For example, for the United States North America address style format you specify that County, State, and City are used for tax validation. This will mean that when a transaction involves an address with the North America address style, the address must have the correct county, state, and city combination based on the geography hierarchy data, to be considered valid for tax calculation.

Geography Validation

You can specify whether a geography type will be included in geography validation. This will mean that, for example, when the user enters a United States address using the North America address style format, the address must have the correct country, state, and postal code combination based on geography hierarchy data to be considered geographically valid.

If an address element is mapped to a geography type, but not selected for geography validation usage, then suggested values can be provided for that address element during address entry, but that element is not validated.

Note

For either the tax or geography validation, do not skip more than one consecutive level unless you are certain that the selected geography types can uniquely identify geographies. For example, the United States country structure is: State, County, City, and Postal Code, and you want to select just State and Postal Code for geography or tax validation. However, for the combination of California and 94065, the city can be either Redwood Shores or Redwood City. In this case, you should also select at least the City geography type for geography or tax validation.

Geography Validation Control

You can select the geography validation level for a country. Validation will check if the entered address maps to the geography hierarchy data available for the country, and the geography validation control determines whether you can save an address that did not pass validation during address entry. For example, if the validation level is Warning, then an address can still be saved if the values do not match the geography hierarchy data.

These are the geography validation levels you can choose:

Regardless of the result of validation, the validation process will try to map any address attribute to a geography of the country, and store any mapping it could establish based on the available data. This is called Geography Name Referencing and it is executed as part of validation. The result of this referencing is used in several business processes in the application to map an address to a specific geography or zone.

Zone Types and Zones: Explained

You can create zone types and zones for the use of defining boundaries to be used in, for example, tax or shipping zones.

In order to create a zone boundary you need to define the following:

Zone Types

Zone types categorize and group zones together, for example, the zone types of Income Tax and Shipping Regions.

Zone types need to be created before you define a zone for the geographical boundary. You can create a zone type which will contain geographical boundaries from anywhere in the world, or you can create a zone type that will only contain geographies from within a specified country. When you create a zone type that is bounded by a country you can define which geography types or geographies you will be able to choose when you create a zone.

Zones

After you have created the zone type click Next and you will be able to add zones. Zones are geographical boundaries for a zone type, for example, the San Jose Tax zone. Zones are based on the master reference geography hierarchy data.

Zones are created within a zone type, and you can associate geographies to define the zone. For example, for the Shipping Regions zone type you can create a West Coast zone which has the state of California as one of its geographies. Within a geography you can specify a postal range. So for the state of California, for example, you can specify that the zone spans from postal code 90001 to 90011.

Zone Hierarchy: Explained

Using the territory manager zone hierarchy you can build a zone hierarchy by creating zones and zone types, and by adding master reference geographies. The zones, master geographies, and hierarchies can then be used, for example, by Territory Management to define a sales region or geographical boundary that is allocated to a salesperson.

In a zone hierarchy you can do the following:

Create Zone Types

When you are creating a zone you need to specify a zone type. Zone types categorize and group zones together, for example, an APAC zone type. You will need to choose if the zone is part of an existing zone type, or if not, then you will need to create a new zone type. After you have created or added a zone type to the zone you can enter the zone name, the zone code name, and the zone's effective dates

Create Zones and Add to a Hierarchy

You can create zones to describe geographical boundaries, for example, the Singapore Sales zone and the Southwest Sales Region zone. Zones can be placed below another zone or geography in the hierarchy, and geographies can be placed below a zone.

Move Zones or Geographies

You can move existing zones or geographies into your hierarchy. You can select the zone or geography you want the zone to appear below, and then select an existing zone that you want to move. The zone and all its child records will appear below the zone or geography you selected.

Add Geographies to a Hierarchy

You can create a hierarchy using the geographies from the master reference geography hierarchy data, and you can also add geographies to hierarchies created from zones.

When you are adding a geography to a hierarchy you have the option of either adding just the geography, or you can add the geography and selected child geographies. All the child geographies you select will automatically be added to the hierarchy, and will reflect the master reference geographical hierarchy. For example, when adding the United Kingdom geography to a hierarchy you can select that all the counties and postal codes will be added. When the hierarchy is generated the counties will be the level above the postal codes.

Note

You cannot have the same geography in more than one hierarchy.

Define Geographies: Define File-Based Data Import

Files, Import Objects, Mapping, and Import Activity Components: How They Work Together

File-based import supports the import of data from an external text or xml file to interface tables and then from interface tables to target application tables.

Overview of File-Based Data Import

File-based import includes the following:

Source Files

External data can be obtained in various ways and formatted in a text or xml file. The source file data is mapped to interface table columns using a Mapping. The source file is identified on an Import Activity, along with other import processing details. The file processing component of the file-based data import consists of reading the source file, parsing the data, and inserting the data into the appropriate interface tables.

Objects

Import objects are defined where interface tables exist and external files can be used to import data into the interface tables. Import Object definitions for Oracle objects that support file-based import are predefined and can be accessed with the appropriate security privilege. Individual object attributes represent the interface table columns and are used to map source file data or constant values in Mappings and Import Activity definitions. Use the Import Object definition to manage the display of attributes that can be mapped, to indicate required mappings, and to set site level default values as required.

Mappings

Import mapping enables you to predefine a mapping between the columns provided in a source file and the attributes pertaining to the objects being imported. Once you create a mapping, it can be reused in the Import Activity definition.

Manage Import Activities

An Import Activity definition provides the instructions for the import processing. It includes the source file or file location and mapping, plus import processing options and schedule. You can monitor the progress of the Import Activity processing and view completion reports for both successful records and errors.

File-Based Import Processing: How it Works

The file-based data import process includes processing the source file data and inserting it into the interface tables, moving the interface table data into the destination application tables, and then processing the attachments for the imported objects. Processing factors are subject to the settings defined for the Import Activity, Mapping, and Import Object. You can monitor the processing steps and view process reports for each Import Activity.

This topic describes the following:

Inserting Data in the Interface Tables

Data exists in various sources and in various formats. The file import processing starts with reading the source data, parsing the data, and inserting into the appropriate interface tables. The source of the data comes from the following:

Interface Table Data Validation and Error Counts

The data is initially validated against the predefined Import Mapping and the Import Object settings as the interface tables are being populated by the initial file import process. The interface table data is validated again before importing into the destination application tables.

Interface Table to Destination Application Table Processing

The import process orchestrates the import for each of the component objects that make up the overall main objects of the Import Activity.

Importing Attachments

Once the objects have imported successfully, the attachments are processed. The import process matches the source file attachment name to the file name included in the compressed file entered on the Import Activity. The attachment file is imported into Universal Content Manager and then associated as an attachment to the imported object.

Viewing Import Results

You can monitor all file-based Import Activities that are currently scheduled to run, have completed successfully, or failed with errors. For each Import Activity, you can view the details pertaining to each underlying process. Once an Import Activity process has completed, the following processing reports are added as attachments to the process:

File-Based Import Objects: Explained

Import objects represent the application and attribute information for business objects that can be imported using external source files.

This topic describes the following:

Import Object Management Options

A single import object can have multiple associated components that are considered objects by themselves. An object and associated objects that can be imported within the same source file are grouped together within the application module class.

Note

Each object includes the Import Activity object (MktImpJobs1). The Import Activity object is a required component of the application module but is not mapped to a source file. All values for this object are derived from the Import Activity definition. Consequently, do not update the Map, Required, and Default Value settings for the Import Activity object.

The following table includes information about the import object:


Option

Description

Attributes

A view-only listing of object attributes that represent each column in the interface table for the object.

Length

A view-only listing of widths for the columns in the interface tables. If the source file values for the attribute have more characters than the attribute length, the source file row will not be imported.

Default Value

Optionally, specify an attribute value to use if a value is not available from the source file or Import Activity constant value.

Map

Enable the list of attributes that can be mapped to a source file or constant value in the Import Mapping and Import Activity Map Fields step.

Required

Specify the list of attributes that must be mapped to source file columns. Consequently, if you have selected an attribute as required, you must also enable the Map option for that attribute.

When mapping the external source file, the required target attribute defined for the object are displayed with an asterisk.

Custom Objects

To use the file-based import feature for custom objects, you must first generate the artifacts required for import. You generate these required artifacts within Oracle Fusion CRM Application Composer, after making your object model extensions.

File-Based Import Mapping: Explained

Import mapping enables you to predefine a mapping between the columns provided in a source file and the attributes pertaining to the objects being imported. Once you create a mapping, it can be reused in the Import Activity definition.

This topic contains the following sections:

Import Options

The following attributes pertain to the import mapping.


Attribute

Description

Object

The business object to be imported.

Name

The name that identifies the mapping in the Import Mapping and Import Activity UIs. If the mapping was initially created while mapping fields directly in the Import Activity user interface and automatically saved without providing a user-defined mapping name, the mapping name is derived from the Import Activity name and date.

Decimal Separator

The format of the fractional portion of numerical values in columns mapped to attributes with a decimal attribute type.

Date Format

The format of values in columns mapped to attributes with a date attribute type.

Timestamp Format

The format of values in columns mapped to attributes with a time stamp attribute type.

Lock

If selected, prevents any user, other than the creator of the mapping, from editing the mapping.

Source File Options

Map each column that the source file is expected to contain with a specific attribute.

The following table describes the details pertaining to columns provided in the source file:


Source Column

Description

Sequence

The sequence number in which the columns are expected to be provided in the source file. Two rows cannot have the same sequence number.

Column Name

The column name expected in the source file if a header row is included, or more generic values such as Column A, Column B, and so on, if the header row is not included for Text file types.

The tagging structure is represented for XML file types.

Column Width

Use when the delimiter value is fixed width for Text file types only.

Ignore

Ignore the source file column to exclude the data from being imported.

Required

If selected, a value must exist in the source file or the row will not be imported.

Target Options

The following table describes the details pertaining to corresponding attributes in the target application table:


Target Attributes

Description

Object

The group of import objects that represent the components of the business object being imported.

Attribute

The attribute name that represents the corresponding interface table column for the object.

Duplicate Validation

If selected, the attribute, along with other selected attributes, determines what constitutes a duplicate object when comparing objects in the interface tables and existing objects in the target application tables. For example, to validate the uniqueness of an object in the target application tables by the combination of an object's name and date, select Duplicate Validation for both attributes in the mapping.

Import Activity Source File Options: Explained

The Import Activity consists of a step by step guided process to assist you with creating an import activity for a given object.

This topic describes the source file options defined in the Import Activity that are used by the import process to locate and parse the source file data.

Source File Data

Enter attribute details pertaining to the source file as follows:


Option

Description

File Type

Source file must be either Text or XML.

Data Type, Delimiter, and Header Row Included

A Text file type can further be defined based on how the data is delimited and if the source file is expected to include a row of headings for each column.

Import Mapping

Displays a list of predefined mappings for the object selected for this import activity. The selected mapping will be used as the basis for mapping your source file in the next Import Activity step.

Source File Location

The following outlines the options that are available to you when locating your source file for import.


Option

Description

File Selection

Select from the following file selections:

  • Specific file

    Enables you to upload a specific source file from a local file system, such as your desktop, a URL address, or from a network path. A file name is required for this option.

  • Most recent file

    Enables you to schedule repeating import activities without having to select a new file every time. This selection is only available when you select Network from the Upload From options.

    You need to copy the new file to the specified network path for repeating import activities. You do not need to enter a file name for this option and can only upload your source file from a network path. The asterisk wildcard is supported for multiple characters. The question mark wildcard is supported for a single character.

Upload From

You can upload the source file from three locations:

  • Desktop

  • URL

  • Network

If you select Desktop, a File Name field with an associated Update button is displayed. Click Update and browse to search for and select the file you want to upload.

If you select URL, enter the address location as in the following example format: http://www.example.com/

If you select Network, enter the file name path as in the following example format: \ComputerName\SharedFolder\Resource\

Note

If you selected the Specific File as your file selection option, then you will have to include the file name for both URL and Network file path locations.

Import Activity Attachment Options: Explained

Many objects can have multiple documents attached to it. The File Import Activity process allows you to import the documents attached to a specific object.

In the Summary section enter an import activity name and description and the primary object for which you want to import data from a source file. The list of objects displayed is controlled by your data security privileges. This topic describes how to define the attachment options pertaining to the import activity.

Attachments

As part of the file attachment import process setup, you must:

Selecting Documents

You define the parameters for the import activity to include the primary object for which the data is included in the source file. If the object being imported has attachments, you will need perform an additional step of selecting documents that serve as attachments for each record being imported in the Attachments section. Select the Multiple Files option and then click on Browse to display the Universal Content Manager (UCM). From here you can select individual documents that serve as attachments or a single file that contains all these documents as follows:

Browse through the file system and select multiples files from across various folders. You must select all attachments in one operation. For example, you cannot select a few files now and then return later to select more attachments files.

Import Activity Import Options: Explained

The File Import Activity consists of a step by step guided process to assist you with creating an import activity for a given object.

This topic describes the import options defined in the Import Activity that are used by the import process to interpret source file data and import interface table data into the target application tables.

Source File Data Transformation

The following options are used to identify the formatting of source file data so the data can be correctly interpreted and transformed by the import process:


Option

Description

Decimal Separator

The format of the fractional portion of numerical values in columns mapped to attributes with a decimal attribute type.

Date Format

The format for values in columns mapped to attributes with a date attribute type.

Time Stamp Format

The format for values in columns mapped to attributes with a time stamp attribute type.

File Encoding

The overall encoding of the characters within the file.

Interface to Target Import Options

The following options are used when importing the interface table information to the target application tables:


Option

Description

Import Mode

Determines if the Import Activity process should create new records or update existing records.

If updating existing records, the record IDs must be provided in the source file. If an existing record is not found, a new record is created. Update mode is not supported for all import objects. Consequently, the Import Mode is set to Create and is not updatable for those objects.

If creating new records, the import process evaluates the data in the interface tables with existing objects in the target application tables for possible duplicates. Customer Data Management objects are evaluated using the rules defined in the set of Matching Configurations. All other objects are evaluated using the combination of attributes selected for duplicate validation in the predefined Import Mapping.

Allowable Error Count

An error count above the threshold will stop the import process for all records. If the error count is below the threshold, records without errors are imported. In either case, records with errors will be reported in the Error and Exception files.

Validation errors include:

  • Missing required values

  • Values that exceed the attribute length

  • Invalid identifiers and lookup codes

  • Duplicates to existing records in the destination tables based on the combination of attributes selected for duplicate validation in the predefined Import Mapping

Duplicates found using matching configurations for Customer Data Management objects do not contribute to the error count.

Notification E-Mail

The e-mail of the intended recipient of import processing notifications.

Customer Data Management Duplicates

Consumer, customer, and legal entity objects imported by themselves or as components of another object are subject to duplicate verification. The duplicates are determined using the following matching configurations:

  • Batch Location Basic Duplicate Identification

  • Batch Person Basic Duplicate Identification

  • Batch Organization Basic Duplicate Identification

You can select from one of the following:

  • Do Not Import Duplicate Records

    If the main object of the Import Activity is a consumer, customer, or a legal entity object, rows that are matched to existing records will not be imported. These duplicates records are reported in the Exception and Error reports.

    If the Customer Data Management objects are components of another object and one or more matches are found, the existing duplicate records are evaluated to determine the most recent record. The most recent record will be associated with the main object being imported.

    For example, when importing a marketing response object, the consumer object is also a component of the response. If the consumer is matched to an existing record, the consumer in the interface tables is not imported. However, the response object will import and the most recent existing consumer record will be associated to the response.

  • Import Duplicate Records

    The Customer Data Management objects will be imported even if matched records exist.

  • Import Duplicate Records and Create Resolution Request

    The Customer Data Management objects will be imported even if matched records exist. In addition, a duplicate resolution request is created and displayed in the Customer Data Management, Duplicate Resolution work area.

Duplicate Look Back Days

This option applies only to the Lead import object. Only existing leads created within the period determined by the look back days value are evaluated for duplicates based on the attributes selected for duplicate validation in the predefined import mapping. If a duplicate is found, the lead will not be imported and the duplicate record will be reported on the Exception report. Duplicate leads are included in the calculation of the allowable error count threshold.

Import Activity Field Mapping: Explained

After entering your import options, the second step of the import activity process is to map fields in the source file to the corresponding target attributes.

This topic explains:

Map Fields

The Map Fields section can be subdivided into source file columns and target attribute columns.

The source column header value is derived from one of the following:

The following table outlines the source columns:


Source Column

Description

Column Header

Represents the column header for Text file types and the tagging structure for XML file types.

Example Value

Values are derived from the first source file saved with the predefined mapping. If you did not select a predefined mapping, the example values are taken from the first data row in the source file selected in the first step of the Import Activity definition.

Ignore

Select this option if you do not want to import the source file data in that column.

The following table outlines the target columns:


Target Column

Description

Object

The group of import objects that represent the components of the business object being imported.

Attribute

The attribute name that represents the corresponding interface table column for the object.

Saving the Import Mapping

The mapping between source file information and target attributes is saved as a reusable mapping when the Import Activity is saved, using the import activity name and date to derive a mapping name. If you selected a predefined mapping, modifications made in the Import Activity to an unlocked mapping will update and save to the predefined mapping. If the predefined mapping is locked, a modified mapping will be saved as a new mapping. To specify a mapping name for new mappings, select the Save As option from the Map Fields Actions menu.

Constant Values

Constant values provide a way to specify a value for a target attribute that all imported objects will inherit. For example, if a source file does not contain a column for business unit and all of the objects in the file belong to the same business unit, enter a constant value for the object and business unit attribute.

File-Based Import Monitoring: Explained

You can monitor all file import activities that are currently scheduled to run, have completed successfully, or failed with errors. For each import activity, you can view the details pertaining to each underlying process and make necessary updates for any failed records to import again.

You can view the list of import activities from the Manage Import Activities page. Select the import activity that you want to monitor by clicking on the hyperlink in the corresponding Status column. The View Import Status results page is displayed which contains the following sections:

Files Processed

The Files Processed section displays a row for each source file that is processed.

The import processing details are summarized and displayed for each source file and include the following:


File Processing Summary Information

Description

Records Read From File

The number of records read from the source file.

Format Errors

The number of errors found when processing data to insert into the interface tables from the source file, Import Activity constants, and Import Object value default values. View the error details in the Exception and Error files attached to the process.

Load Errors

The number of errors found when importing data from the interface tables to the destination application tables. View the error details in the Exception and Error files attached to the process.

Successfully Loaded

The number of import objects imported to the application destination tables. If the import object is made up of multiple components, each component is counted as successfully loaded. Consequently the Successfully Loaded count may be larger than the Records Read From File count. View the successful record details in the Log file attached to the process.

Attachments

Once an Import Activity process has completed, processing reports are included in the Attachments column. The Log file includes the records that were successfully imported plus the unique destination application table identifiers for the objects. The Exception file includes the records that were not imported plus a reference to one of the errors for each record that failed. The Error file includes all the errors for each record that failed validation.

Import Processes

From the Import Processes section, you can view details pertaining to each process involved in importing the objects in the source file. A listing of brief messages provides information on processing steps within each underlying process.

Define Geographies: FAQs for File-Based Data Import

What determines the list of objects displayed?

A single import object can have multiple associated components that are considered objects by themselves. Whether or not an associated object can be grouped as a component of another object for the purpose of file import is determined by the complexity of the object structure and how it is stored in the data model. Oracle Fusion provides import objects predefined to meet the file processing import requirements. Consequently, in some cases, more than one source file may be required to capture all associated components of an object.

What happens if I inactivate an Import Activity?

The Import Activity will not stop the currently running process. However, it will stop the next process that has not started plus any future repeating file import activities. You can always activate the process at a later stage.

What happens if I add a marketing list in the Import Activity definition?

File-based data import enables you to record consumers and organization contacts in a marketing list when importing consumer, lead, and response import objects. Select an existing list or create a new one. A marketing list is assigned the list type value of Imported if created while defining an import activity. After the objects are imported successfully, the consumers and contacts are added as members of the marketing list.

Define Legal Entities for Marketing

Legal Entities: Explained

A legal entity is a recognized party with rights and responsibilities given by legislation.

Legal entities have the right to own property, the right to trade, the responsibility to repay debt, and the responsibility to account for themselves to regulators, taxation authorities, and owners according to rules specified in the relevant legislation. Their rights and responsibilities may be enforced through the judicial system. Define a legal entity for each registered company or other entity recognized in law for which you want to record assets, liabilities, and income, pay transaction taxes, or perform intercompany trading.

A legal entity has responsibility for elements of your enterprise for the following reasons:

The Role of Your Legal Entities

In configuring your enterprise structure in Oracle Fusion Applications, you need to understand that the contracting party on any transaction is always the legal entity. Individual legal entities own the assets of the enterprise, record sales and pay taxes on those sales, make purchases and incur expenses, and perform other transactions.

Legal entities must comply with the regulations of jurisdictions, in which they register. Europe now allows for companies to register in one member country and do business in all member countries, and the US allows for companies to register in one state and do business in all states. To support local reporting requirements, legal reporting units are created and registered.

You are required to publish specific and periodic disclosures of your legal entities' operations based on different jurisdictions' requirements. Certain annual or more frequent accounting reports are referred to as statutory or external reporting. These reports must be filed with specified national and regulatory authorities. For example, in the United States (US), your publicly owned entities (corporations) are required to file quarterly and annual reports, as well as other periodic reports, with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), who enforces statutory reporting requirements for public corporations.

Individual entities privately held or held by public companies do not have to file separately. In other countries, your individual entities do have to file in their own name, as well as at the public group level. Disclosure requirements are diverse. For example, your local entities may have to file locally to comply with local regulations in a local currency, as well as being included in your enterprise's reporting requirements in different currency.

A legal entity can represent all or part of your enterprise's management framework. For example, if you operate in a large country such as the United Kingdom or Germany, you might incorporate each division in the country as a separate legal entity. In a smaller country, for example Austria, you might use a single legal entity to host all of your business operations across divisions.

Legal Entity in Oracle Fusion: Points to Consider

Oracle Fusion Applications support the modeling of your legal entities. If you make purchases from or sell to other legal entities, define these other legal entities in your customer and supplier registers, which are part of the Oracle Fusion Trading Community Architecture. When your legal entities are trading with each other, you represent both of them as legal entities and also as customers and suppliers in your customer and supplier registers. Use legal entity relationships to determine which transactions are intercompany and require intercompany accounting. Your legal entities can be identified as legal employers and therefore, are available for use in Human Capital Management (HCM) applications.

There are several decisions that need to be considered in creating your legal entities.

The Importance of Legal Entity in Transactions

All of the assets of the enterprise are owned by individual legal entities. Oracle Fusion Financials allow your users to enter legal entities on transactions that represent a movement in value or obligation.

For example, the creation of a sales order creates an obligation for the legal entity that books the order to deliver the goods on the acknowledged date, and an obligation of the purchaser to receive and pay for those goods. Under contract law in most countries, damages can be sought for both actual losses, putting the injured party in the same state as if they had not entered into the contract, and what is called loss of bargain, or the profit that would have made on a transaction.

In another example, if you revalued your inventory in a warehouse to account for raw material price increases, the revaluation and revaluation reserves must be reflected in your legal entity's accounts. In Oracle Fusion Applications, your inventory within an inventory organization is managed by a single business unit and belongs to one legal entity.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Business Units

A business unit can process transactions on behalf of many legal entities. Frequently, a business unit is part of a single legal entity. In most cases the legal entity is explicit on your transactions. For example, a payables invoice has an explicit legal entity field. Your accounts payables department can process supplier invoices on behalf of one or many business units.

In some cases, your legal entity is inferred from your business unit that is processing the transaction. For example, your business unit A agrees on terms for the transfer of inventory to your business unit B. This transaction is binding on your default legal entities assigned to each business unit. Oracle Fusion Procurement, Oracle Fusion Projects, and Oracle Fusion Supply Chain applications rely on deriving the legal entity information from the business unit.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Divisions

The division is an area of management responsibility that can correspond to a collection of legal entities. If desired, you can aggregate the results for your divisions by legal entity or by combining parts of other legal entities. Define date-effective hierarchies for your cost center or legal entity segment in your chart of accounts to facilitate the aggregation and reporting by division. Divisions and legal entities are independent concepts.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Ledgers

One of your major responsibilities is to file financial statements for your legal entities. Map legal entities to specific ledgers using the Oracle Fusion General Ledger Accounting Configuration Manager. Within a ledger, you can optionally map a legal entity to one or more balancing segment values.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Balancing Segments

Oracle Fusion General Ledger supports up to three balancing segments, Best practices recommend that one of these segments represents your legal entity to ease your requirement to account for your operations to regulatory agencies, tax authorities, and investors. Accounting for your operations means you must produce a balanced trial balance sheet by legal entity. If you account for many legal entities in a single ledger, you must:

  1. Identify the legal entities within the ledger

  2. Balance transactions that cross legal entity boundaries through intercompany transactions

  3. Decide which balancing segments correspond to each legal entity and assign them in Oracle Fusion General Ledger Accounting Configuration Manager. Once you assign one balancing segment value in a ledger, then all your balancing segment values must be assigned. This recommended best practice facilitates reporting on assets, liabilities, and income by legal entity.

Represent your legal entities by at least one balancing segment value. You may represent it by two or three balancing segment values if more granular reporting is required. For example, if your legal entity operates in multiple jurisdictions in Europe, you might define balancing segment values and map them to legal reporting units. You can represent a legal entity by more than one balancing segment value, do not use a single balancing segment value to represent more than one legal entity.

In Oracle Fusion General Ledger, there are three balancing segments. You can use separate balancing segments to represent your divisions or strategic business units to enable management reporting at the balance sheet level for each division or business unit. For example, use this solution to empower your business unit and divisional managers to track and assume responsibility for their asset utilization or return on investment. Using multiple balancing segments is also useful when you know at the time of implementation that you are disposing of a part of a legal entity and need to isolate the assets and liabilities for that entity.

Note

Implementing multiple balancing segments requires every journal entry that is not balanced by division or business unit, to generate balancing lines. Also, you cannot change to multiple balancing segments easily after you have begun to use the ledger because your historical data is not balanced by the new multiple balancing segments. Restating historical data must be done at that point.

To use this feature for disposal of a part of a legal entity, implement multiple balancing segments at the beginning of the legal entity's corporate life or on conversion to Oracle Fusion.

If you decided to account for each legal entity in a separate ledger, there is no requirement to identify the legal entity with a balancing segment value within the ledger.

Note

While transactions that cross balancing segments don't necessarily cross legal entity boundaries, all transactions that cross legal entity boundaries must cross balancing segments. If you make an acquisition or are preparing to dispose of a portion of your enterprise, you may want to account for that part of the enterprise in its own balancing segment even if it is not a separate legal entity. If you do not map legal entities sharing the same ledger to balancing segments, you will not be able to distinguish them using the intercompany functionality or track their individual equity.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Consolidation Rules

In Oracle Fusion Applications you can map legal entities to balancing segments and then define consolidation rules using your balancing segments. You are creating a relationship between the definition of your legal entities and their role in your consolidation.

Legal Entity and its Relationship to Intercompany Transactions

Use Oracle Fusion Intercompany functionality for automatic creation of intercompany entries across your balancing segments. Intercompany processing updates legal ownership within the enterprise's groups of legal entities. Invoices or journals are created as needed. To limit the number of trading pairs for your enterprise, set up intercompany organizations and assign then to your authorized legal entities. Define processing options and intercompany accounts to use when creating intercompany transactions and to assist in consolidation elimination entries. These accounts are derived and automatically entered on your intercompany transactions based on legal entities assigned to your intercompany organizations.

Intracompany trading, in which legal ownership isn't changed but other organizational responsibilities are, is also supported. For example, you can track assets and liabilities that move between your departments within your legal entities by creating departmental level intercompany organizations.

Note

In the Oracle Fusion Supply Chain applications, model intercompany relationships using business units, from which legal entities are inferred.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Worker Assignments and Legal Employer

Legal entities that employ people are called legal employers in the Oracle Fusion Legal Entity Configurator. You must enter legal employers on worker assignments in Oracle Fusion HCM.

Legal Entity and Payroll Reporting

Your legal entities are required to pay payroll tax and social insurance such as social security on your payroll. In Oracle Fusion Applications, you can register payroll statutory units to pay and report on payroll tax and social insurance on behalf of many of your legal entities. As the legal employer, you might be required to pay payroll tax, not only at the national level, but also at the local level. You meet this obligation by establishing your legal entity as a place of work within the jurisdiction of a local authority. Set up legal reporting units to represent the part of your enterprise with a specific legal reporting obligation. You can also mark these legal reporting units as tax reporting units if the legal entity must pay taxes as a result of establishing a place of business within the jurisdiction.

HCM Organization Models: Examples

These examples illustrate different models for human capital management (HCM) organizations. Each example includes a legislative data group (LDG). LDGs are not an organization classification, but they are included in the example to show how you associate them with a payroll statutory unit to partition payroll data.

Simple Configuration

This example illustrates a simple configuration that does not include any tax reporting units. The legal employer and payroll statutory units are the same, sharing the same boundaries. Reporting can only be done at a single level. Countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) might use this type of model, as reporting in these countries is done at the legal entity level.

This figure illustrates a simple configuration where the enterprise has only one legal entity that is both a payroll statutory unit and a legal employer.

An enterprise with one legal entity
that is also a payroll statutory unit and a legal employer. The legal
entity is associated with one legislative data group.

Multiple Legal Employers and Tax Reporting Units Under One Payroll Statutory Unit

This example illustrates a more complex configuration. In this enterprise, one legal entity, InFusion US, is defined as a payroll statutory unit and has two separate legal entities, which are also legal employers. This model shows multiple legal employers that are associated with a single payroll statutory unit, and how tax reporting units are always associated with a specific legal employer (or employers) through the payroll statutory unit. The implication is that payroll statutory reporting boundaries vary from human resources (HR) management, and the balances can be categorized separately by either payroll statutory unit, legal employer, or tax reporting unit. This configuration is based on tax filing requirements, as some tax-related payments and reports are associated with a higher level than employers. An example of a country that might use this model is the US.

This figure illustrates an enterprise that has one payroll statutory unit and multiple legal employers and tax reporting units.

An enterprise with one payroll statutory
unit, two legal entities that are also legal employers, and two tax
reporting units

One Payroll Statutory Unit and Two Tax Reporting Units That Are Subsidiaries of the Legal Entity

This model makes no distinction between a legal employer and a payroll statutory unit. Tax reporting units are defined as subsidiaries to the legal entity. In this enterprise, legal entity is the highest level of aggregation for payroll calculations and reporting, and statutory reporting boundaries are assumed to be the same for both payroll and HR management. An example of a country that might use this model is France.

This figure illustrates an example of an organization with one legal entity that is both a legal employer and a payroll statutory unit and that has two tax reporting units.

An organization that has one legal
entity that is both a payroll statutory unit and legal employer and
has two tax reporting units.

One Payroll Statutory Unit with Several Tax Reporting Units That Are Independent from the Legal Employer

In this model, the enterprise has one legal entity, and legal employers and tax reporting units are independent from each other within a payroll statutory unit, because there is no relationship from a legal perspective. Therefore, you can run reporting on both entities independently. Using this model, you would not typically need to report on tax reporting unit balances within a legal employer, and balances can be categorized by either or both organizations, as required. An example of a country that might use this model is India.

This figure illustrates an enterprise with one legal entity that is a payroll statutory unit and a legal employer, and the tax reporting units are independent from the legal employer.

A figure that shows an enterprise with
one legal entity that is both a legal employer and a payroll statutory
unit and that has multiple tax reporting units that are independent
from the legal employer

Multiple Payroll Statutory Units with Several Tax Reporting Units that are Independent from the Legal Employer

In this model, the enterprise has two legal entities, and legal employers and tax reporting units are independent from each other within a payroll statutory unit, because there is no relationship from a legal perspective. Therefore, you can run reporting on both entities independently. Using this model, you would not typically need to report on tax reporting unit balances within a legal employer, and balances can be categorized by either or both organizations, as required. An example of a country that might use this model is the United Kingdom (UK).

This figure illustrates an enterprise with two legal entities, and legal employers and tax reporting units are independent from each other.

A graphic that illustrates an enterprise
with two legal entities

Payroll Statutory Units, Legal Employers, and Tax Reporting Units: How They Work Together

When you set up legal entities, you can identify them as legal employers and payroll statutory units, which makes them available for use in Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM). A tax reporting unit is created automatically when you add a legal entity and identify it as a payroll statutory unit. Depending on how your organization is structured, you may have only one legal entity that is also a payroll statutory unit and a legal employer, or you may have multiple legal entities, payroll statutory units, and legal employers.

Legal Employers and Payroll Statutory Unit

Payroll statutory units enable you to group legal employers so that you can perform statutory calculations at a higher level, such as for court orders or for United Kingdom (UK) statutory sick pay. In some cases, a legal employer is also a payroll statutory unit. However, your organization may have several legal employers under one payroll statutory unit. A legal employer can belong to only one payroll statutory unit.

Payroll Statutory Units and Tax Reporting Units

Payroll statutory units and tax reporting units have a parent-child relationship, with the payroll statutory unit being the parent.

Tax Reporting Units and Legal Employers

Tax reporting units are indirectly associated with a legal employer through the payroll statutory unit. One or more tax reporting units can be used by a single legal employer, and a tax reporting unit can be used by one or more legal employers. For example, assume that a single tax reporting unit is linked to a payroll statutory unit. Assume also that two legal employers are associated with this payroll statutory unit. In this example, both legal employers are associated with the single tax reporting unit.

FAQs for Define Legal Entities for Marketing

What's a legal employer?

A legal employer is a legal entity that employs workers. You define a legal entity as a legal employer in the Oracle Fusion Legal Entity Configurator.

The legal employer is captured at the work relationship level, and all employment terms and assignments within that relationship are automatically with that legal employer. Legal employer information for worker assignments is also used for reporting purposes.

What's a payroll statutory unit?

Payroll statutory units are legal entities that are responsible for paying workers, including the payment of payroll tax and social insurance. A payroll statutory unit can pay and report on payroll tax and social insurance on behalf of one or many legal entities, depending on the structure of your enterprise. For example, if you are a multinational, multicompany enterprise, then you register a payroll statutory unit in each country where you employ and pay people. You can optionally register a consolidated payroll statutory unit to pay and report on workers across multiple legal employers within the same country. You associate a legislative data group with a payroll statutory unit to provide the correct payroll information for workers.

Define Business Units for Marketing

Shared Service Centers: Explained

Oracle Fusion Applications allows defining relationships between business units to outline which business unit provides services to the other business units.

Service Provider Model

In Oracle Fusion Applications V1.0, the service provider model centralizes only the procurement business function. Your business units that have the requisitioning business function enabled can define relationships with business units that have the procurement business function enabled. These service provider business units will process requisitions and negotiate supplier terms for their client business units.

This functionality is used to frame service level agreements and drive security. The definition of service provider relationships provides you with a clear record of how the operations of your business are centralized. For other centralized processing, business unit security is used (known in Oracle EBS as Multi-Org Access Control). This means that users who work in a shared service center have the ability to get access and process transactions on behalf of many business units.

Shared Service Center: Points to Consider

Oracle Fusion applications supports shared service centers in two ways. First, with business unit security, which allows your shared service centers personnel to process transactions for other business units called clients. This was the foundation of Multi Org Access Control in the Oracle E-Business Suite.

Second, the service provider model expands on this capability to allow a business unit and its personnel in a shared service center to work on transactions of the client business units. It is possible to view the clients of a service provider business unit, and to view service providers of a client business unit.

Your shared service centers provide services to your client business units that can be part of other legal entities. In such cases, your cross charges and recoveries are in the form of receivables invoices, and not merely allocations within your general ledger, thereby providing internal controls and preventing inappropriate processing.

For example, in traditional local operations, an invoice of one business unit cannot be paid by a payment from another business unit. In contrast, in your shared service center environment, processes allowing one business unit to perform services for others, such as paying an invoice, are allowed and completed with the appropriate intercompany accounting. Shared service centers provide your users with access to the data of different business units and can comply with different local requirements.

Security

The setup of business units provides you with a powerful security construct by creating relationships between the functions your users can perform and the data they can process. This security model is appropriate in a business environment where local business units are solely responsible for managing all aspects of the finance and administration functions.

In Oracle Fusion applications, the business functions your business unit performs are evident in the user interface for setting up business units. To accommodate shared services, use business unit security to expand the relationship between functions and data. A user can have access to many business units. This is the core of your shared service architecture.

For example, you take orders in many business units each representing different registered legal entities. Your orders are segregated by business unit. However, all of these orders are managed from a shared service order desk in an outsourcing environment by your users who have access to multiple business units.

Benefits

In summary, large, medium, and small enterprises benefit from implementing share service centers. Examples of functional areas where shared service centers are generally implemented include procurement, disbursement, collections, order management, and human resources. The advantages of deploying these shared service centers are the following:

Service Provider Model: Explained

In Oracle Fusion applications, the service provider model defines relationships between business units for a specific business function, identifying one business in the relationship as a service provider of the business function, and the other business unit as its client.

Procurement Example

The Oracle Fusion Procurement product family has taken advantage of the service provide model by defining outsourcing of the procurement business function. Define your business units with requisitioning and payables invoicing business functions as clients of your business unit with the procurement business function. Your business unit responsible for the procurement business function will take care of supplier negotiations, supplier site maintenance, and purchase order processing on behalf of your client business units. Subscribe your client business units to the supplier sites maintained by the service providers, using a new procurement feature for supplier site assignment.

In the InFusion example below, business unit four (BU4) serves as a service provider to the other three business units (BU1, BU2, and BU3.) BU4 provides the corporate administration, procurement, and human resources (HR) business functions, thus providing cost savings and other benefits to the entire InFusion enterprise.

A figure that shows an
example of a procurement service provider model.

Business Functions: Explained

A business unit can perform many business functions in Oracle Fusion Applications. Prior to Oracle Fusion Applications, operating units in Oracle E-Business Suite were assumed to perform all business functions, while in PeopleSoft, each business unit had one specific business function. Oracle Fusion Applications blends these two models and allows defining business units with one or many business functions.

Business Functions

A business function represents a business process, or an activity that can be performed by people working within a business unit and describes how a business unit is used. The following business functions exist in Oracle Fusion applications:

Although there is no relationship implemented in Oracle Fusion Applications, a business function logically indicates a presence of a department in the business unit with people performing tasks associated with these business functions. A business unit can have many departments performing various business functions. Optionally, you can define a hierarchy of divisions, business units, and departments as a tree over HCM organization units to represent your enterprise structure.

Note

This hierarchy definition is not required in the setup of your applications, but is a recommended best practice.

Your enterprise procedures can require a manager of a business unit to have responsibility for their profit and loss statement. However, there will be cases where a business unit is performing only general and administrative functions, in which case your manager's financial goals are limited to cost containment or recovering of service costs. For example, if a shared service center at the corporate office provides services for more commercially-oriented business units, it does not show a profit and therefore, only tracks its costs.

In other cases, where your managers have a responsibility for the assets of the business unit, a balance sheet can be produced. The recommended best practice to produce a balance sheet, is to setup the business unit as a balancing segment in the chart of accounts. The business unit balancing segment can roll up to divisions or other entities to represent your enterprise structure.

When a business function produces financial transactions, a business unit must be assigned to a primary ledger, and a default legal entity. Each business unit can post transactions to a single primary ledger, but it can process transactions for many legal entities.

Business Unit Hierarchy: Example

For example, your InFusion America Company provides:

The InFusion Air Systems division further segments your business into the System Components and Installation Services subdivisions. Your subdivisions are divided by business units:

A figure that shows an
example of a business unit hierarchy.

Oracle Fusion applications facilitates independent balance sheet rollups for legal and management reporting by offering up to three balancing segments. Hierarchies created using the management segment can provide the divisional results. For example, it is possible to define management segment values to correspond to business units, and arrange them in a hierarchy where the higher nodes correspond to divisions and subdivisions, as in the Infusion US Division example above.

Business Units: Explained

A business unit is a unit of an enterprise that performs one or many business functions that can be rolled up in a management hierarchy. A business unit can process transactions on behalf of many legal entities. Normally, it will have a manager, strategic objectives, a level of autonomy, and responsibility for its profit and loss. Roll business units up into divisions if you structure your chart of accounts with this type of hierarchy. In Oracle Fusion Applications, you assign your business units to one primary ledger. For example, if a business unit is processing payables invoices they will need to post to a particular ledger. This assignment is mandatory for your business units with business functions that produce financial transactions.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, use business unit as a securing mechanism for transactions. For example, if you run your export business separately from your domestic sales business, secure the export business data to prevent access by the domestic sales employees. To accomplish this security, set up the export business and domestic sales business as two separate business units.

The Oracle Fusion Applications business unit model:

Business units process transactions using reference data sets that reflect your business rules and policies and can differ from country to country. With Oracle Fusion Application functionality, you can choose to share reference data, such as payment terms and transaction types, across business units, or you can choose to have each business unit manage its own set depending on the level at which you wish to enforce common policies.

In countries where gapless and chronological sequencing of documents is required for subledger transactions, define your business units in alignment with your ledger definition, because the uniqueness of sequencing is only ensured within a ledger. In these cases, define a single ledger and assign one legal entity and business unit.

In summary, use business units in the following ways:

Brief Overview of Business Unit Security

Business units are used by a number of Oracle Fusion Applications to implement data security. You assign data roles to your users to give them access to data in business units and permit them to perform specific functions on this data. When a business function is enabled for a business unit, the application can trigger the creation of data roles for this business unit base on the business function's related job roles.

For example, if a payables invoicing business function is enabled, then it is clear that there are employees in this business unit that perform the function of payables invoicing, and need access to the payables invoicing functionality. Therefore, based on the correspondence between the business function and the job roles, appropriate data roles are generated automatically. Use Human Capital Management (HCM) security profiles to administer security for employees in business units.

Define Workforce Structures for CRM

Locations: Explained

A location identifies physical addresses of a workforce structure, such as a department or a job. You can also create locations to enter the addresses of external organizations that you want to maintain, such as employment agencies, tax authorities, and insurance or benefits carriers.

The locations that you create exist as separate structures that you can use for reporting purposes, and also in rules that determine employee eligibility for various types of compensation and benefits. You enter information about a location only once. Subsequently, when you set up other workforce structures you select the location from a list.

Location Sets

When you create a location, you must associate it with a set. Only those users who have access to the set's business unit can access the location set and other associated workforce structure sets, such as those that contain departments and jobs.

You can also associate the location to the common set so that users across your enterprise can access the location irrespective of their business unit. When users search for locations, they can see the locations that they have access to along with the locations in the common set.

The following figure shows how locations sets restrict access to users.

Controlling access to locations using
sets

Division: Explained

Managing multiple businesses requires that you segregate them by their strategic objectives and measure their results. Responsibility to reach objectives can be delegated along the management structure. Although related to your legal structure, the business organizational hierarchies do not need to reflect directly the legal structure of the enterprise. The management entities and structure can include divisions and subdivisions, lines of business, and other strategic business units, and include their own revenue and cost centers. These organizations can be included in many alternative hierarchies and used for reporting, as long as they have representation in the chart of accounts.

Divisions

A division refers to a business oriented subdivision within an enterprise, in which each division organizes itself differently to deliver products and services or address different markets. A division can operate in one or more countries, and can be comprised of many companies or parts of different companies that are represented by business units.

A division is a profit center or grouping of profit and cost centers, where the division manager is responsible for attaining business goals including profit goals. A division can be responsible for a share of the company's existing product lines or for a separate business. Managers of divisions may also have return on investment goals requiring tracking of the assets and liabilities of the division. The division manager reports to a top corporate executive.

By definition a division can be represented in the chart of accounts. Companies may choose to represent product lines, brands, or geographies as their divisions: their choice represents the primary organizing principle of the enterprise. This may coincide with the management segment used in segment reporting.

Oracle Fusion Applications supports a qualified management segment and recommends that you use this segment to represent your hierarchy of business units and divisions. If managers of divisions have return on investment goals, make the management segment a balancing segment. Oracle Fusion applications allows up to three balancing segments. The values of the management segment can be comprised of business units that roll up in a hierarchy to report by division.

Historically, divisions were implemented as a node in a hierarchy of segment values. For example, Oracle E-Business Suite has only one balancing segment, and often the division and legal entity are combined into a single segment where each value stands for both division and legal entity.

Use of Divisions in Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM)

Divisions are used in HCM to define the management organization hierarchy, using the generic organization hierarchy. This hierarchy can be used to create organization based security profiles.

Cost Centers and Departments: Explained

A cost center represents the smallest segment of an organization for which costs are collected and reported. A department is an organization with one or more operational objectives or responsibilities that exist independently of its manager and has one or more workers assigned to it.

The following two components need to be considered in designing your enterprise structure:

Cost Centers

A cost center also represents the destination or function of an expense as opposed to the nature of the expense which is represented by the natural account. For example, a sales cost center indicates that the expense goes to the sales department.

A cost center is generally attached to a single legal entity. To identify the cost centers within a chart of accounts structure use one of these two methods:

Departments

A department is an organization with one or more operational objectives or responsibilities that exist independently of its manager. For example, although the manager may change, the objectives do not change. Departments have one or more workers assigned to them.

A manager of a department is typically responsible for:

Note

The manager of a sales department may also be responsible for meeting the revenue targets.

The financial performance of departments is generally tracked through one or more cost centers. In Oracle Fusion Applications, departments are defined and classified as Department organizations. Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) assigns workers to departments, and tracks the headcount at the departmental level.

The granularity of cost centers and their relationship to departments varies across implementations. Cost center and department configuration may be unrelated, identical, or consist of many cost centers tracking the costs of one department.

Department Classifications: Points to Consider

A department can be classified as a project organization, sales and marketing organization, or cost organization.

Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) uses trees to model organization hierarchies. It provides seeded tree structures for department and other organizational hierarchies that can include organizations with any classification.

Project Organization

Classify departments as a project owning organization to enable associating them with projects or tasks. The project association is one of the key drivers for project access security.

In addition, you must classify departments as project expenditure organizations to enable associating them to project expenditure items. Both project owning organizations and project expenditure organizations can be used by Oracle Fusion Subledger Accounting to derive accounts for posting Oracle Fusion Projects accounting entries to Oracle Fusion General Ledger.

Sales and Marketing Organization

In Oracle Fusion Customer Relationship Management (CRM), you can define sales and marketing organizations. Sales organization hierarchies are used to report and forecast sales results. Sales people are defined as resources assigned to these organizations.

In some enterprises, the HCM departments and hierarchies correspond to sales organizations and hierarchies. It is important to examine the decision on how to model sales hierarchies in relationship to department hierarchies when implementing customer relationship management to eliminate any possible redundancy in the definition of the organizations.

The following figure illustrates a management hierarchy, in which the System Components Division tracks its expenses in two cost centers, Air Compressors and Air Transmission. At the department level, two organizations with a classifications of Department are defined, the Marketing Department and Sales Department. These two departments can be also identified as a Resource Organizations, which will allow assigning resources, such as sales people, and other CRM specific information to them. Each department is represented in the chart of accounts by more than one cost center, allowing for granular as well as hierarchical reporting.

The figure illustrates a management hierarchy, in which the System Components Division tracks
its expenses in two cost centers. The department is defined as an
organization with a classification of Marketing Department, and a
classification of Sales Department.

Cost Organization

Oracle Fusion Costing uses a cost organization to represent a single physical inventory facility or group of inventory storage centers, for example, inventory organizations. This cost organization can roll up to a manager with responsibility for the cost center in the financial reports.

A cost organization can represent a costing department. Consider this relationship when determining the setup of departments in HCM. There are no system dependencies requiring these two entities, cost organization and costing department, be set up in the same way.

Jobs: Example

Jobs are typically used without positions by service industries where flexibility and organizational change are key features.

Software Industry

For example, XYZ Corporation has a director over the departments for developers, quality assurance, and technical writers. Recently, three developers have left the company. The director decides to redirect the head count to other areas. Instead of hiring all three back into development, one person is hired to each department, quality assurance, and technical writing.

In software industries, the organization is fluid. Using jobs gives an enterprise the flexibility to determine where to use head count, because the job only exists through the person performing it. In this example, when the three developers leave XYZ Corporation, their jobs no longer exist, therefore the corporation has the flexibility to move the headcount to other areas.

This figure illustrates the software industry job setup.

Jobs setup example

FAQs for Define Workforce Structures for CRM

Why can't I see my location in the search results?

You can search for approved locations only. Also, if you created a location in Oracle Fusion Trading Community Model, then you can't access that location from Oracle Fusion Global Human Resources. For use in Oracle Fusion HCM, you must recreate the location from the Manage Locations page.

How can I associate a location with an inventory organization?

From the Manage Locations page in Oracle Fusion Global Human Resources.

To appear on the Create or Edit Location pages, your inventory organization must be effective on today's date and must exist in the location set that you selected.

What happens if I select an inventory organization when I'm creating or editing a location?

The location is available for selection in purchase documents of that inventory organization in Oracle Fusion Inventory Management. If you don't select an inventory organization, then the location is available in purchase documents across all inventory organizations.

What happens if I select a geographic hierarchy node when I'm creating or editing a location?

The calendar events that were created for the geographical node start to apply for the location and may impact the availability of worker assignments at that location. The geographical hierarchy nodes available for selection on the Locations page display from a predefined geographic hierarchy.

What happens if I inactivate a location?

Starting from the effective date that you entered, you can no longer associate the location with other workforce structures, assignments, or applications. If the location is already in use, it will continue to be available to the components that currently use it.

What's the difference between a job set and a job family?

A job family is a group of jobs that have different but related functions, qualifications, and titles. They are beneficial for reporting. You can define competencies for job families by associating them with model profiles.

A job set is an organizational partition of jobs. For example, a job set can be global and include jobs for use in all business units, or it can be restricted to jobs for a specific country or line of business. When you select a job, for a position or an assignment, the available jobs are those in the set associated with the business unit in which you are working, and also those in the Common set.

Define Facilities for Marketing

How Schedule Components Fit Together

Schedules are comprised of workday patterns and exceptions. Workday patterns are comprised of shifts.

First, create shifts and then assign them to workday patterns. Next, create a schedule that is a collection of workday patterns. You can also create exceptions to assign to schedules. All of these components are illustrated in the following diagram:

Schedule components flow diagram

Shift

A shift is a period of time, typically expressed in hours, and it can be defined by a start time and an end time, or a duration. A shift can be for a work period or a off period. You can create time, duration, and elapsed shifts.

Workday Pattern

A workday pattern is a collection of shifts for a specific number of days. You can create time, duration, and elapsed workday patterns.

Exception

An exception is a record of a date that overrides the availability of a resource to which a schedule has been assigned. For example, a resource is assigned a schedule that includes December 25 as a working day. An exception can be created for December 25 and applied to that schedule to override resource availability for that date. Exceptions can also be for a date time period such as 9 AM to 11 AM on December 25th.

Schedule

A schedule is defined by a start date, an end date, and a sequence of workday patterns to be followed between those dates. A schedule can also contain exception dates that override the availability of resources to which the schedule is assigned. Quarter Types such as 4-4-5, 4-5-4 are supported.

Managing Shifts: Examples

A shift is a period of time, typically expressed in hours, that is used to build workday patterns. Workday patterns are used to build schedules. There are multiple types of shifts you can create. The following scenarios illustrate each type:

Managing Time Shifts

Next month you are adding a second shift for your manufacturing operations. This new shift will start right after your regular first shift. You can create a time shift that starts at 4:00 p.m. and ends at 12:00 a.m . There are restrictions in updating existing shifts and patterns. Shifts and patterns cannot be updated if they effect a schedule. If a shift is created but not assigned to a pattern (or assigned to a pattern but pattern is not assigned to a schedule) it can be updated. If a pattern is created and not assigned to a schedule it can be updated.

Managing Time Shifts with Punch Details

Your division has decided that the employees in the office must clock in and out for lunch starting next week. All employees will take the same lunch hour. Add punch shift details to the existing shift so that employees punch in at 8:00 a.m.; they punch out for lunch from 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m.; they punch back in at 12:30 p.m.; and they punch out for the day at 5:00 p.m.

Managing Time Shifts with Flexible Details

Jorge Sanchez is a contractor who is starting work in your department next week. His hours will be flexible, so you need to create a new time shift with flexible details that he can use to record his time. He will have a flexible start time from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. and a flexible end time from 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. His core work hours will be from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

Managing Duration Shifts

One of the divisions in your organization does not use fixed start and end times for its daily shifts; the division only records the total duration of the shift and indicates if resources are available or not during that time. All of the employees in the division are available for 24 hours straight, and then they are not available for the next 24 hours. You should create a duration shift that indicates that resources are available for 24 hours, and create a second duration shift that indicates that resources are not available for 24 hours.

Managing Elapsed Shifts

The employees in the Human Resources department all work 8 hours a day, but the start and end times vary by employee. Some employees start at early as 6:00 a.m.; while others don't start until 9:00 a.m. Create an elapsed shift with a duration of 8 hours, where all employees are assumed to be available for the number of hours in the shift at any time during the day.

Managing Workday Patterns: Examples

A workday pattern is a collection of shifts for a specific number of days. There are multiple types of workday patterns you can create. The following scenarios illustrate each type:

Managing Time Workday Patterns

Your department works a Monday through Friday workweek with 8 hour shifts each day. Time patterns always have time shifts. That is, the shift will have start time and end time. You can create a time workday pattern with a length of 7 days and details of an 8 hour time shift for days 1 through 5. Days 6 and 7 are considered nonworking days. Remember that time patterns always have time shifts, that is, have a start time and an end time.

Managing Duration Workday Patterns

A new group of employees start next month, and each employee will work a schedule where he or she is available for 10 hours, and then not available for the next 16 hours, and then available for 10 hours again, and so on. This pattern starts on midnight of the first day of the next month. Create a duration workday pattern with a 10 hour available duration shift, followed by a 16 hour not available duration shift. Do not specify the pattern length or start and end days, and the pattern will repeat for the length of the schedule to which it is associated.

Managing Elapsed Workday Patterns

In the summer, several divisions in your organization work only 4 hours on Fridays. They work extended hours on Wednesdays and Thursdays to cover the 4 hours they will not work on Fridays. Create an elapsed workday pattern with a length of 7 days. Days 1 and 2 will have an 8 hour shift assigned; while days 3 and 4 will have a 10 hour shift assigned. Finally, day 5 will have a 4 hour shift assigned. As in the time workday pattern, days 6 and 7 are considered nonworking days.

Item Organization: Explained

An item organization defines an item when inventory balances are not stored and inventory storage or inventory movement is not reflected in the Oracle Fusion Applications. For example, you would use an item organization in a retail scenario, if you need to know the items that are listed by and sold through each retail outlet even though inventory and transactions are recorded in another system. In Oracle Fusion Customer Relationship Management (CRM), item organizations are used to define sales catalogs.

Note

Item Master Organization: Explained

An item master organization lists and describes items that are shared across several inventory organizations or item organization.

The following example shows the choice between inventory organizations that track inventory transactions, stored in two warehouses, and item organizations that just track items, listed in two sales catalogs.

The figure shows the difference between
inventory organizations that track inventory transactions, stored
in two warehouses, and item organizations that just track items, listed
in two catalogs.

For the most efficient processing, you should:

Note

Oracle Fusion allows multiple item masters, however, use this capability cautiously. If you acquire a company, there may be value in allowing the old item master to exist for a transition period. If you manage your subsidiaries as separate businesses, there may be reduced value in a single item master.

Define Social Networking

How can I enable social networking features?

Set the Social Networking Features Enabled profile option to "Y" on the Manage Social Networking Profile Option Values page. If you enable this profile option, users can access the following features:

Note

If you disable social networking features, users can continue to access the bookmarks they created from the Bookmarks region in the Activities and Interests card on the My Portrait tab. Also, the spaces that users are a member of continue to appear in the Spaces region.

Define Workforce Profiles

Profile Management: Explained

Profile management provides a framework for developing and managing talent profiles that meet your industry or organizational requirements. Profiles summarize the qualifications and skills of a person or a workforce structure such as a job or position. Profiles are valuable for tracking workers' skills, competencies, and accomplishments, and for various talent management activities, such as career planning, identifying training needs, performance management, and in the recruitment process for identifying job requirements and suitable applicants.

This topic discusses:

Profile Search

You can search profiles for workers, jobs, and positions with certain criteria. For example, an HR (Human Resources) specialist in London who is looking to fill an applications developer position from within the company can search for profiles of all workers who are based in London and have experience with Java and PL/SQL.

Profile Comparison

Using the comparison feature, you can compare profiles to determine next career moves or training needs for workers, and identify suitable candidates for jobs. For example, if John is looking for his next career move, he can compare his profile to that of a job to determine whether his competency ratings match the targeted competency ratings in a job profile. For example, if his Teamwork rating is 3 and the Product Strategy Teamwork requirement is 4, he has a deficiency of -1. John and his manager can use this gap to drive development plans and for other talent management-related functions.

Best-Fit Analysis

Use the best-fit analysis to determine the person profile that most closely matches a job profile, or the job profile that is the best match for a person profile. For example, if you are trying to fill a Developer vacancy, and the job profile requires a B.S. degree in Computer Science, level 4 expertise coding Java, and a Teamwork rating of at least 3, you can review an automatically-generated list of workers who most closely match this set of requirements. You can also use the best-fit analysis to find workers who are similar to a selected worker, or jobs that are similar to a selected job.

Oracle Fusion Profile Management Components: How They Work Together

You can configure Oracle Fusion Profile Management to meet your business requirements using these components: the content library, profiles and profile types, content subscribers, educational establishments, instance qualifier sets, and rating models.

This figure illustrates how the components of Profile Management fit together.

This figure illustrates how content
subscribers, rating models, educational establishments, and instance
qualifier sets all connect to the content library and then profile
types are built from content types in the content library, and profiles
are built using profile types.

Content Library

The content library provides the foundation for profiles as it stores both content types and content items.

Profile Types

Profile types are templates that you use to create profiles. Profile types determine whether the profile is for a person or for a workforce structure such as a job or a position, and the content of the profile. You select content types from the content library to create content sections for the profile type.

Profiles

You create person profiles for individual workers and model profiles for workforce structures, such as a jobs or positions. The information that you complete for the profile is determined by how the profile type has been set up. For example, a person profile might contain information about a person's education, language skills, competencies, and activities and interests. A job profile might contain information about the requirements for the job, such as competencies, language skills, degrees, or certifications.

Content Subscribers

Content subscribers are applications external to Oracle Fusion Profile Management that use content types.

Educational Establishments

You can define educational establishments for workers to use when they add education information, such as degrees, to their profile.

Instance Qualifier Sets

You assign instance qualifiers to content types. Instance qualifier sets uniquely identify multiple instances of a content item on a profile. For example, if multiple people update a performance rating for a competency on a worker's profile, instance qualifiers provide a unique identifier to each instance of the competency so that you can determine who provided each rating.

Rating Models

When you create content types in the content library, you can attach rating models to determine the scale for measuring performance and proficiency. You can also use rating models to measure the risk and impact of loss for workers, and to measure their potential.

Oracle Fusion Profile Management, Performance Management, Goal Management, and Talent Review: How They Work Together

Oracle Fusion Profile Management supports talent management business processes in these products:

Oracle Fusion Performance Management

Oracle Fusion Performance Management uses the rating models that you define in Profile Management to rate workers on their performance. When you define a performance document template, you can specify whether the ratings and comments from managers and workers are uploaded automatically to workers' profiles when the performance document is finalized. Instance qualifier sets distinguish the manager ratings from the workers' self ratings. Performance Management also uses competencies from the content library in performance documents.

Oracle Fusion Goal Management

You can set up a content type relationship between the Goals content type and other content types, such as the Competencies content type and the Memberships content type. Using these relationships, you can then set up target outcomes for goals. Target outcomes are the content items within the content type that is related to the Goals content type. For example, if you set up a relationship between the Goals content type and the Competencies content type, workers can add a target outcome of a specific competency to their goals. In this case, the specific competency is the content item within the Competencies content type. When workers complete the goal, their profiles are updated to include the competency.

Oracle Fusion Talent Review

Oracle Fusion Talent Review uses information from the Performance and Potential and Risk of Loss sections within a worker's profile to build the analytics that are part of the talent review process. These sections are defined as content types within the content library and included in the person profile type. When a talent review is complete, workers' profiles are updated automatically with the performance rating given during calibration discussions. Instance qualifier sets enable you to distinguish the talent review rating from ratings given by the worker's manager, a peer, or perhaps the worker's self-evaluation.

Define Talent Profile Settings

Profile Management Lookups: Explained

This topic identifies common lookups that are profile management-related and have user or extensible customization levels. Review these lookups, and update them as appropriate to suit enterprise requirements.

Profile Management Lookups

Profile management lookups are described in the following table.


Lookup Type

Description

Customization Level

HRT_CONTENT_SUPP_CODE

Codes to identify where the content type originated, such as from the customer or from a third party. HR specialists assign supplier codes when setting up new content types.

Extensible

HRT_COMPETENCY_EVAL_TYPE

Types of competency ratings, such as self, supervisor, and peer. Evaluation types are used in instance qualifier sets to identify the role of the person who provided a competency rating for a worker.

User

HRT_DEGREE_LEVEL

Required levels of education for a job or position profile, such as a Bachelor's Degree or Masters degree.

User

HRT_DURATION

Time periods for when a worker would like to make a career move. Workers select a duration for their career move in the career preferences information on the career planning card.

User

HRT_EDUCATION_LEVEL

Types of education that a degree provides, such as a Bachelor's degree or one year college. HR specialists use education levels when creating content items in the Degrees content type.

User

HRT_IMPORTANCE

Values for the importance level of each content type. Importance values are used in the best-fit analysis calculation.

User

HRT_PAY_FREQUENCY

Frequencies at which a worker is paid. Workers specify a preferred pay frequency when they edit their work requirements on the experience and qualifications card.

User

HRT_READINESS

Time periods in which a worker will be ready for advancement to a specified job or position profile. Managers and human resource (HR) specialists use readiness levels when editing the talent ratings information on workers' career planning cards.

User

HRT_RISK_REASON

Reasons for why a worker is at risk for leaving the company. Managers and HR specialists use risk reasons when editing the talent ratings information on workers' career planning cards.

User

HRT_SATISFACTION_METHOD

Methods by which an item such as a competency is verified, such as assessment or demonstration. Managers and HR specialists use these values to identify the method that was used to evaluate the proficiency of a worker in a particular skill or quality.

User

HRT_TRAVEL_FREQUENCY

Percentages of time a worker is expected to travel for a job or position, for example, 25 percent or 50 percent. Managers and HR specialists specify the required travel frequency on job and position profiles. Workers also specify a travel frequency when they edit their work requirements on the experience and qualifications car

User

HRT_VALIDITY_PERIOD

Periods of time for which content items such as licenses and certifications are valid. Managers and human resource (HR) specialists select validity periods when setting up content items for the Licenses and Certifications content type.

User

HRT_WORK_DAYS

Work days for a job or position, such as Monday through Friday. Managers and HR specialists specify the expected work days on job and position profiles.

User

HRT_WORK_HOURS

Work hours for a job or position, such as 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Managers and HR specialists specify the expected work hours on job and position profiles.

User

Value Sets: Explained

A value set is a set of valid values that you assign to a flexfield segment.

An end user enters a value into a flexfield segment while using the application. The flexfield validates the segment against the set of valid values that you configured as a value set and assigned to the segment.

For example, you can define a required format, such as a five digit number, or a list of valid values, such as green, red, and blue.

Flexfield segments are usually validated, and typically each segment in a given flexfield uses a different value set. You can assign a single value set to more than one segment, and you can share value sets among different flexfields.

Caution

Be sure changes to a shared value set are compatible with all flexfields segments using the value set.

Defining value sets involves making decisions about the following.

Validation

The following types of validation are available for value sets.

A segment that uses a format only value set does not present a list of valid values to users.

You can build a tree structure from the values in an independent value set whose data type is character.

Note

Adding table validated value sets to the list of available value sets available for configuration is considered a custom task.

For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Security

Value set security only works in conjunction with usage within flexfield segments. If a value set is used standalone, meaning outside a flexfield, value set security is not applied, but Oracle Fusion data security is enforced.

You can specify that data security be applied to the values in flexfield segments that use a value set. Based on the roles provisioned to users, data security policies determine which values of the flexfield segment end users can view or modify.

Value set security applies at the value set level. If a value set is secured, every usage of it in any flexfield is secured. It is not possible to disable security for individual usages of the same value set.

Value set security applies to independent, dependent or table-validated value sets.

Value set security applies mainly when data is being created or updated, and to key flexfield combinations tables for query purposes. Value set security does not determine which descriptive flexfield data is shown upon querying.

Security conditions defined on value sets will always use table aliases. When filters are used, table aliases are always used by default. When predicates are defined for data security conditions, make sure that the predicates will also use table aliases.

For key flexfields, the attributes in the view object that correspond to the code combination ID (CCID), structure instance number (SIN) and data set number (DSN) cannot be transient. They must exist in the database table. For key flexfields, the SIN segment is the discriminator attribute, and the CCID segment is the common attribute.

Precision and Scale

For a value set with the data type Number, you can specify the precision (maximum number of digits user can enter) or scale (maximum number of digits following the decimal point).

Usage and Deployment

The usage of a value set is the flexfields where that value set is used. The deployment status of flexfields in which the value set is used indicates the deployment status of the value set instance.

The figure shows a value set used by a segment in a key flexfield and the context segment of a descriptive flexfield.

Figure shows a value set shared by
both a key flexfield and a descriptive flexfield.

For most value sets, when you enter values into a flexfield segment, you can enter only values that already exist in the value set assigned to that segment.

Global and context-sensitive segment require a value set. You can assign a value set to a descriptive flexfield context segment. If you specify only context values, not value sets for contexts, the set of valid values is equal to the set of context values.

Defining Value Sets: Critical Choices

Validation and usage of value sets determine where and how end users access valid values for attributes represented by flexfield segments.

Tip

As a flexfield guideline, define value sets before configuring the flexfield, because you assign value sets to each segment as you configure a flexfield.

Value Sets for Context Segments

When assigning a value set to a context segment, you can only use table-validated or independent value sets. The data type must be character and the maximum length of the values being stored must not be larger than column length of the context.

Format Only Validation

The format only validation type enables end users to enter any value, as long as it meets your specified formatting rules. That is, the value must not exceed the maximum length you define for your value set, and it must meet any format requirements for that value set.

For example, if the value set allows only numeric characters, your user could enter the value 456 (for a value set with maximum length of three or more), but could not enter the value ABC. A format only value set does not otherwise restrict the range of different values that users can enter. For numeric values, you can also specify if a numeric value should be zero filled or how may digits should follow the radix separator

Interdependent Value Sets

You cannot specify a dependent value set for a given segment without having first defined an independent value set that you apply to another segment in the same flexfield. You use a dependent value set to limit the list of values for a given segment based on the value that the end user has chosen for a related independent segment. The available values in a dependent list and the meaning of a given value depend on which value was selected for the independently validated segment.

For example, you could define an independent value set of U.S. states with values such as CA, NY, and so on. Then you define a dependent value set of U.S. cities, with values such as San Francisco and Los Angeles that are valid for the independent value CA, and New York City and Albany that are valid for the independent value NY. In the UI, only the valid cities can be selected for a given state.

Because you define a subset value set from an existing independent value set, you must define the independent value set first. End users do not need to choose a value for another segment first to have access to the subset value set.

Table Validation

Typically, you use a table-validated set when the values you want to use are already maintained in an application table (for example, a table of vendor names). Table validation allows you to enable a segment to depend upon multiple prior segments in the same context or structure.

Table-validated value sets have unique values across the table, irrespective of bind variables. The WHERE clause fragment of the value set is considered if it does not have bind variables. If it has bind variables, the assumption is that the values are unique in the value set.

Range

In the case of format, independent, or dependent value sets, you can specify a range to further limit which values are valid. You can specify a range of values that are valid within a value set. You can also specify a range validated pair of segments where one segment represents the low end of the range and another segment represents the high end of the range

For example, you might specify a range for a format-only value set with format type Number where the user can enter only values between 0 and 100. If you use a table value set, you cannot reference flexfield segments in the WHERE clause of the value set . For example, the WHERE clause cannot reference a segment or a value set.

Security

In the case of independent and dependent values, you can specify that data security be applied to the values in segments that use a value set. Based on the roles provisioned to users, data security policies determine which values of the flexfield segment end users can view or modify.

When you enable security on a table-validated value sets, the security rule that is defined is absolute and not contingent upon the bind variables (if any) that may be used by the WHERE clause of the value set. For example, suppose a table-validated value set has a bind variable to further filter the value list to x, y and z from a list of x, y, z, xx, yy, zz. The data security rule or filter written against the value set should not assume anything about the bind variables; it must assume the whole list of values is available and write the rule, for example, to allow x, or to allow y and z. By default in data security all values are denied, and show only rows to which access has been provided.

Maintenance

There is no need to define or maintain values for a table-validated or subset value set, as the values are managed as part of the referenced table or independent value set, respectively.

If your application has more than one language installed, or there is any possibility that you might install one or more additional languages for your application in the future, select Translatable. This does not require you to provide translated values now, but you cannot change this option if you decide to provide them later.

For more information about defining value sets, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Define Talent Profile Settings

Profile Management Lookups: Explained

This topic identifies common lookups that are profile management-related and have user or extensible customization levels. Review these lookups, and update them as appropriate to suit enterprise requirements.

Profile Management Lookups

Profile management lookups are described in the following table.


Lookup Type

Description

Customization Level

HRT_CONTENT_SUPP_CODE

Codes to identify where the content type originated, such as from the customer or from a third party. HR specialists assign supplier codes when setting up new content types.

Extensible

HRT_COMPETENCY_EVAL_TYPE

Types of competency ratings, such as self, supervisor, and peer. Evaluation types are used in instance qualifier sets to identify the role of the person who provided a competency rating for a worker.

User

HRT_DEGREE_LEVEL

Required levels of education for a job or position profile, such as a Bachelor's Degree or Masters degree.

User

HRT_DURATION

Time periods for when a worker would like to make a career move. Workers select a duration for their career move in the career preferences information on the career planning card.

User

HRT_EDUCATION_LEVEL

Types of education that a degree provides, such as a Bachelor's degree or one year college. HR specialists use education levels when creating content items in the Degrees content type.

User

HRT_IMPORTANCE

Values for the importance level of each content type. Importance values are used in the best-fit analysis calculation.

User

HRT_PAY_FREQUENCY

Frequencies at which a worker is paid. Workers specify a preferred pay frequency when they edit their work requirements on the experience and qualifications card.

User

HRT_READINESS

Time periods in which a worker will be ready for advancement to a specified job or position profile. Managers and human resource (HR) specialists use readiness levels when editing the talent ratings information on workers' career planning cards.

User

HRT_RISK_REASON

Reasons for why a worker is at risk for leaving the company. Managers and HR specialists use risk reasons when editing the talent ratings information on workers' career planning cards.

User

HRT_SATISFACTION_METHOD

Methods by which an item such as a competency is verified, such as assessment or demonstration. Managers and HR specialists use these values to identify the method that was used to evaluate the proficiency of a worker in a particular skill or quality.

User

HRT_TRAVEL_FREQUENCY

Percentages of time a worker is expected to travel for a job or position, for example, 25 percent or 50 percent. Managers and HR specialists specify the required travel frequency on job and position profiles. Workers also specify a travel frequency when they edit their work requirements on the experience and qualifications car

User

HRT_VALIDITY_PERIOD

Periods of time for which content items such as licenses and certifications are valid. Managers and human resource (HR) specialists select validity periods when setting up content items for the Licenses and Certifications content type.

User

HRT_WORK_DAYS

Work days for a job or position, such as Monday through Friday. Managers and HR specialists specify the expected work days on job and position profiles.

User

HRT_WORK_HOURS

Work hours for a job or position, such as 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Managers and HR specialists specify the expected work hours on job and position profiles.

User

Value Sets: Explained

A value set is a set of valid values that you assign to a flexfield segment.

An end user enters a value into a flexfield segment while using the application. The flexfield validates the segment against the set of valid values that you configured as a value set and assigned to the segment.

For example, you can define a required format, such as a five digit number, or a list of valid values, such as green, red, and blue.

Flexfield segments are usually validated, and typically each segment in a given flexfield uses a different value set. You can assign a single value set to more than one segment, and you can share value sets among different flexfields.

Caution

Be sure changes to a shared value set are compatible with all flexfields segments using the value set.

Defining value sets involves making decisions about the following.

Validation

The following types of validation are available for value sets.

A segment that uses a format only value set does not present a list of valid values to users.

You can build a tree structure from the values in an independent value set whose data type is character.

Note

Adding table validated value sets to the list of available value sets available for configuration is considered a custom task.

For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Security

Value set security only works in conjunction with usage within flexfield segments. If a value set is used standalone, meaning outside a flexfield, value set security is not applied, but Oracle Fusion data security is enforced.

You can specify that data security be applied to the values in flexfield segments that use a value set. Based on the roles provisioned to users, data security policies determine which values of the flexfield segment end users can view or modify.

Value set security applies at the value set level. If a value set is secured, every usage of it in any flexfield is secured. It is not possible to disable security for individual usages of the same value set.

Value set security applies to independent, dependent or table-validated value sets.

Value set security applies mainly when data is being created or updated, and to key flexfield combinations tables for query purposes. Value set security does not determine which descriptive flexfield data is shown upon querying.

Security conditions defined on value sets will always use table aliases. When filters are used, table aliases are always used by default. When predicates are defined for data security conditions, make sure that the predicates will also use table aliases.

For key flexfields, the attributes in the view object that correspond to the code combination ID (CCID), structure instance number (SIN) and data set number (DSN) cannot be transient. They must exist in the database table. For key flexfields, the SIN segment is the discriminator attribute, and the CCID segment is the common attribute.

Precision and Scale

For a value set with the data type Number, you can specify the precision (maximum number of digits user can enter) or scale (maximum number of digits following the decimal point).

Usage and Deployment

The usage of a value set is the flexfields where that value set is used. The deployment status of flexfields in which the value set is used indicates the deployment status of the value set instance.

The figure shows a value set used by a segment in a key flexfield and the context segment of a descriptive flexfield.

Figure shows a value set shared by
both a key flexfield and a descriptive flexfield.

For most value sets, when you enter values into a flexfield segment, you can enter only values that already exist in the value set assigned to that segment.

Global and context-sensitive segment require a value set. You can assign a value set to a descriptive flexfield context segment. If you specify only context values, not value sets for contexts, the set of valid values is equal to the set of context values.

Defining Value Sets: Critical Choices

Validation and usage of value sets determine where and how end users access valid values for attributes represented by flexfield segments.

Tip

As a flexfield guideline, define value sets before configuring the flexfield, because you assign value sets to each segment as you configure a flexfield.

Value Sets for Context Segments

When assigning a value set to a context segment, you can only use table-validated or independent value sets. The data type must be character and the maximum length of the values being stored must not be larger than column length of the context.

Format Only Validation

The format only validation type enables end users to enter any value, as long as it meets your specified formatting rules. That is, the value must not exceed the maximum length you define for your value set, and it must meet any format requirements for that value set.

For example, if the value set allows only numeric characters, your user could enter the value 456 (for a value set with maximum length of three or more), but could not enter the value ABC. A format only value set does not otherwise restrict the range of different values that users can enter. For numeric values, you can also specify if a numeric value should be zero filled or how may digits should follow the radix separator

Interdependent Value Sets

You cannot specify a dependent value set for a given segment without having first defined an independent value set that you apply to another segment in the same flexfield. You use a dependent value set to limit the list of values for a given segment based on the value that the end user has chosen for a related independent segment. The available values in a dependent list and the meaning of a given value depend on which value was selected for the independently validated segment.

For example, you could define an independent value set of U.S. states with values such as CA, NY, and so on. Then you define a dependent value set of U.S. cities, with values such as San Francisco and Los Angeles that are valid for the independent value CA, and New York City and Albany that are valid for the independent value NY. In the UI, only the valid cities can be selected for a given state.

Because you define a subset value set from an existing independent value set, you must define the independent value set first. End users do not need to choose a value for another segment first to have access to the subset value set.

Table Validation

Typically, you use a table-validated set when the values you want to use are already maintained in an application table (for example, a table of vendor names). Table validation allows you to enable a segment to depend upon multiple prior segments in the same context or structure.

Table-validated value sets have unique values across the table, irrespective of bind variables. The WHERE clause fragment of the value set is considered if it does not have bind variables. If it has bind variables, the assumption is that the values are unique in the value set.

Range

In the case of format, independent, or dependent value sets, you can specify a range to further limit which values are valid. You can specify a range of values that are valid within a value set. You can also specify a range validated pair of segments where one segment represents the low end of the range and another segment represents the high end of the range

For example, you might specify a range for a format-only value set with format type Number where the user can enter only values between 0 and 100. If you use a table value set, you cannot reference flexfield segments in the WHERE clause of the value set . For example, the WHERE clause cannot reference a segment or a value set.

Security

In the case of independent and dependent values, you can specify that data security be applied to the values in segments that use a value set. Based on the roles provisioned to users, data security policies determine which values of the flexfield segment end users can view or modify.

When you enable security on a table-validated value sets, the security rule that is defined is absolute and not contingent upon the bind variables (if any) that may be used by the WHERE clause of the value set. For example, suppose a table-validated value set has a bind variable to further filter the value list to x, y and z from a list of x, y, z, xx, yy, zz. The data security rule or filter written against the value set should not assume anything about the bind variables; it must assume the whole list of values is available and write the rule, for example, to allow x, or to allow y and z. By default in data security all values are denied, and show only rows to which access has been provided.

Maintenance

There is no need to define or maintain values for a table-validated or subset value set, as the values are managed as part of the referenced table or independent value set, respectively.

If your application has more than one language installed, or there is any possibility that you might install one or more additional languages for your application in the future, select Translatable. This does not require you to provide translated values now, but you cannot change this option if you decide to provide them later.

For more information about defining value sets, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Define Talent Profile Content

Rating Models: Explained

Use rating models to rate workers on their performance and level of proficiency in the skills and qualities that are set up on the person profile. You can also use rating models to specify target proficiency levels for items on a model profile, so that the model profile can be compared to workers' profiles.

To rate workers on their performance and proficiency, you attach rating models to the content types that are included in the person profile, and then workers can be rated on the items within the type. For example, you can rate workers on the Communication content item within the Competencies content type.

For model profiles, you can specify target proficiency levels for items on the profile, so that the model profile can be compared to workers' profiles. Using the ratings, managers can compare a model profile to workers' profiles to determine the best person suited to fill a position. Workers can compare their profile to model profiles to identify other positions within the organization that they are suited for, or to identify gaps in skills that they need to fill before applying for other positions.

Rating models that measure workers' potential and the impact and risk of loss are also available.

Rating models can include some or all of the following components, depending on the use for the model:

Rating Levels

Rating levels identify the qualitative values, such as 1, 2, 3, or 4, that you use to rate or score a worker's performance. Define numeric ratings for rating models that you use with performance documents that use the average calculation method.

Review Points

Define review points for rating models that you use with performance documents that use the sum or band calculation method. The review points and point ranges that you define for the rating model are used to calculate ratings.

Rating Categories

Rating categories enable you to group rating levels together for analysis tools used in the talent review process, such as the box chart that is used in the talent review process. You can group rating levels into categories such as low, medium, and high, and those categories then become the labels for the analytic. You should not change rating categories after setting them up, as the changes could affect the analytic.

Distributions

Oracle Fusion Compensation Management and Oracle Fusion Performance Management both use rating model distributions to determine the targeted minimum and maximum percentage of workers that should be given each rating level. Compensation Management uses the distribution values that you set up directly on rating models. However, you can set up distributions at the performance template level for rating models that are used in Performance Management.

Content Types: Explained

Content types are the skills, qualities, and qualifications that you want to track in talent profiles. The content library contains predefined content types such as competencies, languages, and degrees, but you can create new content types as needed. You can also create free-form content types.

Content types contain:

Note

Free-form content types do not contain relationships and do not contain properties until you add them to a profile type.

Properties

For each content type, you define the properties that all content items of the content type can or must have. To define properties of the content type, you select fields to be displayed when setting up the content items and the attributes of those fields. The attributes that you specify for each field are: field label, default value, whether the field is required, and whether the field is hidden, display-only, or editable. If the field is attached to a predefined list of values, you also specify the source of the list.

Relationships

Specify where one content type is a parent of another, or where one content type supports another. Content items of content types with relationships inherit the relationship. You cannot create two kinds of relationships between two types or create a relationship between a type and itself. For example, content type A cannot be both the parent and child of content type B. A content type cannot be related to itself.

Subscribers

Specify the subscriber codes of the applications or other Oracle Fusion products that use each content type. If you do not specify a subscriber code for the content type, you cannot view the content type in other applications. For example, if you add a new content type called Corporate Citizenship to the person profile type, you cannot view the content section for Corporate Citizenship in person profiles until you add the new content type to the HRMS content subscriber code.

Content Type Relationships: Examples

Content relationships enable you to associate content items of related content types with each other. The following scenarios illustrate the use of content type relationships.

Tracking Product Expertise

The Resource Manager component of Oracle Fusion Trading Community Model uses content type relationships to track the areas of expertise of workers. Using the predefined content type relationship where the Categories content type is a parent of Products, and Products is a parent of Components, resource managers can keep track of the categories, products, and components that are considered to be their areas of expertise for their resources.

Note

Because these content types and relationships are applicable only to the Resource Manager component of Oracle Fusion Trading Community Model, this product is the only predefined content subscriber to these content types.

Specifying Target Outcomes for Goals

To help your workers manage their goals, you want them to associate their goals with target outcomes, which are content types such as Competencies and Memberships. To accomplish this, you can set up a relationship on the Competencies content type where Competencies is supported by Goals. Workers can then set up goals that have a specific competency as a target outcome.

Content Items: Explained

Content items are the individual skills, qualities, and qualifications within the content types in the content library. For example, within the Competencies content type, communication is a content item. You can create content items to meet your business needs.

This topic discusses:

Item Properties

Content items inherit the fields and field properties that you define for the content type to which the item belongs. For example, one of the fields defined for the Memberships content type is ITEM_DESCRIPTION field. The attributes of this field are set up so that the label is Description, the field is editable, and the field does not require an entry. When you set up a content item for the Memberships content type, you will see a field labeled Description, in which you can enter text to describe the agency, but the field will not be required.

Related Content Items

If the content type for which you are creating an item has related content types, then you can enter the related content items for the item. For example, if you have a content type relationship where the Competencies content type is supported by the Goals content type, then on the content items for competencies, you can enter the related goals.

Proficiency Descriptions

If the content item belongs to a content type that has a rating model defined for it, then you can either use the existing descriptions for the ratings within the model, or define descriptions for the ratings that are specific to the content item. When ratings are given for the content item, the descriptions defined for the item are used instead of those on the rating model.

Creating Content Types and Content Items: Worked Example

This example demonstrates how to set up a new content type and content items to track the corporate citizenship activities of your workers so that you can rate them on their involvement in the organization. This example also demonstrates how to set up a rating model to be used with the content type and add the new content type to the person profile.

The following table summarizes key decisions for this scenario.


Decisions to Consider

In This Example

Can a predefined rating model be used to rate corporate citizenship?

No. The predefined rating models do not have relevant rating descriptions.

Should the content type be a free-form content type?

No. Content items are needed, and the content should be stored in the content library.

What field and properties should the content type contain?

Add two fields to the content type:

  • ITEM_TEXT1

  • RATING_MODEL_ID

The ITEM_TEXT1 field will have a label of Comments, and will be used to enter comments about the workers' corporate involvement. The RATING_MODEL_ID field will have a label of Company Contribution and will be used to attach the rating model for corporate citizenship to the content type.

Both fields should require entry and should be editable.

Does the content type need any content subscribers?

Yes. In order to be visible on the person profile, the new content type must be added to the HRMS content subscriber code.

What content items are needed to track the required information?

  • Corporate social responsibility

  • Corporate environmental responsibility

  • Corporate industrial citizenship

  • Corporate state citizenship

  • Corporate borough, council, or municipal citizenship

When the content type is added to the person profile as a content section, what properties should the fields contain?

Both the Comments field and the Company Contribution fields should display in the detail view of the content section, they should be required, and they should be included in search results.

To track corporate citizenship for your workers, complete the following tasks:

Creating a Rating Model

  1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, search for the Manage Profile Rating Models task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Rating Models page, click Create.
  3. On the Create Rating Model page, complete the following fields, as shown in this table. Use the default values except where indicated.

    Field

    Value

    Code

    Citizenship

    Rating Name

    Corporate Citizenship

    Description

    Rating model for corporate citizenship


  4. On the Rating Levels tab, complete the following fields, as shown in this table.

    Rating Level

    Name

    1

    Demonstrates limited or unused influence.

    2

    Demonstrates clear evidence of influence.

    3

    Provides a successful image of the company as socially responsible in limited environments.

    4

    Actively called upon to use influence as a corporate representative in selected environments.

    5

    Demonstrates high level of influence and is able to operate effectively in all environments.


  5. Click Save and Close.

Creating a Content Type

  1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, search for the Manage Profile Content Types task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Content Types page, click Create.
  3. On the Create Content Type page, add a content type by completing the following fields, as shown in this table. Use the default values except where indicated.

    Field

    Value

    Code

    Citizenship

    Name

    Corporate Citizenship

    Description

    Ratings for corporate citizenship behaviors for workers.


  4. Set up the following field properties, as shown in this table. Use the default values except where indicated.

    Field Name

    Field Label

    Required

    Display Option

    ITEM_TEXT_1

    Comments

    Selected

    Editable

    RATING_MODEL_ID

    Company Contribution

    Selected

    Editable


  5. Click Save and Close.
  6. On the Manage Content Types page, select the Corporate Citizenship content type and click Edit.
  7. On the Edit Content Type page, select the Subscribers tab.
  8. On the Subscribers tab, click Add.
  9. In the Subscriber Code field, select HRMS.
  10. Click Save and Close.

Creating Content Items

  1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, search for the Manage Profile Content Items task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Content Items page, click Create.
  3. In the Create Content Item dialog box, complete the following fields, as shown in this table.

    Field

    Value

    Content Type

    Corporate Citizenship

    Content Item

    Corporate Social Responsibility


  4. On the Create Content Item: Corporate Social Responsibility page, select the Corporate Citizenship rating model in the Rating field.
  5. Click Save and Close.
  6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to add content items for Corporate Environmental Responsibility, Corporate Industrial Citizenship, Corporate State Citizenship, and Corporate Borough, Council, or Municipal Citizenship.

Adding the Corporate Citizenship Content Type to the Person Profile Type

  1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, search for the Manage Profile Types task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Profile Types page, locate the Person profile type and click Edit.
  3. On the Edit Profile Type: Person page, select the Content Sections tab.
  4. In the Content Sections region, click Add Content Section.
  5. In the Content Types dialog box, select Citizenship.
  6. In the Content Sections region, click Citizenship.
  7. On the Content Section page, set up the following field properties, as shown in this table. Use the default values except where indicated.

    Column Name

    Display Flag

    Required

    Searchable

    ITEM_DESCRIPTION

    Detail

    Selected

    Selected

    RATING_LEVEL_ID1

    Detail

    Selected

    Selected


  8. Click OK.
  9. On the Edit Profile Type: Person page, click Save and Close.

Free-Form Content Types: Worked Example

This example demonstrates how to set up a free-form content type, add it to the HRMS content subscriber code, and then add the content type to the person profile type.

Your company wants to track the previous employment information for workers, including employer name, dates of employment, and job description. However, you do not want to set up and maintain content items for each employer, and this information applies only to person profiles. You decide to use a free-form content type for this information. You can set up the free-form content type with minimal information, and then when you add it to the person profile as a content section, you can define properties for employer name, dates of employment, and job description. Workers can complete their employment information on their profile based on how you set up the content section. The following table summarizes key decisions for this scenario.


Decisions to Consider

In This Example

Should the content type be a free-form content type?

Yes. Content items are not needed, and the content should not be stored in the content library.

Does the content type need any content subscribers?

Yes. In order to be visible on the person profile, the new content type must be added to the HRMS content subscriber code.

When the content type is added to the person profile as a content section, what fields are needed?

To capture the previous employer, a text field is needed. To capture employment dates, two date fields are needed. To capture job description, another text field is needed. Therefore, the following fields must be added:

  • ITEM_TEXT30_1

  • ITEM_DATE_1

  • ITEM_DATE_2

  • ITEM_TEXT240_1

What properties are needed for the ITEM_TEXT30_1 field?

The field should not be required and the information should not be available as search criteria, so you need only set up these field properties as follows:

  • Label: Previous Employer

  • Display: Detail (section should appear in detail view of profile)

What properties are needed for the ITEM_DATE_1 field?

The field should not be required and the information should not be available as search criteria, so you need only set up these field properties as follows:

  • Label: From Date

  • Display: Detail

What properties are needed for the ITEM_DATE_2 field?

The field should not be required and the information should not be available as search criteria, so you need only set up these field properties as follows:

  • Label: To Date

  • Display: Detail

What properties are needed for the ITEM_TEXT240_1 field?

The field should not be required and the information should not be available as search criteria, so you need only set up these field properties as follows:

  • Label: Job Description

  • Display: Detail

What role access should be granted for the content section?

Employees, managers, and HR specialists should all have access to update the section.

To set up a free-form content type to track previous employment information for workers, you must:

Setting Up a Free-Form Content Type

  1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, search for the Manage Profile Content Types task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Content Types page, click Create.
  3. On the Create Content Type page, complete the following fields, as shown in this table.

    Field

    Value

    Code

    PREVEMP

    Name

    Previous Employment

    Description

    Track previous employment information for workers.


  4. Select the Free-Form Type check box.
  5. Click Save and Close.
  6. On the Manage Content Types page, select the Previous Employment content type and click Edit.
  7. On the Edit Content Type page, select the Subscribers tab.
  8. On the Subscribers tab, select HRMS in the Subscriber Code field.
  9. Click Save and Close.

Adding the Free-Form Content Type to the Person Profile Type

  1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, search for the Manage Profile Types task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Profile Types page, select the Person profile type, and click Edit.
  3. On the Edit Profile Type: Person page, select the Content Sections tab and click Add Content Section.
  4. In the Content Types dialog box, select the Previous Employment content type.
  5. In the Content Sections region, click the Previous Employment content type and enter the following properties on the Content Section page, as shown in this table.

    Column Name

    Label

    Display

    ITEM_TEXT30_1

    Previous Employer

    Detail

    ITEM_DATE_1

    From Date

    Detail

    ITEM_DATE_2

    To Date

    Detail

    ITEM_TEXT240_1

    Job Description

    Detail


  6. In the Content Access Section region, click Add.
  7. In the Role field, select Employee.
  8. Select the Update check box.
  9. Click Add.
  10. In the Role field, select Manager.
  11. Click OK.
  12. Click Add.
  13. In the Role field, select HR Specialist.
  14. Click OK.
  15. On the Edit Profile Type: Person page, click Save and Close.

FAQs for Define Talent Profile Content

What's a rating category?

A label for a grouping of rating levels. Rating categories are used in talent management processes such as performance management and talent reviews to group ratings for analysis tools such as the performance and potential box chart.

Why are some content type relationships not editable?

You can edit any content type relationships that you define. However, the relationships that are predefined cannot be changed.

How can I define a relationship between the Goals content type and other content types?

Set up the relationship on the content type that you want to relate to goals using the relationship type: Is supported by. For example, if you want to define a relationship between the Goals content type and the Competencies content type, set up the relationship on the Competencies content type, instead of the Goals content type.

What's a free-form content type?

Free-form content types enable you to capture information in a profile that you do not need to store in the content library. For example, you can set up a free-form content type to store information about the previous employment information for your workers.

A free-form content type contains only a code, name, and a description, and does not have any properties defined for it until you add it to a profile type. Free-form content types do not include any content items.

Why can't I change the relationship type of a content item?

A content item's relationship type is derived from its content type, and you cannot change it. You can only change relationships at the content type level. You cannot change predefined relationships.

Define Talent Profiles

Profile Types: Explained

Profile types include person profile types and model profile types. The person profile type is the template that you use to create profiles of your workers. The person profile contains the skills, qualities, and qualifications that you want to track for your workers. The person profile type is predefined, and you can have only one. Model profile types are templates for workforce structures such as jobs and positions. Model profiles identify the targeted and required skills and qualifications for a job or position, and also identify work requirements, such as work schedule and travel frequency. You can set up multiple model profile types.

To define profile types, you first specify whether the profile type is a person or model profile. For model profiles, you also specify the workforce structures for which the model profile can be used. For example, if you specify that the model profile can be used for jobs and positions, then you can use the profile type to create both job and position profiles. To define the structure of the profile type, you add one or more content sections using content types from the content library and free-form content types. Define the following for each content section:

Instance Qualifier Sets

If you have defined instance qualifier sets for the content type, you select the instance qualifier set to use for the sections.

Section Properties

The properties determine the fields and how they are displayed when you create profiles based on the type. For example, properties determine the label for the field, whether the field is required, and whether the field should be included in profile searches. For sections with content types from the content library, you can use the field properties as they have been defined in the content library, or add, remove, or change the properties to suit the content section. You define all of the properties for free-form content types.

Role Access

You can specify the user roles, such as Employee or Manager, that can view the content section, and which user roles have access to update the section.

Instance Qualifier Sets: Explained

An instance qualifier set is a group of codes that you use to uniquely identify different occurrences of the same profile item within the Competency content type. Instance qualifiers typically identify the role of the person who edited a competency. For example, if a worker, the worker's peer, and the worker's manager all enter a rating for a competency on the worker's profile, instance qualifier sets uniquely identify each instance, or, the rating given by each different role. Uniquely identifying different instances of competencies enables you to specify which instance is used when you view or compare profiles.

Each instance qualifier contains a code and a description, which indicate the role or the application that updated the competency. For example, P is the code that is used when an employee's peer rates the employee and T is used for the rating that results from the talent review meeting. You can use the predefined codes and descriptions, or you can create your own.

In addition to the code and description, each instance qualifier has the following properties:

Priority

Priority determines the order in which different instances of a competency are displayed, and also determines which instance to use when searching and comparing profiles. The lowest number indicates the highest priority.

Employer and Manager Views

Employer and manager views determine which instances are visible to employees and to managers.

Search Ability

You can specify whether items that have been assigned the instance qualifier code should be included in profile searches. For example, you might not want the ratings for competencies given by peers to display when other workers are searching person profiles.

Default Instance Qualifier for Employee and Manager

You can specify the default instance qualifier to use when managers and employees update a competency. Each time an employee or manager updates a competency, the record is assigned the instance qualifier code that is identified as the employee or manager default code.

FAQs for Define Talent Profiles

What's the difference between content sections and content subsections?

Content subsections are for content types that have a parent content type. You add subsections to the content section for the parent content type.

Content sections are for content types that do not have a parent content type.

Define Security for Customer Relationship Management

Security Tasks: Highlights

Security tasks include the following.

Note

Perform security tasks in the integrated Oracle Fusion Applications user interfaces that are provided by the following products.

Security administrative tasks performed by product administrators and implementation consultants, such as managing HCM security profiles, are presented in the documentation for those products.

Prerequisite Tasks for Security Administration

Sign into Oracle Fusion Applications for the first time with the super user account to create an IT security manager user account and provision it with the IT Security Manager role. With that account, perform the required security administration tasks.

Required Security Administration Tasks

Establish at least one implementation user and provision that user with sufficient access to set up the enterprise for all integrated Oracle Fusion Middleware and all application pillars or partitions. Initial security administration includes creating an implementation user, creating a data role for setting up HCM, and provisioning the implementation user with that data role so that the enterprise can be set up with Human Resources (HR) structures. Setup of business units, accounting structures, reference data sets, and so on does not require creation of an HCM administrator data role.

Optional Security Administration Tasks

Once initial security administration is complete and your enterprise is set up with structures such as business units, additional security administration tasks are optional and based on modifying and expanding the predefined security reference implementation to fit your enterprise. See points to consider for defining security, data security and trading partner security after enterprise setup.

Defining Security After Enterprise Setup: Points to Consider

After the implementation user has set up the enterprise, further security administration depends on the requirements of your enterprise.

The Define Security activity within the Information Technology (IT) Management business process includes the following tasks.

If no legacy users, user accounts, roles, and role memberships are available in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store, and no legacy workers are available in Human Resources (HR), the implementation user sets up new users and user accounts and provisions them with roles available in the Oracle Fusion Applications reference implementation.

If no legacy identities (workers, suppliers, customers) exist to represent people in your enterprise, implementation users can create new identities in Human Capital Management (HCM), Supplier Portal, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Self Service, respectively, and associate them with users.

Before Importing Users

Oracle Identity Management (OIM) handles importing users.

If legacy employees, contingent workers, and their assignments exist, the HCM Application Administrator imports these definitions by performing the Load Batch Data task. If user and role provisioning rules have been defined, the Load Batch Data process automatically creates user and role provisioning requests as the workers are created.

Once the enterprise is set up, performing the Load Batch Data task populates the enterprise with HR workers in records linked by global user ID (GUID) to corresponding user accounts in the LDAP store. If no user accounts exist in the LDAP store, the Load Batch Data task results in new user accounts being created. Worker email addresses as an alternate input for the Load Batch Data task triggers a search of the LDAP for user GUIDs, which may perform more slowly than entering user names.

In the security reference implementation, the HCM Application Administrator job role hierarchy includes the HCM Batch Data Loading Duty role, which is entitled to import worker identities. This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Load Batch Data task in HCM.

Note

The Import Person and Organization task in the Define Trading Community Import activity imports the following resources, creates users, and links the resources to users for use in CRM.

If role provisioning rules have been defined, the Import Person and Organization task automatically provisions role requests as the users are created.

Import Users

If legacy users (identities) and user accounts exist outside the LDAP store that is being used by the Oracle Fusion Applications installation, the IT security manager has the option to import these definitions to the LDAP store by performing the Import Worker Users and Import Partner Users tasks.

If no legacy users or user accounts can be imported or exist in an LDAP repository accessible to Oracle Identity Management (OIM), the IT security manager creates users manually in OIM or uses the Load Batch Data task to create users from imported HR workers.

Once users exist, their access to Oracle Fusion Applications is dependent on the roles provisioned to them in OIM or Human Capital Management. Use the Manage HCM Role Provisioning Rules task to define rules that determine what roles are provisioned to users.

Importing user identities from other applications, including other Oracle Applications product lines, is either a data migration or manual task. Migrating data from other Oracle Applications includes user data. For more information about importing users, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Identity Manager.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the HCM Batch Data Loading Duty and the Partner Account Administration Duty. These duty roles provide entitlement to import or create users. The entitlement Load Batch Data provides the access necessary to perform the Import Worker Users task in OIM. The entitlement Import Partner entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Import Partner Users task in OIM.

Manage Job Roles

Job and abstract roles are managed in OIM. This task includes creating and modifying job and abstract roles, but not managing role hierarchies of duties for the jobs.

Note

Manage Job Roles does not include provisioning job roles to users. Provisioning users is done in OIM, HCM, CRM or Oracle Fusion Supplier Portal.

Roles control access to application functions and data. Various types of roles identify the functions performed by users.

The Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation provides predefined job and abstract roles. In some cases, the jobs defined in your enterprise may differ from the predefined job roles in the security reference implementation. The predefined roles and role hierarchies in Oracle Fusion may require changes or your enterprise may require you to create new roles. For example, you need a job role for a petty cash administrator, in addition to an accounts payable manager. The security reference implementation includes a predefined Accounts Payable Manager, and you can create a petty cash administrator role to extend the reference implementation.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Enterprise Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage job and abstract roles (the entitlement is Manage Enterprise Role). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Job Roles task in OIM.

Manage Duties

A person with a job role must be able to perform certain duties. In the Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation, enterprise roles inherit duties through a role hierarchy. Each duty corresponds to a duty role. Duty roles specify the duties performed within applications and define the function and data access granted to the enterprise roles that inherit the duty roles.

Managing duties includes assigning duties to job and abstract roles in a role hierarchy using Authorization Policy Manager (APM). If your enterprise needs users to perform some actions in applications coexistent with Oracle Fusion applications, you may wish to remove the duty roles that enable those actions. For details about which duty roles are specific to the products in an offering, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Security Reference Manual for each offering.

OIM stores the role hierarchy and the spanning of roles across multiple pillars or logical partitions of applications.

In cases where your enterprise needs to provide access to custom functions, it may be necessary to create or modify the duty roles of the reference implementation.

Tip

As a security guideline, use only the predefined duty roles, unless you have added new applications functions. The predefined duty roles fully represent the functions and data that must be accessed by application users and contain all appropriate entitlement. The predefined duty roles are inherently without segregation of duty violations of the constraints used by the Application Access Controls Governor.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Application Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage duty roles (the entitlement is Manage Application Role). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Duties task in APM.

Note

Product family administrators are not entitled to create role hierarchies or manage duty roles and must work with the IT security manager to make changes such as localizing a duty role to change a role hierarchy. Setup for localizations is documented in HCM documentation.

Manage Application Access Controls

Prevent or limit the business activities that a single person may initiate or validate by managing segregation of duties policies in the Application Access Controls Governor (AACG) .

Note

In AACG, segregation of duties policies are called access controls or segregation of duties controls.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Segregation of Duties Policy Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage segregation of duties policies (the entitlement is Manage Segregation of Duties Policy). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Application Access Controls task in AACG.

Security Tasks and Oracle Fusion Applications: How They Fit Together

The major security tasks and their order within the context of an overall Oracle Fusion Applications implementation extend from security setup through production deployment audits.

The Oracle Fusion business process model (BPM) provides a sequence of security implementation tasks that includes the following.

Note

Go live deployment does not require lockdown or specific security tasks because security is enforced across the test to production information life cycle.

Required Roles

The Oracle Fusion Applications installation process sets up a single, super user provisioned with the following enterprise roles.

Additionally, provision the super user with the following roles to enable user and role administration in Oracle Identity Management (OIM) and the Authorization Policy Manager (APM).

Important

As a security guideline, provision a dedicated security professional with the IT Security Manager role as soon as possible after initial security setup and revoke that role from users provisioned with the Application Implementation Consultant role.

The user provisioned with the IT Security Manager role should additionally be provisioned with the following roles.

Provision these roles to the IT security manager using the XELSYSADM user in OIM.

Tools Used to Perform Security Tasks

Security tasks are supported by tools within both Oracle Fusion Applications and Oracle Fusion Middleware.

The figure lists the tasks associated with each of the integrated products and pillars of an Oracle Fusion Applications deployment.

The Oracle Fusion Applications tier
contains Oracle Fusion HCM, General Ledger, Procurement, and Payments.
The Oracle Fusion Middleware provides products in support of common
tasks across applications. The Access Control Governor provides tasks
in support of segregation of duties.

Security Tasks: Overview

Security tasks span multiple business processes and are performed by various roles using numerous integrated tools.

The following table shows the business process model (BPM) tasks and tools used to support securing Oracle Fusion Applications.


Example Task

Oracle BPM Task

Supporting Tools

Details

View duty roles inherited by a job role

Manage Duties

  • Authorization Policy Manager (APM)

Each logical partition or pillar contains a collection of application roles, and function and data security policies.

View entitlement or policies carried by a job role

Manage Duties

  • APM

In LDAP, the policy store stores application roles and the identity store stores enterprise roles.

Add a job role to a role hierarchy

Manage Job Roles

  • Oracle Identity Management (OIM)

The identity store in LDAP stores enterprise roles.

Add a duty role to a role hierarchy

Manage Duties

  • APM

LDAP stores the role hierarchy and the spanning of roles across multiple pillars or logical partitions.

Create a hierarchy of enterprise (abstract, job, data) roles

Manage Job Roles

  • OIM

 

Create a hierarchy of (application) duty roles

Manage Duties

  • APM

 

Create a new job role

  1. Create Job Roles

  2. Manage Job Roles

  • OIM

The identity store in LDAP stores enterprise roles.

Change duty roles inherited by a job or abstract role

Manage Duties

  • APM

The policy store stores duty roles. The identity store stores enterprise roles. Some duty roles may enable actions and their associated users interface features that your enterprise does not want users to perform in Oracle Fusion applications.

Create a new duty role

Manage Duties

  • APM

All functions and actions in Oracle Fusion Applications that need to be secured are covered by the reference implementation. In some cases, especially with function customizations, a new duty role may be needed.

View Segregation of Duties (SOD) policies respected by a duty role

Manage Application Access Controls

  • Application Access Controls Governor (AACG) in Governance, Risk, and Compliance Controls (GRCC)

The Security Reference Manuals (SRM) document the segregation of duties (SOD) policies respected within each job role

View SOD policy violations carried by the duty roles inherited by a job role

Manage Application Access Controls

  • AACG in GRCC

The Security Reference Manuals (SRM) document the SOD policies respected within each job role

View SOD policy violations

Manage Segregation of Duties Policies

  • AACG in GRC

The SRM documents the SOD conflicts for each job role

View the data security policies carried by a job, abstract, and data roles

Manage Data Security Policies

  • APM

Oracle Fusion Data Security stores data security policies in the policy store.

Data security can also be defined in application pages provided by Oracle Middleware Extensions for Applications (FND)

Create and update HCM security profiles

Manage Data Role and Security Profiles

  • Oracle Fusion HCM

This task does not include assigning data roles to the users, which is supported by user provisioning tasks.

Create (generate) a data role

  1. Manage Role Templates

  2. Manage Data Roles and Security Profiles

  • APM

  • Oracle Fusion HCM

Data roles are generated automatically based on data role templates and enterprise setup. Changes to data role templates generate new or changed data roles.

Create data roles in HCM using the Manage Data Roles and Security Profiles task.

Create a new data security policy (not through generated data roles based on data role templates or HCM security profiles)

Manage Data Security Policies

  • APM

Data security can also be defined in application pages provided by Oracle Middleware Extensions for Applications (FND)

View data role templates defined by a product

Manage Role Templates

  • APM

 

Create or edit an existing data role template

Manage Role Templates

  • APM

 

Secure common objects such as attachment categories or profile options

Manage Data Security Policies

  • APM

Data security can also be defined in application pages provided by Oracle Middleware Extensions for Applications (FND)

View, create, update encryption keys used to secure attributes of personally identifiable information

Manage Encryption Keys

  • Oracle Fusion Payments

 

View, create, update Data Access Sets used to secure Ledgers and Ledger Sets

Manage Data Access Sets

  • Oracle Fusion General Ledger

 

View, create, update accounting flexfield segment security rules

Manage Security Segments

  • Oracle Fusion General Ledger

 

View or update the set of job roles that can be provisioned to supplier users

Manage Supplier User Role

  • Supplier Portal

  • Sourcing

These tools are in the Oracle Fusion Procurement product family

Determine the supplier job roles that the supplier self service administrator can provision to supplier users

Manage Supplier User Role Usages

  • Supplier Portal

  • Sourcing

These tools are in the Oracle Fusion Procurement product family

Set default supplier job roles based on the set of supplier roles that are defined by performing the Manage Supplier User Roles task

Manage Supplier User Role Usages

  • Supplier Portal

  • Sourcing

These tools are in the Oracle Fusion Procurement product family

Create a new implementation user

Create Implementation Users

  • OIM

 

Import legacy users

  • Import Worker Users

  • Import Partner Users

  • OIM

 

Create a new user

Manage Users

  • HCM

HCM creates a new user and identity when a new worker is created. The Hire Employee and Add Contingent Worker tasks also result in new user creation requests.

Creating a new user automatically triggers role provisioning requests based on role provisioning rules.

Provision roles to a user

  1. Provision Roles to Implementation Users

  2. Manage Users

  • OIM

  • Oracle Fusion HCM

  • Oracle Fusion CRM

  • Oracle Fusion Suppliers

Implementation users are provisioned through OIM since HCM is not setup at the start of the implementation. The Provision Roles to Implementation Users is not needed once implementation is complete.

Once HCM is setup, HCM is used to provision roles to non-implementation users by performing the Manage Users task. Human Resources (HR) transaction flows such as Hire and Promote also provision roles.

Once supplier users are setup, Supplier Model can be used by internal users to maintain supplier user accounts or supplier users can maintain their accounts in Supplier Portal.

View the job, abstract, and data roles provisioned to a user

  1. Manage Users

  2. Manage User Principal

  3. Provision Roles to Implementation Users

  • Human Capital Management (HCM)

  • OIM

LDAP stores users, roles and provisioning information.

The Manage User Principal and Provision Roles to Implementation Users tasks are not needed once implementation is complete.

Revoke role from user.

Manage Users

  • HCM

You can revoke roles from various Human Resources task flows, the HCM Manage Users task and OIM. User termination includes role revocation.

Approve role provisioning or user account request.

Approve User and Role Provisioning Requests

  • OIM

 

View audit logs

Not applicable

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager

Viewing audit logs is a Oracle Fusion Middleware function and not represented by an Oracle Fusion Applications BPM task.

For more information about provisioning identities and configuring audit policies, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.

There may be more than one navigation path to the graphical user interface in which the task is performed. You can access most security tasks by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for security tasks and task lists.

Define Data Security for Customer Relationship Management

Data Security: Explained

By default, users are denied access to all data.

Data security makes data available to users by the following means.

You secure data by provisioning roles that provide the necessary access. Enterprise roles provide access to data through data security policies defined for the inherited application roles.

When setting up the enterprise with structures such as business units, data roles are automatically generated that inherit job roles based on data role templates. Data roles also can be generated based on HCM security profiles. Data role templates and HCM security profiles enable defining the instance sets specified in data security policies.

When you provision a job role to a user, the job role implicitly limits data access based on the data security policies of the inherited duty roles. When you provision a data role to a user, the data role explicitly limits the data access of the inherited job role to a dimension of data.

Data security consists of privileges conditionally granted to a role and used to control access to the data. A privilege is a single, real world action on a single business object. A data security policy is a grant of a set of privileges to a principal on an object or attribute group for a given condition. A grant authorizes a role, the grantee, to actions on a set of database resources. A database resource is an object, object instance, or object instance set. An entitlement is one or more allowable actions applied to a set of database resources.

Data is secured by the following means.


Data security feature

Does what?

Data security policy

Grants access to roles by means of entitlement

Role

Applies data security policies with conditions to users through role provisioning.

Data role template

Defines the data roles generated based on enterprise setup of data dimensions such as business unit.

HCM security profile

Defines data security conditions on instances of object types such as person records, positions, and document types without requiring users to enter SQL code

Masking

Hides private data on non-production database instances

Encryption

Scrambles data to prevent users without decryption authorization from reading secured data

The sets of data that a user can access via roles are defined in Oracle Fusion Data Security. Oracle Fusion Data Security integrates with Oracle Platform Security Services (OPSS) to entitle users or roles (which are stored externally) with access to data. Users are granted access through the entitlement assigned to the roles or role hierarchy with which the user is provisioned. Conditions are WHERE clauses that specify access within a particular dimension, such as by business unit to which the user is authorized.

Data Security Policies

Data security policies articulate the security requirement "Who can do What on Which set of data," where 'Which set of data' is an entire object or an object instance or object instance set and 'What' is the object entitlement.

For example, accounts payable managers can view AP disbursements for their business unit.


Who

can do

what

on which set of data

Accounts payable managers

view

AP disbursements

for their business unit

A data security policy is a statement in a natural language, such as English, that typically defines the grant by which a role secures business objects. The grant records the following.

For example, disbursement is a business object that an accounts payable manager can manage by payment function for any employee expenses in the payment process.

Note

Some data security policies are not defined as grants but directly in applications code. The security reference manuals for Oracle Fusion Applications offerings differentiate between data security policies that define a grant and data security policies defined in Oracle Fusion applications code.

A business object participating in a data security policy is the database resource of the policy.

Data security policies that use job or duty roles refer to data security entitlement.

For example, the data security policy for the Accounts Payable Manager job role refers to the view action on AP disbursements as the data security entitlement.

Important

The duty roles inherited by the job role can be moved and job roles reassembled without having to modify the data security.

As a security guideline, data security policies based on user session context should entitle a duty role. This keeps both function and data security policies at the duty role level, thus reducing errors.

For example, a Sales Party Management Duty can update Sales Party where the provisioned user is a member of the territory associated with the sales account. Or the Sales Party Management Duty can update Sales Party where the provisioned user is in the management chain of a resource who is on the sales account team with edit access. Or the Participant Interaction Management Duty can view an Interaction where the provisioned user is a participant of the Interaction.

For example, the Disbursement Process Management Duty role includes entitlement to build documents payable into payments. The Accounts Payable Manager job role inherits the Disbursement Process Management Duty role. Data security policies for the Disbursement Process Management Duty role authorize access to data associated with business objects such as AP disbursements within a business unit. As a result, the user provisioned with the Accounts Payable Manager job role is authorized to view AP disbursements within their business unit.

A data security policy identifies the entitlement (the actions that can be made on logical business objects or dashboards), the roles that can perform those actions, and the conditions that limit access. Conditions are readable WHERE clauses. The WHERE clause is defined in the data as an instance set and this is then referenced on a grant that also records the table name and required entitlement.

Data Roles

Data roles are implemented as job roles for a defined set of data.

A data role defines a dimension of data within which a job is performed. The data role inherits the job role that describes the job. For example, a data role entitles a user to perform a job in a business unit.

The data role inherits abstract or job roles and is granted data security privileges. Data roles carry the function security privileges inherited from job roles and also the data security privilege granted on database objects and table rows.

For example, an accounts payables specialist in the US Business Unit may be assigned the data role Accounts Payables Specialist - US Business Unit. This data role inherits the job role Accounts Payables Specialist and grants access to transactions in the US Business Unit.

A data role may be granted entitlement over a set people.

For example, a Benefits Administrator A-E is allowed to administer benefits for all people that have a surname that begins with A-E.

Data roles are created using data role templates. You create and maintain data roles in the Authorization Policy Manager (APM). Use the Manage Data Roles and Security Profiles task to create and maintain HCM data roles in Oracle Fusion HCM.

HCM Security Profiles

HCM security profiles are used to secure HCM data, such as people and departments. You use HCM security profiles to generate grants for an enterprise role. The resulting data role with its role hierarchy and grants operates in the same way as any other data role.

For example, an HCM security profile identifies all employees in the Finance division.

Oracle Fusion Payroll uses HCM security profiles to secure project organizations. Applications outside of HCM can use the HCM Data Roles UI pages to give their roles access to HR people.

Masking and Encryption

Oracle Fusion Applications uses masking to protect sensitive data from view by unauthorized users. Encryption APIs mask sensitive fields in applications user interfaces. Additionally, Oracle Data Masking is available for masking data in non-production instances and Oracle Transparent Data Encryption is available for protecting data in transit or in backups independent of managing encryption keys.

Defining Data Security After Enterprise Setup: Points to Consider

After the implementation user has set up the enterprise, further security administration depends on the requirements of your enterprise.

The Define Data Security activity within the Information Technology (IT) Management business process includes the following tasks.

These tasks address data security administration. For information on using the user interface pages for setting up and managing data security, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Authorization Policy Manager (Oracle Fusion Applications edition).

Note

The Manage Data Role and Security Profiles task, and all other HCM security profile setup tasks are documented in Human Capital Management (HCM) documentation.

Manage Data Access Sets

Data access sets define a set of access privileges to one or more ledgers or ledger sets.

The information on ledgers that are attached to data access sets are secured by function security. Users must have access to the segment values associated with the data access sets to access the corresponding GL account.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Data Access Administration Duty role, which is entitled to manage data access sets (the entitlement is Define General Ledger Data Access Set). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Data Access Sets task in General Ledger.

Manage Segment Security

Balancing or management segment values can secure data within a ledger.

Segment values are stored in GL_ACCESS_SET_ASSIGNMENTS and secured by restrictions, such as Exclude, on parameters that control the set of values that a user can use during data entry.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Application Key Flexfield Administration Duty role, which is entitled to manage application key flexfields (the entitlement is Manage Application Key Flexfield). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Segment Security task in General Ledger.

Manage Role Templates

Data role templates automatically create or update data roles based on dimensions such as business unit. As an enterprise expands, data role templates trigger replication of roles for added dimensions. For example, when creating a new business unit, a data role template generates a new Accounts Payables Manager data role based on the Financials Common Module Template for Business Unit Security data role template.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Application Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage data role templates (the entitlement is Manage Role Template). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Role Templates task in APM.

Manage Data Security Policies

Data security grants provisioned to roles are data security policies. The security reference implementation provides a comprehensive set of predefined data security policies and predetermined data security policies based on data role templates.

Data security policies are available for review in Authorization Policy Manager (APM). Data security policies are implemented by grants stored in Oracle Fusion Data Security (FND_GRANTS).

Data security policies secure the database resources of an enterprise. Database resources are predefined applications data objects and should not be changed. However, for cases where custom database resources must be secured objects, the IT security manager is entitled to manage database resources and create new data security policies.

Warning

Review but do not modify HCM data security policies in APM except as a custom implementation. Use the HCM Manage Data Role And Security Profiles task to generate the necessary data security policies and data roles.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Application Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage data security policies (the entitlement is Manage Data Security Policy). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Data Security Policies task in APM.

Manage Encryption Keys

Create or edit encryption keys held in Oracle Wallet to secure Personally Identifiable Information (PII) attributes This task is only available when Payments is implemented.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Payments Data Security Administration Duty role, which is entitled to manage encryption keys that secure PII (the entitlement is Manage Wallet). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Encryptions Keys task in Payments.

Data Security in the Security Reference Implementation: Explained

The reference implementation contains a set of data security policies that can be inspected and confirmed to be suitable or a basis for further implementation using the Authorization Policy Manager (APM).

The security implementation of an enterprise is likely a subset of the reference implementation, with the enterprise specifics of duty roles, data security policies, and HCM security profiles provided by the enterprise.

The business objects registered as secure in the reference implementation are database tables and views.

Granting or revoking object entitlement to a particular user or group of users on an object instance or set of instances extends the base Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation without requiring customization of the applications that access the data.

Data Security Policies in the Security Reference Implementation

The data security policies in the reference implementation entitle the grantee (a role) to access instance sets of data based on SQL predicates in a WHERE clause.

Tip

When extending the reference implementation with additional data security policies, identify instance sets of data representing the business objects that need to be secured, rather than specific instances or all instances of the business objects.

Predefined data security policies are stored in the data security policy store, managed in the Authorization Policy Manager (APM), and described in the Oracle Fusion Applications Security Reference Manual for each offering. A data security policy for a duty role describes an entitlement granted to any job role that includes that duty role.

Warning

Review but do not modify HCM data security policies in APM except as a custom implementation. Use the HCM Manage Data Role And Security Profiles task to generate the necessary data security policies and data roles.

The reference implementation only enforces a portion of the data security policies in business intelligence that is considered most critical to risk management without negatively affecting performance. For performance reasons it is not practical to secure every level in every dimension. Your enterprise may have a different risk tolerance than assumed by the security reference implementation.

HCM Security Profiles in the Security Reference Implementation

The security reference implementation includes some predefined HCM security profiles for initial usability. For example, a predefined HCM security profile allows line managers to see the people that report to them.

The IT security manager uses HCM security profiles to define the sets of HCM data that can be accessed by the roles that are provisioned to users

Data Roles

The security reference implementation includes no predefined data roles to ensure a fully secured initial Oracle Fusion Applications environment.

The security reference implementation includes data role templates that you can use to generate a set of data roles with entitlement to perform predefined business functions within data dimensions such as business unit. Oracle Fusion Payables invoicing and expense management are examples of predefined business functions. Accounts Payable Manager - US is a data role you might generate from a predefined data role template for payables invoicing if you set up a business unit called US.

HCM provides a mechanism for generating HCM related data roles.

Securing Data Access: Points to Consider

Oracle Fusion Applications supports securing data through role-based access control (RBAC) by the following methods.


Method of securing data

Reason

Example

Data roles apply explicit data security policies on job and abstract roles

Appropriate for job and abstract roles that should only access a subset of data, as defined by the data role template that generates the data role or by HCM security profiles.

Accounts Payable Manager - US data role to provide an accounts payable manager in the US business unit with access to invoices in the US business unit.

Data security policies

Define data access for application roles and provide inheriting job and abstract roles with implicit data security

Projects

If a user has access to the same function through different roles that access different data sets, then the user has access to a union of those data sets.

When a runtime session is created, Oracle Platform Security Services (OPSS) propagates only the necessary user to role mapping based on Oracle Fusion Data Security grants. A grant can specify entitlement to the following.

Data is either identified by the primary key value of the row in the table where the data is stored. Or data is identified by a rule (SQL predicate) applied to the WHERE clause of a query against the table where the data is stored.

Grants

Oracle Fusion Data Security can be used to restrict the following.

Grants control which data a user can access.

Note

Attribute level security using grants requires a data security policy to secure the attribute and the entitlement check enforces that policy.

A grant logically joins a user or role and an entitlement with a static or parameterized object instance set. For example, REGION='WEST' is a static object instance set and REGION=&GRANT_ALIAS.PARAMETER1 is a parameterized object instance set. In the context of a specific object instance, grants specify the allowable actions on the set of accessible object instances. In the database, grants are stored in FND_GRANTS and object instance sets are stored in FND_OBJECT_INSTANCE_SETS. Object access can be tested using the privilege check application programming interface (API).

Securing a Business Object

A business object is a logical entity that is typically implemented as a table or view, and corresponds to a physical database resource. The data security policies of the security reference implementation secure predefined database resources. Use the Manage Data Security Policies task to define and register other database resources.

Data security policies identify sets of data on the registered business object and the actions that may be performed on the business object by a role The grant can be made by data instance, instance set or at a global level..

Note

Use parameterized object instance sets whenever feasible to reduce the number of predicates the database parses and the number of administrative intervention required as static object instances sets become obsolete. In HCM, security profiles generate the instance sets.

Database Resources and Data Security Policies: How They Work Together

A data security policy applies a condition and allowable actions to a database resource for a role. When that role is provisioned to a user, the user has access to data defined by the policy. In the case of the predefined security reference implementation, this role is always a duty role. Data roles generated to inherit the job role based on data role templates limit access to database resources in a particular dimension, such as the US business unit.

The database resource defines and instance of a data object. The data object is a table, view, or flexfield.

The following figure shows the database resource definition as the means by which a data security policy secures a data object. The database resource names the data object. The data security policy grants to a role access to that database resource based on the policy's action and condition.

The database resource is a table or
view in the database, on which a policy is defined that consists of
a condition, an action, and a role.

Database Resources

A database resource specifies access to a table, view, or flexfield that is secured by a data security policy.

Data Security Policies

Data security policies consist of actions and conditions for accessing all, some, or a single row of a database resource.

Note

If the data security policy needs to be less restrictive than any available database resource for a data object, define a new data security policy.

Actions

Actions correspond to privileges that entitle kinds of access to objects, such as view, edit, or delete. The actions allowed by a data security policy include all or a subset of the actions that exist for the database resource.

Conditions

A condition is either a SQL predicate or an XML filter. A condition expresses the values in the data object by a search operator or a relationship in a tree hierarchy. A SQL predicate, unlike an XML filter, is entered in a text field in the data security user interface pages and supports more complex filtering than an XML filter, such as nesting of conditions or sub queries. An XML filter, unlike a SQL predicate, is assembled from choices in the UI pages as an AND statement.

Tip

An XML filter can be effective in downstream processes such as business intelligence metrics. A SQL predicate cannot be used in downstream metrics.

Data Role Templates: Explained

You use data role templates to generate data roles. You generate such data roles, and create and maintain data role templates in the Authorization Policy Manager (APM).

Note

HCM data roles are generated using the Manage Data Roles and Security Profiles task, which uses HCM security profiles, not data role templates, to define the data security condition.

The following attributes define a data role template.

The data role template specifies which base roles to combine with which dimension values for a set of data security policies. The base roles are the parent job or abstract roles of the data roles.

Note

Abstract, job, and data roles are enterprise roles in Oracle Fusion Applications. Oracle Fusion Middleware products such as Oracle Identity Manager (OIM) and Authorization Policy Manager (APM) refer to enterprise roles as external roles. Duty roles are implemented as application roles in APM and scoped to individual Oracle Fusion Applications.

The dimension expresses stripes of data, such as territorial or geographic information you use to partition enterprise data. For example, business units are a type of dimension, and the values picked up for that dimension by the data role template as it creates data roles are the business units defined for your enterprise. The data role template constrains the generated data roles with grants of entitlement to access specific data resources with particular actions. The data role provides provisioned users with access to a dimensional subset of the data granted by a data security policy.

An example of a dimension is a business unit. An example of a dimension value is a specific business unit defined in your enterprise, such as US. An example of a data security policy is a grant to access a business object such as an invoice with a view entitlement.

When you generate data roles, the template applies the values of the dimension and participant data security policies to the group of base roles.

The template generates the data roles using a naming convention specified by the template's naming rule. The generated data roles are stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store. Once a data role is generated, you provision it to users. A user provisioned with a data role is granted permission to access the data defined by the dimension and data security grant policies of the data role template.

For example, a data role template contains an Accounts Payable Specialist role and an Accounts Payable Manager role as its base roles, and region as its dimension, with the dimension values US and UK. The naming convention is [base-role-name]:[DIMENSION-CODE-NAME]. This data role template generates four data roles.

Making Changes To Data Role Templates

If you add a base role to an existing data role template, you can generate a new set of data roles. If the naming rule is unchanged, existing data roles are overwritten.

If you remove a base role from a data role template and regenerate data roles, a resulting invalid role list gives you the option to delete or disable the data roles that would be changed by that removal.

Making Changes to Dimension Values

If you add a dimension value to your enterprise that is used by a data role template, you must regenerate roles from that data role template to create a data role for the new dimension. For example if you add a business unit to your enterprise, you must regenerate data roles from the data role templates that include business unit as a dimension.

If you add or remove a dimension value from your enterprise that is used to generate data roles, regenerating the set of data roles adds or removes the data roles for those dimension values. If your enterprise has scheduled regeneration as an Oracle Enterprise Scheduler Services process, the changes are made automatically.

For information on working with data role templates, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Authorization Policy Manager (Oracle Fusion Applications Edition).

HCM Data Roles: Explained

HCM data roles, like all Oracle Fusion Applications data roles, define data security policies: they enable users to perform a set of tasks, using identified menus, menu items, and pages in application user interfaces, on a specified set of data within those user interfaces. Because data roles are specific to the enterprise, no predefined HCM data roles exist.

How HCM Data Roles Differ from Other Data Roles

HCM data roles differ from other data roles in the following ways:

Selecting the Job Role

Each HCM data role is associated with a single job role, which you select from the list of enterprise roles. The HCM securing objects that the selected role needs to access are identified automatically, and the appropriate types of security profile are displayed. For example, if you select the job role human resource analyst, users with that job role need to access managed person, public person, organization, position, LDG, and document type data; therefore, security profiles for those object types must be included in the HCM data role. The security profile types that appear in the HCM data role vary according to the data requirements of the selected job role.

If you select a job role that requires no access to HCM data secured by security profiles, you cannot create an HCM data role.

Creating or Selecting the Security Profiles

You can either create new security profiles or use existing security profiles. For each object type, you can include only one security profile in an HCM data role.

Users with Multiple HCM Data Roles

When users have multiple HCM data roles, the data security policies arising from each role remain separate. For example, being able to promote or terminate workers in the purchasing department in one HCM data role and view contact details of all workers in the sales department in another HCM data role does not enable a user to promote or terminate workers in the sales department.

Components of the HCM Data Role

The following figure summarizes how the components of the HCM data role contribute to Oracle Fusion Data Security for the data role. Oracle Fusion Data Security comprises the data security policies for data roles that are generated automatically when data roles are created.

The job role that you select in the HCM data role inherits multiple duty roles. Each duty role has one or more function privileges and related data privileges, from which the relevant HCM objects are identified. The specific instances of the objects required by this HCM data role are identified in security profiles and stored in a data instance set. Data security policy data is created automatically in Oracle Fusion Data Security when you create the data role.

Figure showing the relationships between
the components of an HCM data role

For example, the human resource specialist job role inherits the employee hire and worker promotion duty roles, among many others. The inherited duty roles provide both function privileges, such as Hire Employee, Rehire Employee, and Promote Workers, and data privileges to HCM objects, such as person and assignment. The specific instances of those objects required by this HCM data role, such as people with assignments in a specified legal employer and department, are identified in security profiles.

HCM Security Profiles: Explained

A security profile defines the criteria that identify instances of a human capital management (HCM) object. For example, a person security profile defines the criteria that identify one or more person records, and a position security profile defines the criteria that identify one or more positions. When you include a security profile in an HCM data role and provision the data role to a user, that user can access the data instances identified in the security profile. The type of access available to the user (for example whether the user can edit or simply view the data) depends on the job role identified in the HCM data role.

HCM Object Types

You can create security profiles for the following HCM object types:

All security profile definitions for these HCM objects are eventually visible in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Authorization Policy Manager (APM). The name of the security profile's data instance set in the Oracle Fusion Middleware APM is derived from the name of the security profile and the relevant object type. For example, if the security profile name is Manager Hierarchy, then the data instance set for the object PER_ALL_PEOPLE_F is HCM:PER:PER_ALL_PEOPLE_F:Manager Hierarchy.

You must use the Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management interfaces, which are designed for ease of use and access, to create and maintain security profiles; do not use the Oracle Fusion Middleware APM to maintain security profiles for these HCM objects.

Security Criteria in HCM Security Profiles

In any HCM security profile, you specify the criteria that identify data instances of the relevant type. For example, in an organization security profile, you can identify organizations by organization hierarchy, by organization classification, or by listing organizations to include in or exclude from the security profile. All of the criteria in an HCM security profile apply when the data instance set is defined; for example, if you identify organizations by both organization hierarchy and organization classification, then both sets of criteria apply, and only those organizations that satisfy all criteria belong to the data instance set.

Predefined HCM Security Profiles

The following HCM security profiles are predefined:


Security Profile Name

HCM Security Profile Type

Description

View All People

Person

Identifies all person records in the enterprise

View Own Record

Person

Identifies the signed-on user's own person record and the person records of that user's contacts

View Manager Hierarchy

Person

Identifies the signed-on manager's hierarchy

View All Workers

Person

Identifies the person records of all people who have a work relationship in the enterprise

View All Organizations

Organization

Identifies all organizations in the enterprise

View All Positions

Position

Identifies all positions in the enterprise

View All Legislative Data Groups

LDG

Identifies all LDGs in the enterprise

View All Countries

Country

Identifies all countries in the FND_TERRITORIES table

View All Document Types

Document Type

Identifies all document types in the enterprise

View All Payrolls

Payroll

Identifies all payrolls in the enterprise

View All Payroll Flows

Payroll Flow

Identifies all payroll flows in the enterprise

You can include the predefined security profiles in any HCM data role, but you cannot edit them. Note also that the View all option is disabled in any security profile that you create; this restriction exists because predefined security profiles exist for this requirement.

Creating Security Profiles

You can create security profiles either individually or as part of the process of creating an HCM data role. If you have standard requirements, it may be more efficient to create the security profiles individually and include them in appropriate HCM data roles.

Reusability and Inheritance of Security Profiles

Regardless of how you create them, all security profiles are reusable; they do not belong to particular HCM data roles, and you can include them in any HCM data role for which they define an appropriate data instance set.

You can include security profiles in other security profiles. For example, you can include an organization security profile:

Therefore, one security profile can inherit the data instance set defined by another.

Setting Up Data Security for Employees: Worked Example

Oracle Fusion Applications users may need to access Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) person data, such as lists of person names, in their product interfaces. To provide this access, you assign predefined HCM security profiles to relevant abstract roles, such as Employee. This example shows how to assign security profiles to the Employee abstract role.

Searching for the Abstract Role

  1. In the Functional Setup Manager (FSM), click Go to Task for the Manage Data Role and Security Profiles task.
  2. On the Manage HCM Data Roles page, enter the abstract role name Employee in the Role field.
  3. Click Search.
  4. In the search results, highlight the entry for the Employee role.
  5. Click Assign.

Assigning Security Profiles to the Abstract Role

  1. On the Assign Data Role: Security Criteria page use the default values, as shown in this table.

    Field

    Value

    Position Security Profile

    View All Positions

    Country Security Profile

    View All Countries

    LDG Security Profile

    View All Legislative Data Groups

    Person Security Profile (Person section)

    View Own Record

    Person Security Profile (Public Person section)

    View All Workers

    Document Type Security Profile

    View All Document Types


    These are the security profiles that are typically assigned to the Employee abstract role. You may see a subset of these security profiles, depending on the combination of product offerings that you are implementing.

  2. Click Review.
  3. On the Assign Data Role: Review page, click Submit.

Define Users for Customer Relationship Management

Securing Identities and Users: Points To Consider

Identity covers all aspects of an entity's existence within the contexts in which it is used. The identity of an enterprise user consists of HR attributes, roles, resources, and relationships.

HR attributes include identifying information about a user that is relatively static and well understood, such as first and last name, title, and job function.

Roles are part of a user's identity and define the user's purpose and responsibilities.

Within identity management, resources define what a user can and does do. In an enterprise, this typically translates into what resources a user has access to, what privileges they have on that resource, and what they have been doing on that resource. Resources can be application accounts or physical devices such as laptops or access cards. The enterprise owns the resources, secures them, and manages access to the resources by managing the user's identity and access.

Relationships establish the portion of user identities that involve organizational transactions such as approvals.

An Oracle Fusion Applications user and corresponding identity are usually created in a single transaction, such as when a worker is created in Human Resources (HR). That transaction automatically triggers provisioning requests for the user based on role provisioning rules.

User accounts for some identities that are not employees, such as partner contacts, may be created in a later transaction using an identity that is already created in the identity store. Supplier contacts are created in the Supplier Model, not HR.

Stores

Various locations store identity and user data.

Identity data consists of the following.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, identities and users correspond one to one, but not all identities correspond to a user, and not all users are provisioned with an identity. Some identities stored in HR and Trading Community Model may not be provisioned to user accounts and therefore are not synchronized with Oracle Identity Management (OIM). For example, a contact for a prospective customer is an identity in Trading Community Model but may not be provisioned with a user account in OIM. Some users stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store may not be provisioned with identities. For example, system user accounts used to run Web services to integrate third party services with Oracle Fusion Applications are not associated with a person record in HR or Trading Community Model. Some identifying credentials such as name, department, e-mail address, manager, and location are stored with user data in the LDAP store.

Importing Users

You can import users or user attributes in bulk from existing legacy identity and user stores.

Your tasks may include the following.

You can reserve a specific user name not currently in use for use in the future, or release a reserved username from the reservation list and make it available for use. Between a user registration request and approved registration, Oracle Fusion Applications holds the requested user name on the reservation list, and releases the name if an error occurs in the self-registration process or the request is rejected. Self-registration processes check the reservation list for user name availability and suggest alternative names.

Provisioning Events

New identities, such as new hires, trigger user and role provisioning events. In addition to user creation tasks, other tasks, such as Promote Worker or Transfer Worker, result in role provisioning and recalculation based on role provisioning rules.

When an identity's attributes change, you may need to provision the user with different roles. Role assignments may be based on job codes, and a promotion triggers role provisioning changes. Even if the change in the identities attributes requires no role assignment change, such as with a name change, OIM synchronizes the corresponding user information in the LDAP store.

Deactivating or terminating an identity triggers revocation of some roles to end all assignments, but may provision new roles needed for activities, such as a pay stub review. If the corresponding user for the identity was provisioned with a buyer role, terminating the identity causes the user's buyer record in Procurement to be disabled, just as the record was created when the user was first provisioned with the buyer role.

Notifications and Audits

Oracle Fusion Applications provides mechanisms for notifying and auditing requests or changes affecting identities and users.

Oracle Fusion Applications notifies requestors, approvers, and beneficiaries when a user account or role is provisioned. For example, when an anonymous user registers as a business-to-customer (B2C) user, the B2C user must be notified of the registration activation steps, user account, password and so on once the approver (if applicable) has approved the request and the user is registered in the system.

User ID and GUID attributes are available in Oracle Fusion Applications session information for retrieving authenticated user and identity data.

End user auditing data is stored in database WHO columns and used for the following activities.

You can conduct real time audits that instantiate a runtime session and impersonate the target user (with the proxy feature) to test what a user has access to under various conditions such as inside or outside firewall and authentication level.

For information on configuring audit policies and the audit store, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.

Delegated Administration

You can designate local administrators as delegated administrators to manage a subset of users and roles.

Delegated administrators can be internal or external persons who are provisioned with a role that authorizes them to handle provisioning events for a subset of users and roles.

For example, internal delegated administrators could be designated to manage users and roles at the division or department level. External delegated administrators could be designated to manage users and roles in an external organization such as a primary supplier contact managing secondary users within that supplier organization.

You can also define delegated administration policies based on roles. You authorize users provisioned with specific roles named in the policy to request a subset of roles for themselves if needed, such as authorizing a subset of roles for a subset of people. For example, the policy permits a manager of an Accounts Payables department to approve a check run administrator role for one of their subordinates, but prohibits the delegated administrator from provisioning a budget approver role to the subordinate.

Credentials

You activate or change credentials on users by managing them in Oracle Identity Management (OIM)

Applications themselves must be credentialed to access one another.

Oracle Fusion Applications distinguishes between user identities and application identities (APPID). Predefined application identities serve to authorize jobs and transactions that require higher privileges than users.

For example, a payroll manager may submit a payroll run. The payroll application may need access to the employee's taxpayer ID to print the payslip. However, the payroll manager is not authorized to view taxpayer IDs in the user interface as they are considered personally identifiable information (PII).

Calling applications use application identities (APPID) to enable the flow of transaction control as it moves across trust boundaries. For example, a user in the Distributed Order Orchestration product may release an order for shipping. The code that runs the Pick Notes is in a different policy store than the code that releases the product for shipment. When the pick note printing program is invoked it is the Oracle Fusion Distributed Order Orchestration Application Development Framework (ADF) that is invoking the program and not the end user.

Role Provisioning and Deprovisioning: Explained

A user's access to data and functions depends on the user's roles: users have one or more roles that enable them to perform the tasks required by their jobs or positions. Roles must be provisioned to users; otherwise, users have no access to data or functions.

Role Provisioning Methods

Roles can be provisioned to users:

For both automatic and manual role provisioning, you create a role mapping to identify when a user becomes eligible for a role.

Oracle Identity Management (OIM) can be configured to notify users when their roles change; notifications are not issued by default.

Role Types

Data roles, abstract roles, and job roles can be provisioned to users. Roles available for provisioning include predefined roles, HCM data roles, and roles created using OIM.

Automatic Role Provisioning

A role is provisioned to a user automatically when at least one of the user's assignments satisfies the conditions specified in the relevant role-mapping definition. The provisioning occurs when the assignment is either created or updated. For example, when a person is promoted to a management position, the line manager role is provisioned automatically to the person if an appropriate role mapping exists. Any change to a person's assignment causes the person's automatically provisioned roles to be reviewed and updated as necessary.

Role Deprovisioning

Automatically provisioned roles are deprovisioned automatically as soon as a user no longer satisfies the role-mapping conditions. For example, a line manager role that is provisioned to a user automatically is deprovisioned automatically when the user ceases to be a line manager.

Automatically provisioned roles can be deprovisioned manually at any time.

Manually provisioned roles are deprovisioned automatically only when all of the user's work relationships are terminated; in all other circumstances, users retain manually provisioned roles until they are deprovisioned manually.

Changes to Assignment Managers

When a person's line manager is changed, the roles of both new and previous line managers are updated as necessary. For example, if the person's new line manager now satisfies the conditions in the role mapping for the line manager role, and the role is one that is eligible for autoprovisioning, then that role is provisioned automatically to the new line manager. Similarly, if the previous line manager no longer satisfies the conditions for the line manager role, then that role is deprovisioned automatically.

Roles at Termination

When a work relationship is terminated, all automatically provisioned roles for which the user does not qualify in other work relationships are deprovisioned automatically. Manually provisioned roles are deprovisioned automatically only if the user has no other work relationships; otherwise, the user retains all manually provisioned roles until they are deprovisioned manually.

Automatic deprovisioning can occur either as soon as the termination is submitted or approved or on the day after the termination date. The user who is terminating the work relationship selects the appropriate deprovisioning date.

Role mappings can provision roles to users automatically at termination. For example, the locally defined roles Retiree and Beneficiary could be provisioned to users at termination based on assignment status and person type values.

If a termination is later reversed, roles that were deprovisioned automatically at termination are reinstated and post-termination roles are deprovisioned automatically.

Date-Effective Changes to Assignments

Automatic role provisioning and deprovisioning are based on current data. For a future-dated transaction, such as a future promotion, role changes are identified and role provisioning occurs on the day the changes take effect, not when the change is entered. The process Send Pending LDAP Requests identifies future-dated transactions and manages role provisioning and deprovisioning at the appropriate time. Note that such role-provisioning changes are effective as of the system date; therefore, a delay of up to 24 hours may occur before users in other time zones acquire the access for which they now qualify.

Role Mappings: Explained

User access to data and functions is determined by abstract, job, and data roles, which are provisioned to users either automatically or manually. To enable a role to be provisioned to users, you define a relationship, known as a mapping, between the role and a set of conditions, typically assignment attributes such as department, job, and system person type. In a role mapping, you can select any role stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory, including Oracle Fusion Applications predefined roles, roles created in Oracle Identity Management (OIM), and HCM data roles.

The role mapping can support:

Automatic Provisioning of Roles to Users

A role is provisioned to a user automatically if:

For example, for the HCM data role Sales Manager Finance Department, you could select the Autoprovision option and specify the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Department

Finance Department

Job

Sales Manager

Assignment Status

Active

The HCM data role Sales Manager Finance Department is provisioned automatically to users with at least one assignment that satisfies all of these conditions.

Automatic role provisioning occurs as soon as the user is confirmed to satisfy the role-mapping conditions, which can be when the user's assignment is either created or updated. The provisioning process also removes automatically provisioned roles from users who no longer satisfy the role-mapping conditions.

Note

The automatic provisioning of roles to users is effectively a request to OIM to provision the role. OIM may reject the request if it violates segregation-of-duties rules or fails a custom OIM approval process.

Manual Provisioning of Roles to Users

Users such as human resource (HR) specialists and line managers can provision roles manually to other users; you create a role mapping to identify roles that can be provisioned in this way.

Users can provision a role to other users if:

For example, for the HCM data role Quality Assurance Team Leader, you could select the Requestable option and specify the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Manager with Reports

Yes

Assignment Status

Active

Any user with at least one assignment that satisfies both of these conditions can provision the role Quality Assurance Team Leader manually to other users, who are typically direct and indirect reports.

If the user's assignment subsequently changes, there is no automatic effect on roles provisioned by this user to others; they retain manually provisioned roles until either all of their work relationships are terminated or the roles are manually deprovisioned.

Role Requests from Users

Users can request roles when reviewing their own account information; you create a role mapping to identify roles that users can request for themselves.

Users can request a role if:

For example, for the Expenses Reporting role you could select the Self-requestable option and specify the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Department

ABC Department

System Person Type

Employee

Assignment Status

Active

Any user with at least one assignment that satisfies all of these conditions can request the role. The user acquires the role either immediately or, if approval is required, once the request is approved. Self-requested roles are classified as manually provisioned.

If the user's assignment subsequently changes, there is no automatic effect on self-requested roles. Users retain manually provisioned roles until either all of their work relationships are terminated or the roles are manually deprovisioned.

Immediate Provisioning of Roles

When you create a role mapping, you can apply autoprovisioning from the role mapping itself.

In this case, all assignments and role mappings in the enterprise are reviewed. Roles are:

Immediate autoprovisioning from the role mapping enables bulk automatic provisioning of roles to a group of users who are identified by the role-mapping conditions. For example, if you create a new department after a merger, you can provision relevant roles to all users in the new department by applying autoprovisioning immediately.

To provision roles immediately to a single user, the user's line manager or an HR specialist can autoprovision roles from that user's account.

Role-Mapping Names

The names of role mappings must be unique in the enterprise. You are recommended to devise a naming scheme that reveals the scope of each role mapping. For example:


Name

Description

Autoprovisioned Roles Sales Department

Mapping includes all roles provisioned automatically to anyone in the sales department

Benefits Specialist Autoprovisioned

Mapping defines the conditions for autoprovisioning the Benefits Specialist role

Line Manager Requestable Roles

Mapping includes all roles that a line manager can provision manually to direct and indirect reports

Role Mappings: Examples

Roles must be provisioned to users explicitly, either automatically or manually; no role is provisioned to a user by default. This topic provides some examples of typical role mappings to support automatic and manual role provisioning.

Creating a Role Mapping for Employees

You want all employees in your enterprise to have the Employee role automatically when they are hired. In addition, employees must be able to request the Expenses Reporting role when they need to claim expenses. Few employees will need this role, so you decide not to provision it automatically to all employees.

You create a role mapping called All Employees and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

System Person Type

Employee

Assignment Status

Active

In the role mapping you include the:

You could create a similar role mapping for contingent workers called All Contingent Workers, where you would set the system person type to contingent worker.

Note

If the Employee and Contingent Worker roles are provisioned automatically, pending workers acquire them when their periods of employment or placements start. If they need roles before then, you create a separate role mapping for the pending worker system person type.

Creating a Role Mapping for Line Managers

Any type of worker can be a line manager in the sales business unit. You create a role mapping called Line Manager Sales BU and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Business Unit

Sales

Assignment Status

Active

Manager with Reports

Yes

You include the Line Manager role and select the Autoprovision option. This role mapping ensures that the Line Manager role is provisioned automatically to any worker with at least one assignment that matches the role-mapping conditions.

In the same role mapping, you could include roles that line managers in this business unit can provision manually to other users by selecting the roles and marking them as requestable. Similarly, if line managers can request roles for themselves, you could include those in the same role mapping and mark them as self-requestable.

Creating a Role Mapping for Retirees

Retirees in your enterprise need a limited amount of system access to manage their retirement accounts. You create a role mapping called All Retirees and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

System Person Type

Retiree

Assignment Status

Inactive

You include the locally defined role Retiree in the role mapping and select the Autoprovision option. When at least one of a worker's assignments satisfies the role-mapping conditions, the Retiree role is provisioned to that worker automatically.

Creating a Role Mapping for Sales Managers

Grade 6 sales managers in the sales department need the Sales Manager role. In addition, sales managers need to be able to provision the Sales Associate role to other workers. You create a role mapping called Sales Managers Sales Department and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Department

Sales

Job

Sales manager

Grade

6

Assignment Status

Active

In the role mapping, you include the:

Defining Security After Enterprise Setup: Points to Consider

After the implementation user has set up the enterprise, further security administration depends on the requirements of your enterprise.

The Define Security activity within the Information Technology (IT) Management business process includes the following tasks.

If no legacy users, user accounts, roles, and role memberships are available in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store, and no legacy workers are available in Human Resources (HR), the implementation user sets up new users and user accounts and provisions them with roles available in the Oracle Fusion Applications reference implementation.

If no legacy identities (workers, suppliers, customers) exist to represent people in your enterprise, implementation users can create new identities in Human Capital Management (HCM), Supplier Portal, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Self Service, respectively, and associate them with users.

Before Importing Users

Oracle Identity Management (OIM) handles importing users.

If legacy employees, contingent workers, and their assignments exist, the HCM Application Administrator imports these definitions by performing the Load Batch Data task. If user and role provisioning rules have been defined, the Load Batch Data process automatically creates user and role provisioning requests as the workers are created.

Once the enterprise is set up, performing the Load Batch Data task populates the enterprise with HR workers in records linked by global user ID (GUID) to corresponding user accounts in the LDAP store. If no user accounts exist in the LDAP store, the Load Batch Data task results in new user accounts being created. Worker email addresses as an alternate input for the Load Batch Data task triggers a search of the LDAP for user GUIDs, which may perform more slowly than entering user names.

In the security reference implementation, the HCM Application Administrator job role hierarchy includes the HCM Batch Data Loading Duty role, which is entitled to import worker identities. This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Load Batch Data task in HCM.

Note

The Import Person and Organization task in the Define Trading Community Import activity imports the following resources, creates users, and links the resources to users for use in CRM.

If role provisioning rules have been defined, the Import Person and Organization task automatically provisions role requests as the users are created.

Import Users

If legacy users (identities) and user accounts exist outside the LDAP store that is being used by the Oracle Fusion Applications installation, the IT security manager has the option to import these definitions to the LDAP store by performing the Import Worker Users and Import Partner Users tasks.

If no legacy users or user accounts can be imported or exist in an LDAP repository accessible to Oracle Identity Management (OIM), the IT security manager creates users manually in OIM or uses the Load Batch Data task to create users from imported HR workers.

Once users exist, their access to Oracle Fusion Applications is dependent on the roles provisioned to them in OIM or Human Capital Management. Use the Manage HCM Role Provisioning Rules task to define rules that determine what roles are provisioned to users.

Importing user identities from other applications, including other Oracle Applications product lines, is either a data migration or manual task. Migrating data from other Oracle Applications includes user data. For more information about importing users, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Identity Manager.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the HCM Batch Data Loading Duty and the Partner Account Administration Duty. These duty roles provide entitlement to import or create users. The entitlement Load Batch Data provides the access necessary to perform the Import Worker Users task in OIM. The entitlement Import Partner entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Import Partner Users task in OIM.

Manage Job Roles

Job and abstract roles are managed in OIM. This task includes creating and modifying job and abstract roles, but not managing role hierarchies of duties for the jobs.

Note

Manage Job Roles does not include provisioning job roles to users. Provisioning users is done in OIM, HCM, CRM or Oracle Fusion Supplier Portal.

Roles control access to application functions and data. Various types of roles identify the functions performed by users.

The Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation provides predefined job and abstract roles. In some cases, the jobs defined in your enterprise may differ from the predefined job roles in the security reference implementation. The predefined roles and role hierarchies in Oracle Fusion may require changes or your enterprise may require you to create new roles. For example, you need a job role for a petty cash administrator, in addition to an accounts payable manager. The security reference implementation includes a predefined Accounts Payable Manager, and you can create a petty cash administrator role to extend the reference implementation.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Enterprise Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage job and abstract roles (the entitlement is Manage Enterprise Role). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Job Roles task in OIM.

Manage Duties

A person with a job role must be able to perform certain duties. In the Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation, enterprise roles inherit duties through a role hierarchy. Each duty corresponds to a duty role. Duty roles specify the duties performed within applications and define the function and data access granted to the enterprise roles that inherit the duty roles.

Managing duties includes assigning duties to job and abstract roles in a role hierarchy using Authorization Policy Manager (APM). If your enterprise needs users to perform some actions in applications coexistent with Oracle Fusion applications, you may wish to remove the duty roles that enable those actions. For details about which duty roles are specific to the products in an offering, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Security Reference Manual for each offering.

OIM stores the role hierarchy and the spanning of roles across multiple pillars or logical partitions of applications.

In cases where your enterprise needs to provide access to custom functions, it may be necessary to create or modify the duty roles of the reference implementation.

Tip

As a security guideline, use only the predefined duty roles, unless you have added new applications functions. The predefined duty roles fully represent the functions and data that must be accessed by application users and contain all appropriate entitlement. The predefined duty roles are inherently without segregation of duty violations of the constraints used by the Application Access Controls Governor.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Application Role Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage duty roles (the entitlement is Manage Application Role). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Duties task in APM.

Note

Product family administrators are not entitled to create role hierarchies or manage duty roles and must work with the IT security manager to make changes such as localizing a duty role to change a role hierarchy. Setup for localizations is documented in HCM documentation.

Manage Application Access Controls

Prevent or limit the business activities that a single person may initiate or validate by managing segregation of duties policies in the Application Access Controls Governor (AACG) .

Note

In AACG, segregation of duties policies are called access controls or segregation of duties controls.

In the security reference implementation, the IT Security Manager job role hierarchy includes the Segregation of Duties Policy Management Duty role, which is entitled to manage segregation of duties policies (the entitlement is Manage Segregation of Duties Policy). This entitlement provides the access necessary to perform the Manage Application Access Controls task in AACG.

Creating Users: Worked Example

You can create users by entering basic person and employment data. A user account is created automatically for a person when you create the user record. You can assign the users Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) and non-HCM data roles, each providing access to specific functions and data. This example demonstrates how to create a user and assign roles to the user.

Note

This user management functionality is available for HCM Foundation and Oracle Fusion Workforce Directory Management (WDM) users only.


Decisions to Consider

In this Example

For whom are you creating the user record?

Gail Williams

What is the user account name?

Same as the e-mail ID, gail.williams@vision.com

Where is Gail employed?

Gail is an employee of Vision Corporation, and works in the Human Resources (HR) department in the Canada office.

What roles must be provisioned to Gail?

Autoprovision the employee role. Gail is responsible for processing workers' expense claims so provision the role Expense Claims Administrator manually to Gail.

Prerequisites

  1. Create a role mapping called All Employees and enter the following conditions.

    Attribute

    Value

    System Person Type

    Employee

    Assignment Status

    Active


    In the role mapping you include the:

Creating a User

  1. On the Manage Users page, in the Search Results region, click the Create icon to open the Create User page.
  2. Complete the fields, as shown in this table:

    Field

    Value

    Last Name

    Williams

    First Name

    Gail

    E-Mail

    gail.williams@vision.com

    Hire Date

    4/12/11


  3. In the User Details region, leave the User Name field blank. The user name defaults to the user's e-mail ID.
  4. In the Employment Information region, select the person type Employee and complete the fields as shown in the table:

    Field

    Value

    Legal Employer

    Vision Corporation

    Business Unit

    Vision Canada

    Department

    Human Resources


Assigning Roles to the User

  1. Click Autoprovision Roles to provision the employee role to the user.
  2. Click Add Role.
  3. Search for and select the Expense Claims Administrator role.
  4. Click Save and Close. The user account is created and the roles are assigned to the user immediately.

Define Automated Governance, Risk, and Performance Controls

Segregation of Duties: Explained

Segregation of duties (SOD) separates activities such as approving, recording, processing, and reconciling results so an enterprise can more easily prevent or detect unintentional errors and willful fraud. SOD policies, called access control policies in Application Access Controls Governor (AACG), exert both preventive and detective effects.

SOD policies constrain duties across roles so that unethical, illegal, or damaging activities are less likely. SOD policies express constraints among roles. Duty role definitions respect segregation of duties policies.

Application Access Controls Governor

You manage, remediate, and enforce access controls to ensure effective SOD using the Application Access Controls Governor (AACG) product in the Oracle Governance, Risk and Compliance Controls (GRCC) suite.

AACG applies the SOD policies of the Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation using the AACG Oracle Fusion Adapter.

AACG is integrated with Oracle Identity Management (OIM) in Oracle Fusion Applications to prevent SOD control violations before they occur by ensuring SOD compliant user access provisioning. SOD constraints respect provisioning workflows. For example, when provisioning a Payables role to a user, the SOD policy that ensures no user is entitled to create both an invoice and a payment prevents the conflicting roles from being provisioned. AACG validates the request to provision a user with roles against SOD policies and provides a remediating response such as approval or rejections if a violation is raised.

Use AACG to for the following.

Managing Segregation of Duties

SOD policies express incompatible entitlement or incompatible access points into an application. In GRCC, an access point is the lowest level access for a particular application. In GRCC, entitlement is a grouping of access points. As a security guideline, group the lowest level access points or define the SOD policy at the access level causing the least amount of change. Business activities are enabled at access points. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the hierarchy of access points in descending levels is users, roles, and entitlement.

Note

AACG entitlements are logical groupings of security objects that represent Oracle Fusion Application access points such as roles or entitlement.

Note

In AACG, segregation of duties policies are called access controls.

Oracle Fusion Applications does not predefine business logic for dealing with SOD conflicts. Oracle Fusion Applications does define a set of states where role requests are suspended pending resolution of SOD violations the role request introduces. In most cases, Oracle Fusion Applications invokes OIM to handle role requests. Enterprises define SOD resolution rules when defining SOD policy.

Remediating Segregation of Duties Policy Violations

The risk tolerance of your enterprise determines what duties must be segregated and how to address violations.

AACG assists in remediation of violations with a guided simulation that identifies corrective action. You determine the exact effects of role and entitlement changes prior to putting them into production, and adjust controls as needed.

For information on managing segregation of duties, see the Oracle Application Access Controls Governor Implementation Guide and Oracle Application Access Controls Governor User's Guide.

Defining Segregation of Duties Policies: Points To Consider

Segregation of duties (SOD) policies express incompatibilities enforced to control access in defined contexts.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, SOD policies protect against the following incompatibilities.

The following examples of SOD policies illustrate incompatible entitlement.

Data Contexts

You can extend SOD policies to control access to specific data contexts.

For example, no single individual must be able to source a supplier in a business unit and approve a supplier invoice in the same business unit.

Exclusion and Inclusion Conditions

SOD policies may include exclusion conditions to narrow the SOD scope and reduce false positive violations, or inclusion conditions to broaden the scope.

Conditions apply to access points globally, to policies, or to access paths defined by policies. Access path conditions can exclude a user from a role, an Oracle Fusion Applications entitlement from a role, or a permission from an Oracle Fusion Applications entitlement.

The following global exclusion conditions are predefine in Oracle Fusion Applications and available when creating SOD policies.

Enforcement

Oracle Fusion Applications enforces SOD policies under the following circumstances.

For information on managing segregation of duties, see Oracle Application Access Controls Governor Implementation Guide and Oracle Application Access Controls Governor User's Guide.

Note

SOD policies are not enforced at the time of role definition.

A single SOD policy can include entitlement from multiple instances of a single enterprise resource planning environment. For example, one SOD policy is enforced in implementation, test, and production instances of Oracle Fusion Applications.

Managing Segregation of Duties Risks and Violations: Critical Choices

You assess and balance the cost of duty segregation against reduction of risk based on the requirements of your enterprise.

The types of people who resolve SOD conflicts include the following.

You view and respond to risks and violations in the Application Access Controls Governor (AACG).

You may wish to override an SOD violation. For example, the Accounts Payable Supervisor includes incompatible duties to create both invoices and payments when you provision this job role to a user, you may waive the violation in the AACG. You may waive the violation for the currently provisioned user, for the SOD policy that raised the violation, or for the SOD policy within a particular data set, such as a business unit.

The risk tolerance of your enterprise guides how you respond to conflicts. For example, a user may be provisioned with both the role of Order Manager and Shipping Agent. The Order Manger role entitles the user to enter orders, which could result in exploitation when filling shipping quotas. You can remove the entitlement to enter orders that the Order Manger job role inherits from the Orchestration Order Scheduling Duty role. Or you could segregate the shipping and order entry duties by defining an SOD policy that allows a user to have either job role but not both.

False Positives

False positives can be SOD policy violations that aren't actually violations or violations that are within your risk tolerance and therefore do not require corrective action.

You can reduce false positives by the following methods.

Path Level Detection

Conflict analysis detects a user's multiple paths to one or more conflicting access points.

For example, a user may be able to reach a single access point through one or more roles, or by one entitlement leading to another through submenus to a function that represents a risk. The resulting conflict path shows if the conflict is generated by inappropriate role provisioning or configuration of applications. The audit shows the paths from any number of users to any number of access points involved in conflicts, which lets you visualize the root cause and remediate effectively.

AACG assigns one or more users to review all paths involved in a given conflict so that the entire conflict can be addressed in a coherent way.

Waiving or Accepting Violations

AACG lets you accept or waive a violation. Your reasons may include that you accept the risk or will define compensating controls.

A waiver may apply to the current user, constraint, or constraint within a dimension such as the business unit.

Resolving Conflicts

The risk tolerance of the enterprise determines whether a segregation of duties conflict must be removed from the security reference implementation.

The following approaches resolve conflicts.

Changing a segregation of duties policy may not be possible in most cases. For example, a policy that segregates creation of payables invoice from making payables payments should be preserved, even if the Accounts Payables Manager job role includes a duty role for each activity. To prevent an accounts payables manager from being authorized to perform both duties, or from being authorized to make payables payments to self and direct reports, the Accounts Payables Manager job role must be changed. The security implementation can be changed to include two job roles that segregate the incompatible duties. Added data security policy grants can restrict the access to at risk data.

For information on managing segregation of duties, see the Oracle Application Access Controls Governor Implementation Guide and Oracle Application Access Controls Governor User's Guide.

Role Provisioning and Segregation of Duties: How They Work Together

Segregation of duties (SOD) checks occur when roles are assigned to users. The checks are based on Oracle Application Access Controls Governor (AACG) policies. The Oracle Identity Management (OIM) integration includes predefined routing rules for remediation in the Manage IT Security business process.

External users such as suppliers or partners need to be provisioned with roles to facilitate access to parent company interfaces and data. The process by which such provisioning requests are approved in Oracle Fusion Applications helps explain the request flows and possible outcomes.

Note

In Oracle Identity Management (OIM), external users means users who are not specific to applications, such as enterprise roles or the absence of entitlement to access an application.

The figure shows the role provisioning request flow. OIM uses AACG to check segregation of duties violations.

The image shows the flow from Fusion
Supplier or Partner Relationship Management (PRM) application through
the HRMS SPML client, Oracle Identity Management, and the segregation
of duties exception approval workflow based on Approval Management
Service (AMX) rules to the global applications worklist of approvers.

Tables

A supplier or partner requests admission to a program using an implementation of the Supplier Portal Submission. The submission is captured in one or both of the following tables in advance of approving or rejecting the supplier or partner.

Oracle Fusion Applications collects the employee names for the supplier or partner company at the time the company submits its request to join the program so that all employees accessing Oracle Fusion Applications on behalf of the supplier or partner are provisioned.

AACG in the Oracle Governance, Risk and Compliance Controls (GRCC) suite is certified to synchronize with the policy and identity stores for all pillars or partitions of Oracle Fusion Applications and integrated with the Oracle Fusion Applications security approach to roll up entitlements (by means of duty roles) to the roles that are provisioned to internal users. SOD policies can be defined and enforced at any level of authorization. For external users, SOD policies use attribute information stored in the Trading Community Model tables.

OIM and the SPML Client

Enterprise business logic may qualify the requester and initiate a role provisioning request by invoking the Services Provisioning Markup Language (SPML) client module, as may occur during onboarding of internal users with Human Capital Management (HCM), in which case the SPML client submits an asynchronous SPML call to OIM. Or OIM handles the role request by presenting roles for selection based on associated policies.

OIM recognizes the role provisioning request and initiates a call to AACG.

OIM apprises the SPML client of the current state of the role provisioning request as SOD_CHECK_IN_PROGRESS.

OIM stores the SOD check result as part of OIM audit data.

OIM apprises SPML client of the current state of the SPML request. The provisioning is either still in progress with segregation of duties being checked, or conflicts were found. If conflicts exist, AACG rejects the request and notifies the application.


Status

Conflicts

Current State

SOD_CHECK_IN_PROGRESS

Unknown

Request sent to AACG and waiting for response

SOD_REMEDIATION_IN_PROGRESS

Conflict found

AACG detected violations and remediation is in progress

SOD_CHECK_APPROVED

No conflict found

No SOD violations found

SOD_CHECK_REJECTED

Conflict found

AACG detected violations that cannot be remediated

SOD_REMEDIATION_APPROVED

Conflict found

AACG detected violations that are approved

SOD_REMEDIATION_REJECTED

Conflict found

AACG detected violations that are rejected by approver

In the absence of an SOD exception, OIM provisions all relevant users.

Note

When a partner user is provisioned, all employees of the partner enterprise are provisioned. SOD checks occur when an external user requests to join a program, because SOD policies operate across Oracle Fusion Applications, not at the individual level. Supplier or partner company user requests are not approved if there is an SOD conflict against the supplier company.

OIM provides AACG with the details of SOD exception approval workflow. AACG audits the outcome for use in future detective controls and audit processes.

Oracle Application Access Controls Governor

AACG may respond with the following.

Supplier or Partner Relationship Management responds to an SOD exception by updating Trading Community Model tables with the current state. An enterprise may elect to implement a landing pad that offers external users a means of addressing the SOD problem by providing more information or withdrawing the request.

SOD violation checking occurs during role implementation and provisioning, and can be turned on or off if AACG is provisioned and enabled as part of the Oracle Fusion Applications deployment.

Segregation of Duties Exception Resolution or Approval Workflow

Depending upon status, OIM kicks off an auditable SOD exception resolution workflow. Resolution can be conditional based on approval or requirements such as contracts being met.

If one of the paths for exception resolution is to get an approval, then the SOD exception resolution drives the approval using AMX. Standard AMX rules, not business rules, resolve the approval for the SOD exception, including the following.

The approver resolution uses AMX Rules Designer to access various user attributes and organizational hierarchies managed in Oracle Fusion Applications repositories. This information is typically not available in OIM or the LDAP identity store repository. Enterprises can define additional approval rules using AMX Thin Client.

The SOD Exception Approver gets a notification through supported channels that a new request is awaiting approval. The approver signs in to the global SOA federated worklist application that aggregates all pending worklist items for the user from all Oracle Fusion applications and logical partitions or pillars of applications. The SOD exception approval tasks show up in the same list.

The SOD exception approval task shows the details of the SPML request and SOD Provisioning results in a page rendered by OIM. The approver may take one of the following actions.

If the approver approves the request, OIM sends an SOD_REMEDIATION_APPROVED status to the SPML client.

If the approver rejects the request, OIM sends an SOD_REMEDIATION_REJECTED status to the SPML client. The provisioning request is considered completed with a failure outcome and the external users is notified. Oracle Fusion Applications updates the Trading Community Model tables with the rejected status

Remediation Task Assignments

The SOD remediation tasks are assigned based on the role being requested.

  1. If the role requested is Chief Financial Officer, the SOD remediation task is assigned to the IT Security Manager role.

  2. If the SOD violation results from a policy where the SOD control tag is the Information Technology Management business process and the control priority is 1, the SOD remediation task is assigned to Application Administrator role.

  3. In all other scenarios, the SOD remediation task is assigned to the Controller role.

For more information about configuring audit policies, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.

For information on managing segregation of duties, see the Oracle Application Access Controls Governor Implementation Guide and Oracle Application Access Controls Governor User's Guide.

Define Approval Management for Customer Relationship Management

Approval Management: Highlights

Use approval management to determine the policies that apply to approval workflows for particular business objects such as expense reports. For example, you can specify levels of approval for expense reports over a particular amount, to reflect your own corporate policies. You also determine the groups of users who act on these workflow tasks, for example, the chain of approvers for expense reports.

Approval management is fully described in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Modeling and Implementation Guide for Oracle Business Process Management. Though the concepts described there apply also to Oracle Fusion Applications, the only setup relevant to Oracle Fusion Applications involves approval groups and task configuration. Customization of approval workflows themselves is described in the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Overview

Approval Groups and Task Configuration

Customization

Define Help Configuration

Define Help Configuration: Overview

The Define Help Configuration task list contains tasks that let you set up and maintain Oracle Fusion Applications Help for all users, if you have a local installation of help. Use the Set Help Options task to determine if certain aspects of Oracle Fusion Applications Help are available to users and to control how aspects of the help site work. Use the Assign Help Text Administration Duty and Manage Help Security Groups tasks to set up customization of help content.

After performing the help configuration tasks, you can review the predefined help and consider whether to add or customize any content. You can also customize help that is embedded in the application, for example hints and help windows, using other tools such as Oracle JDeveloper and Oracle Composer.

Use the Setup and Maintenance work area to access the tasks in the Define Help Configuration task list.

Help Feature Choices and Help Options: Points to Consider

Help feature choices on the Configure Offerings page in the Setup and Maintenance work area control the look and behavior of Oracle Fusion Applications Help, and also determine which help options are available. Help options are setup options on the Set Help Options page, and they pertain only to local installations of help.

Local Installation of Help

Select the Local Installation of Help feature choice if you want to customize help, or if you do not want users to go outside your firewall to access the public help site on the Internet. If you have Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK), then you can also incorporate custom UPK content into a local help system. Announcements and discussions would be available only to users of the local installation of help. Make sure that maintaining a server for local help is not an issue.

Do not install help locally if you do not need to customize help, or do not want to or cannot maintain and monitor resources for help on your own. If you also have a fast connection to the Web, then consider using the public help site instead. Users of the public site would see announcements from Oracle, and all discussions are public and moderated by Oracle.

If you select the Local Installation of Help feature choice, then the Define Help Configuration task list appears in your implementation project, and you can select two additional features (Access to Internet-Based Help Features and Help Customization) to control the fields available on the Set Help Options page.

Access to Internet-Based Help Features

Select this feature choice to provide users of a local help installation access to features that involve integration with the public help site or navigation to other sites on the Web. Consider if users would benefit from, for example, seeing help file ratings from the public help site. Do not select this feature if you do not want users going outside your firewall for any reason.

Important

Some help includes links to the Oracle Fusion Applications Technology Library. If you select this feature, then these links open the library on the Oracle Technology Network Web site. If you do not select this feature, then you must apply the Technology Library patch from My Oracle Support so that users can access the library locally.

If you select this feature choice, then these help options are available:

Help Customization

Select the Help Customization feature choice if you intend to customize predefined help or add your own files to your local installation of help. For example, you can add internal policies or procedures as help, and Oracle User Productivity Kit content, if any. Not selecting this feature choice only hides the relevant setup options; help customization is not disabled for users with customization access. To disable help customization, remove the Oracle Fusion Help Text Administration duty from the job roles where it is predefined.

If you select this feature choice, then the Custom Help Security feature choice is available, as well as all these sections on the Set Help Options page:

Custom Help Security

Select this feature choice if you want certain help files to be available only to a restricted set of users. You can define the user groups allowed to view corresponding help files. Do not select this feature choice if you do not have this requirement, because the feature can have an impact on performance.

If you select the Custom Help Security feature choice, then the Manage Help Security Groups task is available in the Define Help Configuration task list in your implementation project. There are no help options associated with this feature choice.

Administering Collaboration Features and Announcements in Help: Points to Consider

Announcements and collaboration features (discussions, ratings and comments) allow users to share information regarding help and the subjects that particular help files cover. These collaboration features are also used elsewhere in Oracle Fusion Applications. If you have a local installation of Oracle Fusion Applications Help, then you can use the Set Help Options page in the Setup and Maintenance work area to enable the announcements and discussions features and to set options about ratings. When administering these features, consider the purpose of each feature and points that are specific to Oracle Fusion Applications Help.

Announcements

Use announcements to broadcast information to all users of your locally installed help site. You can provide information about help, for example new custom help that was recently added, or about anything that users should take note of, for example a change in company policy. Announcements can appear on any of the tabs on the home page of Oracle Fusion Applications Help. You can target specific user groups by posting announcements to specific tabs, for example, posting information related to implementation to the Functional Setup tab.

Only administrators for discussions can post announcements to the help site. For more information on granting administrator roles for discussions, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle WebCenter. The public help site on the Internet contains announcements from Oracle.

Discussions

Users can use discussions to post questions or comments about subjects covered in specific help files. For example, after reading help on expense reports, users might have questions or comments about company policies or processes for expenses. Other users who later access this help file would benefit from the information in the discussion.

If you have a local installation of help, then you can set a help option to enable discussions, and assign specific users to moderate discussions. Each help file would contain a Discuss link that all users across your site can use to read discussions about that file. They can also start a discussion topic or post to existing topics. These discussions are visible only to users of your locally installed help site.

Important

Do not enable discussions until servers for discussions are up and running.

The public help site always has discussions enabled and available to any user. These discussions are visible to the general public and moderated by Oracle.

Ratings and Comments

Users can rate any help file on a five star system and provide feedback about the content. This information is helpful to other users in deciding which help file to open. Help files with a higher average rating are listed first in help windows, and in the help listings you see as you browse using the help navigators.

In local installations of help, you can set help options to share ratings with the public help site or display ratings from the public site. Otherwise, the scope of ratings and reviews is limited to your local installation.

Creating Help Security Groups: Worked Example

This example demonstrates how to create a help security group to define a set of job roles that have access to help. The help security group can then be assigned to particular help files so that only users with any of the defined roles have access to the help.

The following table summarizes key decisions for this scenario.


Decisions to Consider

In This Example

What type of users do you need to limit help access to?

Human resources (HR) specialists

Is there a specific time period for which this access is needed?

No, the help files should always be viewed only by the HR specialists

Where do you want this group to appear in the list of values for help security groups?

First

Define a help security group and assign a duty role to the group.

  1. From the Setup and Maintenance work area, find the Manage Help Security Groups task and click Go to Task.
  2. On the Manage Help Security Groups page, add a new row.
  3. Complete the fields, as shown in this table. Leave the start and end dates blank.

    Field

    Value

    Help Security Group

    HR

    Meaning

    HR Only

    Description

    Viewing by HR specialists only

    Display Sequence

    1


  4. Click Save.
  5. With your new help security group selected, go to the Associated Roles section and add a new row.
  6. Select PER_HUMAN_RESOURCE_SPECIALIST as the role name.
  7. Click Save and Close.

    You have created a new lookup code for the Help Security Groups lookup type, which is a standard lookup. The lookup code has the name, meaning, and description that you defined for the help security group.

    You have also created a data security policy for the help database resource, specifying that the Human Resource Specialist role can view help that is defined with the HR security group. If you go to the Manage Database Resources and Policies page and find the database resource, or object, ATK_KR_TOPICS, then you can see the policy for the Human Resource Specialist role, with the condition that the column name, SECURITY_CODE, is equal to the value HR.

Help File Customization: Overview

If you have a local installation of Oracle Fusion Applications Help and the appropriate job roles, then you can customize the help files in the help site. Use the Manage Custom Help page to maintain both predefined and custom help files. You can create, duplicate, edit, and delete custom files, or set their status to Active or Inactive. For predefined files, you can only duplicate them or set their status. For each help file, predefined or custom, use help locations to determine where the help file appears in the application and in the help site. You have various options in how you add custom help, for example by uploading a file or specifying a URL.

Many help files can be accessed from help windows in the application. If you want to customize help in the context of a help window, for example create a custom help file and add a link to it from a specific help window, then start by opening that help window. When you click the Manage Custom Help link, you go to the Manage Custom Help page, and the help location fields are automatically populated with values that correspond to the help window. This way you can easily select existing files to add to the same help location, and when you create a new file, the same help location appears by default.

You can also open the Manage Custom Help page directly from the home page of Oracle Fusion Applications Help. To edit a specific file, you can either find it in the Manage Custom Help page, or open the file itself and click the Edit link.

Note

When you search in the Manage Custom Help page, make sure that the Custom Help Only check box is not selected if you are looking for predefined help.

Help Locations: Explained

Help locations determine where users can find help files, custom or not, from either the application or the help site.

Help locations include:

Page or Section Values

The value in the Page or Section field on the help customization pages represents where users can click a help icon to open a help window that contains a link to the help file. In most cases, this value represents a page or region header in the application. Help windows are also available on specific tabs or windows, and in the Setup and Maintenance work area for specific task lists or tasks. You can associate a help file with multiple page or section values, or with none at all.

The page or section value reflects the logical navigation to the help window. For example, Edit Opportunity page, Revenue tab, Recommendations window does not mean that the help file is available in three different places. The help icon is in the Recommendations window, which is accessed from the Revenue tab on the Edit Opportunity page.

If the value suggests multiple locations, for example Create and Edit Opportunity pages, then the help file is available from the page header of both the Create Opportunity and Edit Opportunity pages. If the page or section value is, for example, a dashboard region that appears in multiple dashboards, then the value does not specify the page name but just the region. The help file is available from that region in multiple dashboards.

Help Hierarchies

Help files are associated with help hierarchies, which are used to categorize help files and aid users in finding help. Each help file can have multiple hierarchies, with at least one of type Business Processes. The business process hierarchy is based on the Business Process Management model. Every page or section value is predefined with a specific business process hierarchy. If you select a page or section without entering a business process hierarchy, the predefined hierarchy appears by default.

The Search by Business Process navigator in the help site is based on the business process hierarchy. For example, if you assign two business process hierarchies to a help file, users can find the file in both locations in the navigator. When the user clicks More Help from a help window, all help files assigned to the same business process hierarchy as the page or section value are returned as search results.

Similarly, the Search by Product navigator is based on the Product hierarchy type, in which level 1 is the product family, level 2 is the product, and level 3 is the business activity owned by that product.

The Search by Functional Setup navigator is based on the Functional Setup hierarchy type. The level 1 nodes for this hierarchy are:

The Search by Common Tasks navigator is based on the Welcome hierarchy type. The level 1 nodes represent categories of functional areas common to all users.

Primary Locations

The primary location of a help file designates the hierarchy that is displayed for the help file in search results and within the help content as breadcrumbs. You cannot change the primary location of a help file that came with your help installation. Primary locations of predefined help are based on the business process hierarchy, while custom help files can have primary locations based on hierarchies of any type.

Editing Predefined Help: Points to Consider

When you open any predefined help file that came with your local installation of Oracle Fusion Applications Help, you can see an edit option if you have roles allowing edit access. To edit predefined help, consider:

What Happens to the Original Files

When you edit predefined help, you are actually creating a new custom help file based on the original file, with the same help locations. The customized version replaces the original, which becomes inactive and hidden from users. You can display both versions by reactivating the original in the Manage Custom Help page.

Note

In the Search Results: Existing Help region on the Manage Custom Help page, there is no option to edit predefined help. You can duplicate a predefined help file, edit the copy, and optionally inactivate the original.

Where Predefined Help Appears

All predefined help comes with preassigned help locations, including at least one based on the hierarchy of type Business Processes. Many also have predefined page or section values that indicate where the help can be accessed from help windows in the application.

To change where predefined help appears, either in the help site navigators or in the application, create a duplicate in the Manage Custom Help page. Change or add help locations to your custom copy, and inactivate the original.

Customizing PDF Guides: Worked Example

This example demonstrates how to customize a PDF guide that came with your local installation of Oracle Fusion Applications Help. This guide is currently not available from any help window in the application.

The following table summarizes key decisions for this scenario.


Decisions to Consider

In This Example

What changes do you need to make to the guide?

Change the title of a chapter and remove a section in that chapter, to hide content about a particular subject

Which help window should the customized guide appear in?

The help window for the entire Welcome dashboard of Oracle Fusion Applications

Which help navigators should the customized guide appear in, and on which node?

Same as the original guide, plus the path associated with the help window

Do you want to limit access to the customized guide?

No, same as the original guide

Edit a copy of the original PDF guide, and use the Manage Custom Help page to replace the original PDF guide with your new file.

Copying and Editing the PDF Guide

  1. Open the original PDF guide from the help site and save a copy to your desktop. Leave open the help file for the guide.
  2. Using a PDF editor application, change the title of the chapter wherever the chapter title appears. Delete the content you want to hide from users.
  3. Make sure that your new PDF guide is less than 6 MB.

Replacing the Original PDF Guide

  1. In the help file that you still have open for the original PDF guide, click the Edit link.
  2. On the Create Help page, use the default values except where indicated.
  3. Update the title to the name that you want to display to users.
  4. In the File Name field, browse for and select your customized guide.
  5. Delete any keywords or parts of the description relevant to the content you removed from the PDF guide.
  6. Add a help location with the Business Processes hierarchy type and select Information Technology Management as the level 1 node, Manage Enterprise Application Software as the level 2 node, and Use Applications as the level 3 node.
  7. Select Welcome page in the Page or Section column.
  8. Click Save and Close. The help file for the original PDF guide is automatically set to inactive.

Adding Custom UPK Content to Help: Worked Example

This example demonstrates how to add custom Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK) topics as demo help files. These help files function like any predefined help file for demos. You can search and include these files in help windows and navigators as you would other help.

In this scenario, you are adding two demos about social networking, to appear in help windows on the Welcome dashboard.

Note

Your demo must be made with UPK 3.6.1 or later to be added as help.

The following table summarizes key decisions for this scenario.


Decisions to Consider

In This Example

What UPK content do you want to add to help?

From a UPK module containing five topics, add two as custom demos on the help site

Which help navigators should each demo appear in, and on which node?

Because the two demos are about social networking:

  • Search by Common Tasks navigator, under the Collaboration node

  • Search by Business Process navigator, under Information Technology Management - Manage Networking and Communications - Manage Social Networking Capabilities

Which help window should each demo appear in?

On the Welcome dashboard of Oracle Fusion Applications, one demo goes in the help window in the Activity Stream region, and the other in the People Connection region

Do you want to limit access to the help files for the demos?

No

Generate a report of UPK document IDs, which you will use when creating custom help, to identify the UPK topics that you want to add. Publish the UPK module as a player package, then create custom help for the UPK topics that you want to use as help demos.

Generating a UPK Document ID Report

  1. In the UPK Developer, select Details View.
  2. Right-click any column header, for example Name, and select Column Chooser.
  3. In the Column Chooser dialog box, click and drag the Document ID column header and drop it after the Name column. Close the Column Chooser dialog box.
  4. From the File menu, select to print, and save the output as a Microsoft Excel file to your desktop.

Creating the Player Package

  1. From the UPK Developer, make sure that the topics that you want to add as demos have the See It play mode. The topics can also have other modes, but only the See It mode is included in the custom help file.
  2. Publish the module, specifying any location for the output and selecting to publish the selection only.
  3. In the Formats section of the Publish Content window, select the Player check box under the Deployment check box group.
  4. In the Player section, select the Include HTML Web Site check box, to ensure that the custom help file includes a text-only version of the UPK topic.
  5. Finish the publishing process, after optionally setting other options.
  6. Navigate to the location where you specified the output to be generated.
  7. In the Publishing Content folder, copy the PlayerPackage folder and add it to the web server where you store UPK content.

Creating Custom Help for Demos

  1. Open the help window in the Activity Stream region on the Welcome dashboard of Oracle Fusion Applications, and click Manage Custom Help.
  2. On the Manage Custom Help page, the page or section and hierarchy values are populated with the values for the Activity Stream region.
  3. Click Create.
  4. On the Create Help page, complete the fields in the General Information section, as shown in this table. Use the default values except where indicated.

    Field

    Value

    Title

    The name of the UPK topic.

    Source Type

    Oracle User Productivity Kit

    File Location

    The full URL of the player package folder on the Web server, for example, http://<your domain>.com/UPKcontent/PlayerPackage.

    Document ID

    The document ID of the UPK topic to add to the help window in the Activity Stream region. You can copy and paste this ID from the Microsoft Excel file that you generated earlier.

    Help Type

    Demo

    Help Security Group

    Unsecured

    Keywords

    Terms relevant to the demo.

    Description

    Summary of the demo.


    The Help Location section contains values for the help window in the Activity Stream region. This help file will also appear in the Search by Business Process navigator under this predefined hierarchy.

  5. Click Save and Close.
  6. On the Manage Custom Help page, open the help locations for the help file that you just created.
  7. Add a help location with the Welcome hierarchy type and select Collaboration Features as the level 1 node.
  8. Add another help location with the Business Processes hierarchy type and select Information Technology Management as the level 1 node, Manage Networking and Communications as the level 2 node, and Manage Social Networking Capabilities as the level 3 node.
  9. Click Save and Close.
  10. Starting at the Connections region, repeat steps 1 to 9 for the other UPK topic that you want to add.

Customizing Embedded Help: Highlights

You can customize help that is embedded in the application, for example hints and help windows, for all users of Oracle Fusion Applications.

Embedded help customization is fully described in the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

FAQs for Define Help Configuration

Can I determine which users have access to collaboration features that involve interaction with the public help site?

No, you cannot determine access for select users, but you can disable access for all users of your local installation of Oracle Fusion Applications Help. Use the Set Help Options page to disable sharing ratings and comments with the public help site on the Internet, and disable displaying ratings from the public site. You should also deselect the Access to Internet-Based Help Features feature choice.

If you are using the public instead of a local installation, then all collaboration features are always available to any user with access to the Web.

When do I link to the Oracle User Productivity Kit library from the help site?

Provide a link to your Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK) library if you have UPK licensed and custom UPK content to share with your users. You give them access to a library of custom UPK content in addition to any custom UPK demos that you added to the help site itself. UPK demos that you add as custom help are available only in the See It mode, so the library can include the same demo in other modes. If you have UPK versions earlier than 3.6.1, then you cannot add UPK demos as custom help, so the link is the only way for users to access custom UPK content from the help site.

How can I find the URL to the Oracle User Productivity Kit library?

The URL to enter on the Set Help Options page should be the full path from the Web server where you are hosting your Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK) content to the index.html file that opens the table of contents for the library, for example, http://<your domain>.com/UPKcontent/PlayerPackage/index.html. In this example, you or your UPK administrator would publish one UPK player package that contains all the content to be linked to from Oracle Fusion Applications Help, as well as the index.html file, and place the PlayerPackage folder in a manually created folder called UPKcontent on the Web server.

Who can add and manage custom help?

Users with the Oracle Fusion Help Text Administration duty have access to customize help in a local installation of Oracle Fusion Applications Help. This duty is assigned by default to various job roles, in particular the administrators for product families. Assign the role to other users who need access to customize help.

How can I restrict help content to specific user roles?

When you create or edit help, select a help security group that represents the set of roles that you want to have access to the help. If you do not see the Security Group field, then your administrator has not selected the Custom Help Security feature choice. The Unsecured group has no associated roles, so anyone can view the help. The predefined Secured group includes all internal employees and contingent workers, unless this group has been edited. You can create security groups and associate roles using the Manage Help Security Groups page, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Manage Help Security Groups task. Your new security groups are immediately available for use to secure new or edited help files.

Why can't I select and add help to a location?

You must specify a page or section to add the existing help to. To ensure that help is added to the correct help window, go to the page or section in the application, click the Help icon, and click the Manage Custom Help link in the help window. Alternatively, in the Manage Custom Help page, search for at least a page or section and a level 1 value for the Business Processes hierarchy type before selecting the Select and Add option.

You cannot select and add help to a particular hierarchy, on the Manage Custom Help page, without a page or section. To add just a hierarchy, search for the help file, add a new help location, and specify only the hierarchy information.

What happens to custom help when a help patch is applied?

Oracle Fusion Applications Help patches update all help files, both active and inactive, except custom help. Custom help files are not affected by patches. Consider reviewing inactive files to see if you want to activate the updated version, or to make similar edits to the custom versions of those files, if any.

Define Application Toolkit Configuration

Define Application Toolkit Configuration: Overview

Oracle Fusion Application Toolkit (ATK) is an application that provides various core components of Oracle Fusion Applications, including the Welcome dashboard, Oracle Fusion Applications Help, the Reports and Analytics pane, and the Watchlist feature. Use the Define Application Toolkit Configuration task list to set up and maintain some of these components for all users, and the Define Help Configuration task list for Oracle Fusion Applications Help.

Use the Setup and Maintenance work area to access the tasks in the Define Application Toolkit Configuration task list.

Watchlist Setup: Points to Consider

For all users across the site, you can disable or enable predefined Watchlist categories and items, edit their names, and determine how often item counts refresh. You cannot delete predefined Watchlist categories and items, nor create any for the site. Users can create their own Watchlist items through saved searches.

Access the Set Watchlist Options page by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Set Watchlist Options task.

Disabling Predefined Categories and Items

Use the Set Watchlist Options page to enable or disable predefined Watchlist categories and items. Disabling any category or item also disables associated processes involved in calculating the Watchlist item counts for all users. These processes include creating data caches, performing security checks, invoking services across domains, running queries, and so on.

An item with the Predefined type represents the actual predefined Watchlist item that appears in the Watchlist. If you disable this type of Watchlist item, then:

A Watchlist item with the User-created saved search type does not appear in the Watchlist; it controls the display of the Manage Watchlist button or menu item in pages with saved searches. If you disable this type of Watchlist item, then:

If you disable a Watchlist category, then the category is not available for users to include in their watchlist, and all Watchlist items within the category are also disabled.

Note

If a product is not installed, then corresponding roles should not be granted to users, so the categories for that product would not be displayed. Even if roles are granted, users would see only zero count items. To make sure that only appropriate categories are available, disable categories for all products that are not installed, and disable irrelevant items, if any, for products that are installed.

Ultimately, the Watchlist for any user contains the subset of categories and items that are enabled in the Set Watchlist Options page:

Specifying Refresh Intervals

All Watchlist items have a predefined refresh interval, which controls how often the query that calculates the count for a Watchlist item can be run. Use the Set Watchlist Options page to edit the interval values. What you specify as the refresh interval for a Watchlist item of type User-created Saved Search applies to all Watchlist items based on saved searches created by users on the corresponding search page.

When the user is in the Welcome dashboard with the Watchlist open for at least two and a half minutes, the query automatically runs for all Watchlist items if no refresh already ran in this user session. To subsequently run the query again, users can manually refresh the Watchlist region. The Refresh icon is enabled after five minutes since the last refresh.

Note

During a refresh, the query runs for an individual Watchlist item only if the time since the last query for this item is equal to or greater than the specified refresh interval. Since the manual refresh of the entire Watchlist is not available until five minutes after the last refresh, you should not set a Watchlist item refresh interval that is less than five minutes.

When users open Watchlist from the global area, a refresh automatically runs if five minutes have passed since the last refresh. During this refresh, the query runs for an individual Watchlist item only if the time since the last query for this item is equal to or greater than the specified refresh interval.

For example, you set the interval to eight minutes for a particular Watchlist item. When the user signs in and goes to the Welcome dashboard, with the Watchlist open, the query automatically runs for this Watchlist item after two and a half minutes. Every two and a half minutes after, a check is performed for stale counts and new cached counts are displayed.

Five minutes after the query ran, the Refresh icon is enabled and the user performs a manual refresh. However, the query does not run for this Watchlist item, because the refresh interval is eight minutes. The user navigates away from the Welcome dashboard and opens the Watchlist from the global area six minutes later. A refresh automatically runs because more than five minutes have passed since the last refresh. This time, the query runs for this Watchlist item because it has been more than eight minutes since the query last ran for this item.

Editing Predefined Category and Item Names

Predefined Watchlist category and item names are stored as meanings of standard lookups. Lookup types for predefined categories end with WATCHLIST, for example EXM_EXPENSES_WATCHLIST. Edit the lookup type meaning to change the category name. To change item names, edit lookup code meanings for that lookup type.

FAQs for Define Application Toolkit Configuration

How can I set up the Reports and Analytics pane for all users ?

Click Edit Settings in the Reports and Analytics pane, or start in the Setup and Maintenance work area and search for the Map Reports to Work Areas task. If you do the former, then you see all the reports that are currently mapped, or included, in the Reports and Analytics pane on the work area you are in. If you do the latter, then select a work area to display all the reports that are currently mapped to that work area. Select and remove any currently mapped report, or add reports from the Oracle Business Intelligence (BI) Presentation catalog.

Any changes you make apply to all users with access to the mapped work area. You can, however, restrict access to specific reports for specific users, and this security is not limited to the Reports and Analytics pane. For more information on managing objects in the Oracle BI Presentation Catalog and setting permissions, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware User's Guide for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition (Oracle Fusion Applications Edition).

Oracle Business Intelligence Publisher reports must be registered as processes to be submitted from the Reports and Analytics pane. For more information on registering custom reports with Oracle Enterprise Scheduler and making reports available to users in the Reports and Analytics pane, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Why can't I see reports when mapping reports to work areas for the Reports and Analytics pane?

If you are using the Map Reports to Work Areas task from the Setup and Maintenance work area, then select a work area to see the currently mapped reports. It is also possible that there are no reports currently mapped to the selected work area, or to the work area on which you clicked Edit Settings in the Reports and Analytics pane. Alternatively, reports could be mapped, but you do not have access to them due to security.

Similarly, in the list of all available reports from the catalog, you can see only the reports that you have access to. You can request to be granted a role that has access to the reports that you want to map, or another administrator or business user with access to those reports can be granted the Reports and Analytics Region Administration Duty to be able to map reports to work areas.

Maintain Common Reference Objects

Maintain Common Reference Objects: Overview

The Maintain Common Reference Objects task list contains Oracle Fusion Middleware Extensions for Applications (Applications Core) tasks provides that support implementation of common behaviors, such as data security or reference data sets.

Use this task list to manage common reference objects that are defined centrally and shared across applications, in addition to those that are specific to Applications Core functionality.

Note

Offerings also include application-specific tasks for managing Applications Core objects. For example, the Financials offering includes tasks such as Manage Receivables Descriptive Flexfields, and Manage Receivables Lookups.

For more information on configuring custom objects, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Use the Maintain Common Reference Objects task list, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for common reference object task lists.

Define Application Taxonomy

Application Taxonomy: Highlights

Application taxonomy is the organization of Oracle application components and functions in a hierarchical structure, from product lines to logical business areas. This hierarchy represents a breakdown of products into units based on how applications are installed and supported. Maintain this hierarchy on the Manage Taxonomy Hierarchy page, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Manage Taxonomy Hierarchy task.

A detailed introduction to application taxonomy is provided in the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Hierarchy

Usage

Modules in Application Taxonomy: Explained

A module is any node in the application taxonomy hierarchy. The top level of the hierarchy is product line, followed by product family, application, and logical business area. There can be multiple levels of logical business areas, with one or more nested within a parent logical business area.

Product Line

A product line is a collection of products under a single brand name, for example, Oracle Fusion.

Product Family

A product family is a collection of products associated with a functional area that may or may not be licensed together as a single unit, for example Financials.

Application

An application is a single product within a product family, containing closely related features for a specific business solution, for example General Ledger.

Logical Business Area

A logical business area is a collection of business object definitions organized into a logical grouping. It contains the model objects, services, and UI components for those business objects. Logical business areas have their own hierarchy levels and in some cases can be two or three levels deep. Each leaf node has at least one business object and service, up to a maximum of four business objects and associated services. A logical business area with more than four business objects are further refined with child logical business area levels. Each of these parent-child levels is represented by a directory in the physical package hierarchy.

Managing Modules in Application Taxonomy: Points to Consider

Manage modules on the Create Child Module or Edit Module page, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Manage Taxonomy Hierarchy task. When you create a module, it is a child of the currently selected node in the application taxonomy hierarchy. This determines which values are available, for example for module type. Once created, you cannot delete the module or move it elsewhere in the hierarchy. As you create or edit modules, consider the following points regarding specific fields.

Identifiers

Module ID is the unique primary key for nodes in the taxonomy table. When you create a module, an ID is automatically generated. Once the module is created, you cannot update the ID.

Module key and alternative ID are additional identifiers of the module, presented in a way that is easier to read than the module ID. The module key is a string identifier, for example AP for the Oracle Fusion Payables application. The alternative ID is a numeric identifier, for example 1 for the Oracle Fusion product line. These IDs are provided for the product line, product family, and application modules, but you can optionally add them for logical business areas and new custom modules.

Note

Do not change the module key or alternative ID for predefined modules.

The product code is relevant only to application and logical business area modules. You can leave the field blank for other module types. The product code for applications is the short name that can be displayed in lists of application values, for example FND for Oracle Fusion Middleware Extensions for Applications.

Names

Module name is the logical name for the module and is always available. The name must be unique among nodes in the same hierarchy level with the same parent, but try to make it as unique in the whole hierarchy as possible.

The user name and description can appear to users in other parts of Oracle Fusion Applications, so make sure that the values are something that users know to represent the module.

Usage Types

Though you can update the usage type to reflect the current state of the module, just doing so does not affect the actual state. For example, setting a module as installed does not mean it is actually installed if the installation itself has not taken place. Installation refers to operations related to laying down all the components needed to create an Oracle Fusion Applications environment, while deployment is the process that starts the managed servers and clusters and facilitates the actual use of product offerings. A licensed module is available for installation and deployment, and a deployed module is considered actively used when actually used by users.

Seed Data

If seed data is allowed, then seed data such as flexfields and lookups can be extracted for the module using seed data loaders. By default, extract is allowed for all predefined modules of type application and logical business area.

Associations

You can associate a logical domain to modules of type product family, as well as one or more enterprise applications to modules of type application. This association represents the relationship between the taxonomy modules and the corresponding domain and enterprise applications stored in the Oracle Fusion Applications Functional Core (ASK) tables.

Define Reference Data Sharing

Reference Data Sharing: Explained

Reference data sharing facilitates sharing of configuration data such as jobs and payment terms, across organizational divisions or business units. You define reference data sets and determine how the data is shared or partitioned. Use reference data sets to reduce duplication and maintenance by sharing common data across business entities where appropriate. Depending on the requirement (specific or common), each business unit can maintain its data at a central location, using a set of values either specific to it or shared by other business units.

You can share reference data after it is filtered on the basis of sets. A common reference data set is available as the default set, which can be assigned to several business units sharing the same reference data. For commonly used data such as currencies, you can use the common reference data set and assign it to multiple business units in various countries that use the same currency. In cases where the default set cannot be assigned to an entity, you can create specific sets. The data set visible on the transactional page depends on the sharing method used to share reference data.

For example, XYZ Corporation uses the same grades throughout the entire organization. Instead of managers in different business units setting up the same grades, XYZ Corporation decides to create a set called Grades and assign the grades reference data group for all business units in the organization to the Grades set, so that the grades can be shared.

Note

For specific information on configuring reference data sharing for a particular object or product, refer to its product documentation.

Reference Data Sets: Explained

Reference data sets are logical groups of reference data that can be accessed by various transactional entities depending on the business context. Oracle Fusion Applications contains a common reference data set as well as an enterprise set that may be used as a default set. Depending on your business requirement you can create and maintain additional reference data sets, while continuing to use the common reference data set.

Consider the following scenario.

Your enterprise can decide that some aspects of corporate policy should affect all business units and leave other aspects to the discretion of the business unit manager. This allows your enterprise to balance autonomy and control for each business unit. For example, if your enterprise holds business unit managers accountable for their profit and loss, but manages working capital requirements at a corporate level, you can let managers define their own sales methods, but define payment terms centrally. In this case, each business unit would have its own reference data set for sales methods, and there would be one central reference data set for payment terms assigned to all business units.

Partitioning

The partitioning of reference data and creation of data sets enable you to create reference entities across tables or lookup types, and share modular information and data processing options among business units. With the help of partitioning, you can choose to create separate sets and subsets for each business unit depending upon its business requirement, or create common sets or subsets to enable sharing reference data between several business units, without the need for duplicating the reference data. Partitioning provides you the flexibility to handle the reference data in a way appropriate to your business needs.

The following figure illustrates the reference data sharing method (assignment to one set only, with common values) where the user can access the data assigned to a specific set in a particular business unit, as well as access the data assigned to the common set.

Difference between a common set and
a specific set

Reference Data Sets and Sharing Methods: Explained

Oracle Fusion Applications reference data sharing feature is also known as SetID. The reference data sharing functionality supports operations in multiple ledgers, business units, and warehouses, thereby reducing the administrative burden and decreasing the time needed to implement new business units. For example, you can share sales methods, transaction types, or payment terms across business units or selected other data across asset books, cost organizations, or project units.

The reference data sharing features use reference data sets to which reference data is assigned. The reference data sets group assigned reference data. The sets can be understood as buckets of reference data assigned to multiple business units or other application components.

Reference Data Sets

You begin this part of your implementation by creating and assigning reference data to sets. Make changes carefully as changes to a particular set will affect all business units or application components using that set. You can assign a separate set to each business unit for the type of object that is being shared. For example, assign separate sets for payment terms, transaction types, and sales methods to your business units.

Your enterprise can decide that some aspects of corporate policy should affect all business units and leave other aspects to the discretion of the business unit manager. This allows your enterprise to balance autonomy and control for each business unit. For example, if your enterprise holds business unit managers accountable for their profit and loss, but manages working capital requirements at a corporate level, you can let managers define their own sales methods, but define payment terms centrally. In this case, each business unit would have its own reference data set for sales methods, and there would be one central reference data set for payment terms assigned to all business units.

The reference data sharing is especially valuable for lowering the cost of setting up new business units. For example, your enterprise operates in the hospitality industry. You are adding a new business unit to track your new spa services. The hospitality divisional reference data set can be assigned to the new business unit to quickly setup data for this entity component. You can establish other business unit reference data in a business unit specific reference data set as needed

Reference Data Sharing Methods

There are variations in the methods used to share data in reference data sets across different types of objects. The following list identifies the methods:

Note: Oracle Fusion Applications contains a reference data set called Enterprise. Define any reference data that affects your entire enterprise in this set.

Assigning Reference Data Sets to Reference Objects: Points to Consider

You can assign the reference data sets to reference objects on the Manage Reference Data Set Assignments page. For multiple assignments, you can classify different types of reference data sets into groups and assign them to reference entity objects. The assignment takes into consideration the determinant type, determinant, and reference group, if any.

Determinant Types

The partitioned reference data is shared based on a business context setting called the determinant type. It is the point of reference used in the data assignment process. The following table lists the determinant types used in the reference data assignment.


Type

Description

Asset Book

Information about the acquisition, depreciation, and retirement of an asset that belongs to a ledger or a business unit.

Business Unit

The departments or organizations within an enterprise.

Cost Organization

The organization used for cost accounting and reporting on various inventory and cost centers within an enterprise.

Project Unit

A logical organization within an enterprise that is responsible for enforcing consistent project management practices.

Reference Data Set

References to other shared reference data sets.

Determinant

The determinant or determinant value is the value that corresponds to the selected determinant type. The determinant is one of the criteria for selecting the appropriate reference data set. For example, when managing set assignments for the set determinant type, Reference Data Set is the determinant type, and you would enter the corresponding set code value as the corresponding determinant value.

Reference Groups

A transactional entity may have multiple reference entities (generally considered to be setup data) that are treated in the same manner because of commonness in implementing business policies and legal rules. Such reference entities in your application are grouped into logical units called reference groups, based on the functional area and the partitioning requirements that they have in common. For example, all tables and views that define Sales Order Type details might be part of the same reference group.

Note

The reference groups are predefined in the reference groups table and are available for selection and assignment.

Product Specific Reference Data Sharing: Explained

Some products required special logic for reference data sharing and have implemented their own domain specific ways for sharing data.

Items and supplier sites are two such product specific reference data objects that use product specific mechanisms to share data.

Items

If you share your items across warehouses or manufacturing facilities, you can access them through a common item master. Configure one or multiple item masters for your enterprise, based your enterprise structure. A single item master is recommended because it provides simpler and more efficient maintenance. However, in rare cases, it may be beneficial to keep multiple item masters. For example, if you acquire another enterprise and need to continue to operate your lines of business separately, maintaining a second item master might be the best decision.

Suppliers Sites

You can approve particular suppliers to supply specified commodities and authorize your business units to buy from those suppliers when the need arises. For example, you might be a household cleaning products manufacturer and need dyes, plastics, and perfumes to make your products. You purchase from a central supplier 70% of your perfume supplies with an additional supplier, in reserve, from whom you purchase the remaining 30%. At the same time, each of your business units purchases plastics and dyes from the same supplier, but from different local supplier sites to save transportation costs.

To implement business unit specific supplier sites, Oracle Fusion Procurement supports a method for defining suppliers sites as owned and managed by the business unit responsible for negotiating the supplier terms. Your other business units that have a service provider relationship defined with your procurement business unit, subscribe to the supplier sites using the supplier site assignments feature. In addition, Procurement allows sharing of the following procurement data objects across business units:

What reference data objects can be shared across business units?

The following list contains the reference data objects for the Oracle Fusion Applications that can be shared across business units and the method in which the reference data for each is shared.


Application Name

Reference Data Object

Method of Sharing

Trading Community Model

Customer Account Relationship

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Trading Community Model

Customer Account Site

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Trading Community Model

Sales Person

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Opportunity Management

Sales Method Group

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Work Management

Assessment Templates

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Enterprise Contracts

Contract Types

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Sales

Sales Method

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Common Components

Activity Templates

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Payables

Payment Terms

Assignment to multiple sets, no common values allowed

Receivables

Accounting Rules

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Aging Buckets

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Auto Cash Rules

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Collectors

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Lockbox

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Memo Lines

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Payment Term

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Remit To Address

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Revenue Contingencies

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Transaction Source

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Receivables

Transaction Type

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Advanced Collections

Collections Setups

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Advanced Collections

Dunning Plans

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Tax

Tax Classification Codes

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Performance Management

Performance Templates

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Human Resources

Departments

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Human Resources

Jobs

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Human Resources

Locations

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Human Resources

Grades

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Project Billing

Project and Contract Billing

Assignment to multiple sets, common values not allowed

Project Foundation

Project Accounting Definition

Assignment to one set only, no common values allowed

Project Foundation

Project Rates

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Distributed Order Orchestration

Hold Codes

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Distributed Order Orchestration

Orchestration Process

Assignment to one set only, with common values

What reference data objects can be shared across asset books?

The following list contains the reference data objects for Oracle Fusion Assets that can be shared across asset books and the method in which the reference data for each is shared.


Application Name

Reference Data Object

Method of Sharing

Assets

Bonus Rules

Assignment to one set only, no common values allowed

Assets

Depreciation Ceilings

Assignment to one set only, no common values allowed

Assets

Depreciation Methods

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Assets

Asset Descriptions

Assignment to one set only, no common values allowed

Assets

Property Types

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Assets

Prorate Conventions

Assignment to one set only, no common values allowed

Assets

Asset Queue Names

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Assets

Retirement Types

Assignment to one set only, with common values

Assets

Unplanned Types

Assignment to one set only, with common values

What reference data objects can be shared across cost organizations?

The following list contains the reference data objects for Oracle Fusion Cost Management that can be shared across cost organizations and the method in which the reference data for each is shared.


Application Name

Reference Data Object

Method of Sharing

Cost Management

Cost Structure

Assignment to one set only, no common values allowed

What reference data objects can be shared across project units?

The following list contains the reference data objects for Oracle Fusion Project Foundation that can be shared across project units and the method in which the reference data for each is shared.


Application Name

Reference Data Object

Method of Sharing

Project Foundation

Project Definition

Assignment to multiple sets, no common values allowed

Project Foundation

Project Transaction Types

Assignment to multiple sets, no common values allowed

Define Lookups

Lookups: Explained

Lookups are lists of values in applications. You define a list of values as a lookup type consisting of a set of lookup codes, each code's translated meaning, and optionally a tag. End users see the list of translated meanings as the available values for an object.

Lookups provide a means of validation and lists of values where valid values appear on a list with no duplicate values. For example, an application might store the values Y and N in a column in a table, but when displaying those values in the user interface, Yes or No (or their translated equivalents) should be available for end users to select. For example, the two lookup codes Y and N are defined in the REQUIRED_INDICATOR lookup type.

In another example, a lookup type for marital status has lookup codes for users to specify married, single, or available legal partnerships.


Lookup Type

Lookup Code

Meaning

Tag

MAR_STATUS

M

Married

 

 

S

Single

 

 

R

Registered Partner

+NL

 

DP

Domestic Partner

-FR, AU

In this case, tags are used for localizing the codes. All legislations list Married and Single. Only the Dutch legislation lists Registered Partner. And all legislations except France and Australia also list Domestic Partner.

When managing lookups, you need to understand the following.

Using Lookups in Applications

Use lookups to provide validation or a list of values for a user input field in a user interface.

An example of a lookup used for validation is a flexfield segment using a table-validated value set with values from a lookup type. An example of a lookup in a list of values is a profile option's available values from which users select one to set the profile option. Invoice Approval Status gives the option of including payables invoices of different approval statuses in a report. The lookup code values include All so that users can report by all statuses: Approved, Resubmitted for approval, Pending or rejected, and Rejected.

Customization Level

The customization level of a lookup type determines whether the lookups in that lookup type can be edited. This applies data security to lookups.

Some lookup types are locked so no new codes and other changes can be added during implementation or later, as needed. Depending on the customization level of a lookup type, you may be able to change the codes or their meanings. Some lookups are designated as extensible, so new lookup codes can be created during implementation, but the meanings of predefined lookup codes cannot be modified. Some predefined lookup codes can be changed during implementation or later, as needed.

The customization levels are user, extensible, and system. The following table shows which lookup management tasks are allowed at each customization level.


Allowed Task

User

Extensible

System

Deleting a lookup type

Yes

No

No

Inserting new codes

Yes

Yes

No

Updating start date, end date, and enabled fields

Yes

Yes, only if the code is not predefined data

No

Deleting codes

Yes

Yes, only if the code is not predefined data

No

Updating tags

Yes

No

No

Updating module

Yes

No

No

Predefined data means LAST_UPDATED_BY = SEED_DATA_FROM_APPLICATION.

If a product depends on a lookup, the customization level should be system or extensible to prevent deletion.

Standard, Common, and Set-Enabled Lookups

The available kinds of lookups are as follows.


Lookup

Description

Standard

Lists the available codes and translated meanings

Set enabled

Additionally associates a reference data set with the lookup codes

Common

Legacy lookups

Standard lookups are the simplest form of lookup types consisting only of codes and their translated meaning. They differ from common lookups only in being defined in the standard lookup view.

Common lookups exist for reasons of backward compatibility and differ from standard lookups only in being defined in the common lookup view.

Set enabled lookup types store lookup codes that are enabled for reference data sharing. At runtime, a set-enabled lookup code is visible because the value of the determinant identifies a reference data set in which the lookup code is present.

Accessing Lookups

Standard, set-enabled, and common lookups are defined in the Standard, Set-enabled, and Common views, respectively. Applications development may define lookups in an application view to restrict the UI pages where they may appear.

In lookups management tasks, lookups may be associated with a module in the application taxonomy to provide a criteria for narrowing a search or limiting the number of lookups accessed by a product specific task such as Manage Purchasing Lookups.

Enabling Lookups

A lookup type is reusable for attributes stored in multiple tables.

Enable lookups based on the following.

If you make changes to a lookup, users must sign out and back in before the changes take effect. When defining a list of values for display rather than validation, limit the number of enabled lookup codes to a usable length.

Managing a Standard Lookup: Example

Creating a new standard lookup involves creating or selecting a lookup type to which the lookup code belongs, and determining appropriate values for the lookup codes and their meanings.

Note

You can only create or edit the lookup codes for a particular lookup type if its customization level supports it.

Creating a Lookup Type Called COLORS

Your enterprise needs a list of values for status to be used on various objects such as processes or users. The lookups are colors, so the lookup type you create is COLORS.


Lookup type parameters

Value

Lookup type name

COLORS

Meaning

Status

Description

Status by color

Module

Oracle Fusion Middleware Extensions for Applications

The lookup codes you define for the COLORS lookup type are, BLUE, RED, GREEN, and YELLOW.


Lookup Code

Meaning

Enabled

Display Sequence

BLUE

Urgent

No

4

RED

Stop

Yes

1

GREEN

Go

Yes

3

YELLOW

Caution

Yes

2

Understanding the Resulting Data Entry List of Values

Users need to respond to a process question by indicating whether to stop it, use caution, go ahead, or complete it urgently.

The list of values for the COLORS lookup type includes the meanings for the enabled codes.


Displayed Value

Hidden ID

Stop

RED

Caution

YELLOW

Go

GREEN

Analysis

The BLUE lookup code was not enabled and does not appear in the list of values. The display sequence of values in the list of values is alphabetical unless you enter a number manually to determine the order of appearance. Number 1 indicates the value listed first in the list of values.

Note

Only lookups that are enabled and active, meaning between start and end dates, are visible.

Understanding the Transaction Table

When users enter one of the values from the list of values for the lookup type COLORS, the transaction table records the lookup code. In this example, the code is stored in the Status column


Transaction number

User name

Status

1

Jane

RED

2

Bob

YELLOW

3

Alice

BLUE

The status for one user is BLUE because at the time they entered a value, BLUE was enabled. Disabling a lookup code does not affect transaction records in which that code is stored. Data querying and reporting have access to disabled lookup codes in transaction tables.

Managing Set-Enabled Lookups: Examples

Creating a new set-enabled lookup is similar to creating a standard lookup with the addition of specifying a reference data set determinant for the lookup codes.

Note

You can only create or edit the lookup codes for a particular lookup type if its customization level supports it.

The reference data set for a set-enabled lookup code is part of its foreign key. This is unlike other set-enabled entities.

Selecting a Reference Group for a Set-Enabled Lookup Type

By specifying a reference group for a set-enabled lookup type you indicate which reference data set assignments are available for its lookup codes. For example a COLORS lookup type might be set enabled for a Countries reference group that includes the US and EU reference data set assignments.

Selecting a Reference Data Set for a Set-Enabled Lookup

The reference data set determines which lookup code is included in the list of values. If a COLORS lookup type contains a RED, YELLOW, ORANGE, and GREEN lookup code, you can enable one RED lookup as coming from the US reference data set and another RED lookup as coming from the EU reference data set with divergent meanings.


Reference Data Set

Lookup Code

Lookup Meaning

US

RED

Red

US

YELLOW

Yellow

US

GREEN

Green

EU

RED

Rouge

EU

ORANGE

Orange

In addition to divergent meanings for lookup codes based on associated reference data set, some lookup codes may be unique to one or another reference data set as the ORANGE lookup is to the EU reference data set in this example.

In another example, a lookup type called HOLD_REASON provides a list of reasons for applying a hold to a contract renewal. Reference data sets determine which codes are included in the hold reason list of values.


Reference Data Set

Lookup Code

Lookup Meaning

US

SEC

SEC Compliance Review

US

DIR

Needs Director's Approval

US

VP

Needs Vice President's Approval

CHINA

CSRC

Pending China Securities Regulatory Commission Review

CHINA

PR

Needs President's Approval

COMMON

REQUESTED

Customer Request

Using the Manage Set Assignments task, you have defined assignments that designate the China business unit to refer to the CHINA and the US business unit to refer to the US and all business units to refer to the COMMON set. When end users place a contract hold in the US business unit, only the three reason codes in US_SET are available. When placing a contract hold in the China business, only the two codes in China_SET are available.

How can I edit lookups?

You can edit the existing lookup codesof a lookup type or add new lookup codes on the Define Lookups pages, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance work area and searching for lookup tasks. You can edit the existing lookup codes of a lookup type, or add new lookup codes to a lookup type, if the customization level for the lookup type supports editing

Why can't I see my lookup types?

Lookups are listed by lookup type. Typically lookup types are managed using tasks that handle a group of related lookups, such as Manage Geography Lookups. Each task gives you access only to certain lookup types. The generic tasks provide access to all lookups types of a kind, such as all common lookups using the Manage Common Lookups task.

If existing lookups are not available to the tasks of the Define Lookups activity, they may be validated for use in a lookup view that is not central to all applications or whose owning application has not been specified in a lookup view.

Lookups can only be managed in the Define Lookups tasks if the lookup's view application is the standard lookups view, common lookups view, or set-enabled lookups view. Lookups defined in an application view can only be managed by following instructions provided by the owning application.

Note

A lookup type and its codes can only be defined in one lookup view.

What's the difference between a lookup type and a value set?

A lookup type consists of lookup codes that are the values in a static list of values. Lookup code validation is a one to one match.

A table-validated value set can consist of values that are validated through a SQL statement, which allows the list of values to be dynamic.

Tip

A table validated value set can be defined based on any table, including the lookups table. This allows a lookup type to be made into a table-validated value set that can be used in flexfields.


Area of Difference

Lookup Type

Value Set

List of values

Static

Dynamic if Table validation type

Validation of values

One to one match of meaning to code included in a lookup view, or through the determinant of a reference data set

By format or inclusion in a table

Format type of values

char

varchar2, number, and so on

Length of value

Text string up to 30 characters

Any type of variable length from 1 to 4000

Duplication of values

Never. Values are unique.

Duplicate values allowed

Management

Managed by both administrators and end-users, except system lookups or predefined lookups at the system customization level, which cannot be modified.

Maintained by administrators, except some product flexfield codes, such as GL for Oracle Fusion General Ledger, which are maintained by end users

A lookup type cannot make use of a value from a value set.

Value sets can make use of standard, common, or set-enabled lookups.

Both lookup types and value sets are used to create lists of values from which users select values.

What's a lookup tag used for?

Tags on lookup codes allow you to add a label to your lookup codes.

Lookup tags are unvalidated and uninterpreted by lookups. A tag can be used to categorize lookups based on facilitating searches or guiding how a lookup should be used.

Document what the tag on a lookup represents and how to use it.

Manage Messages

Messages: Highlights

The message dictionary contains messages that tell users about business rule errors, such as missing or incorrect data, and how to resolve them, to warn users about the consequences of intended actions, and provide information in log files. These messages are defined for specific applications and modules, but a few are common messages that can be used in any application. All applications also use messages stored outside of the message dictionary.

The message dictionary is described in the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide, and other messages in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Web User Interface Developer's Guide for Oracle Application Development Framework.

Managing Messages

Creating and Editing Messages: Highlights

Each message in the message dictionary has many attributes and components, including message properties, text, and tokens, that you define when creating or editing the message.

Details about these messages are described in the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Message Properties

Message Text and Tokens

Common Messages: Points to Consider

Common messages, which have message names that begin with FND_CMN and message numbers between 0 and 999, are used throughout Oracle Fusion Applications. Each common message can appear in multiple places in any product family. For example, the FND_CMN_NEW_SRCH message can be used for any search to indicate that no results were found. Common messages that are of type error or warning are part of the message dictionary.

Editing Common Messages

Because a common message can be used in any application, consider the ramifications if you edit any aspect of the message, including incident and logging settings. Changes would be reflected in all instances where the message is used. For example, if you change the message text, make sure that the text would make sense to all users across Oracle Fusion Applications who might see it.

Creating Common Messages

You can create custom common messages for use in multiple places within a single product. Do not begin the message name with FND_CMN, but use another suitable convention. The message number should be within the range that is designated for the product.

How can I determine who sees the user or administrator components of a message?

Set the Message Mode profile option to determine if the administrator or user details and action components of the message text is displayed. For example, you can set the profile option at the user level for a particular user to see the administrator information. All users can see the message short text and cause; the profile option does not apply to those message components. This profile option also applies only to messages in the message dictionary.

Define ISO Reference Data

Natural Languages: Points to Consider

Natural languages are all the languages that humans use, written and spoken. If a language is enabled, then users can associate it with entities, for example as languages spoken by sales representatives. When managing natural languages, consider tasks to perform and best practices for entering particular values.

Tasks

Once you add a language, it cannot be deleted, just disabled. You can optionally associate natural languages with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) languages and territories, just for reference.

Values

When you create a natural language, use the alpha-2 ISO code as the language code, or, if not available, then alpha-3. If the language is not an ISO language, then use x- as a prefix for the code, for example x-ja for a Japanese dialect. Use the sgn code of ISO-639-2 for sign languages, followed by territory code, for example sgn-US for American Sign Language. You can also use Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) language tags.

The natural language description should be the language name with territory name in parenthesis where needed, for example English (Australia) and English (Canada).

Defining Currencies: Points to Consider

When creating or editing currencies, consider these points relevant to entering the currency code, date range, or symbol for the currency.

Currency Codes

You cannot change a currency code after you enable the currency, even if you later disable that currency.

Date Ranges

Users can enter transactions denominated in the currency only for the dates within the specified range. If you do not enter a start date, then the currency is valid immediately. If you do not enter an end date, then the currency is valid indefinitely.

Symbols

Even if you enter a symbol for a currency, the symbol is not always displayed when an amount is displayed in this currency. Some applications use currency symbols when displaying amounts. Others, like Oracle Fusion General Ledger, do not.

Euro Currency Derivation: Explained

Use the Derivation Type, Derivation Factor, and Derivation Effective Date fields to define the relationship between the official currency (Euro) of the European Monetary Union (EMU) and the national currencies of EMU member states. For each EMU currency, you define its Euro-to-EMU fixed conversion rate and the effective starting date.

Note

If you need to use a different currency code for Euro, you can disable the predefined Euro currency and create a new one.

Derivation Type

The Euro currency derivation type is used only for the Euro, and the Euro derived derivation type identifies national currencies of EMU member states. All other currencies do not have derivation types.

Derivation Factor

The derivation factor is the fixed conversion rate by which you multiply one Euro to derive the equivalent EMU currency amount. The Euro currency itself should not have a derivation factor.

Derivation Effective Date

The derivation effective date is the date on which the relationship between the EMU currency and the Euro begins.

When do I create or edit territories?

Edit territory descriptions to determine how they are displayed in lists of country values throughout Oracle Fusion Applications. The predefined territories are all countries from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166 standard. You usually would not edit territory names or codes.

Do not edit National Language Support (NLS) territory codes, which are identifiers used in the system, unless you need to change the association between ISO and system territory. You usually would not edit the default currency, which is the value that defaults in the Currency field in Oracle Fusion Applications user preferences after the user first selects a territory.

Create territories if new countries emerge and the system has not yet been patched with the latest ISO country values.

When do I create or edit industries?

Edit industry descriptions to determine how they are displayed in Oracle Fusion Applications. You usually would not edit industry names, which are from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Enabled industries are mainly used in the context of customization, though these values can also appear in any application.

Create industries if you have particular ones you need, for example for customization, that are not included in the NAICS standard.

When do I associate industries with territories?

Optionally associate industries with territories to provide an industry in territory value, used for customization. For example, administrators can customize a page in one way for users within an industry in one country, and another way for users within the same industry in another country. The administrator would select the appropriate industry in territory value to set the customization context.

When do I create or enable currencies?

Create currencies to use, for example for reporting purposes, if they are not already provided. All currencies from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 standard are provided.

Enable any currency other than USD for use in Oracle Fusion Applications, for example for displaying monetary amounts, assigning to sets of books, entering transactions, and recording balances. Only USD is enabled by default.

What's the difference between precision, extended precision, and minimum accountable unit for a currency?

Precision is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point used in regular currency transactions. Extended precision is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point used in calculations for this currency, and it must be greater than or equal to the standard precision. For example, USD would have 2 for precision because amounts are transacted as such, for example $1.00. For calculations, for example adding USD amounts, you might want the application to be more precise than two decimal digits, and would enter an extended precision accordingly.

Note

Some applications use extended precision. Others, such as Oracle Fusion General Ledger, do not.

Minimum accountable unit is the smallest denomination for the currency. For example, for USD that would be .01 for the cent. This unit does not necessarily correspond to the precision for all currencies.

What's a statistical unit currency type?

The statistical unit currency type is used only for the Statistical (STAT) currency. The Statistical currency is used to record statistics such as the number of items bought and sold. Statistical balances can be used directly in financial reports, allocation formulas, and other calculations.

When do I create or edit ISO languages?

You can edit the names and descriptions of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) languages to determine how they are displayed in lists of ISO language values in Oracle Fusion Applications. The ISO languages are from the ISO 639 standard. If there were changes to the ISO standard and the system has not yet been patched with the latest ISO values, you can update the ISO alpha-2 code or add languages as needed.

When do I edit languages?

Installed languages automatically appear on the Manage Languages page, so you do not manually enter newly installed languages. This page contains all languages available for installation and translation in Oracle Fusion Applications. Each dialect is treated as a separate language. The language codes and names are values used by the system.

You generally would not edit any of the detailed fields unless you really need to and know what they are.

When do I create or edit time zones?

Though all standard time zones are provided, optionally enable only a subset for use in lists of time zone values in Oracle Fusion Applications. You can add time zones if new zones became standard and the system has not yet been patched with the latest values.

Manage Data Security Policies

Data Security in the Security Reference Implementation: Explained

The reference implementation contains a set of data security policies that can be inspected and confirmed to be suitable or a basis for further implementation using the Authorization Policy Manager (APM).

The security implementation of an enterprise is likely a subset of the reference implementation, with the enterprise specifics of duty roles, data security policies, and HCM security profiles provided by the enterprise.

The business objects registered as secure in the reference implementation are database tables and views.

Granting or revoking object entitlement to a particular user or group of users on an object instance or set of instances extends the base Oracle Fusion Applications security reference implementation without requiring customization of the applications that access the data.

Data Security Policies in the Security Reference Implementation

The data security policies in the reference implementation entitle the grantee (a role) to access instance sets of data based on SQL predicates in a WHERE clause.

Tip

When extending the reference implementation with additional data security policies, identify instance sets of data representing the business objects that need to be secured, rather than specific instances or all instances of the business objects.

Predefined data security policies are stored in the data security policy store, managed in the Authorization Policy Manager (APM), and described in the Oracle Fusion Applications Security Reference Manual for each offering. A data security policy for a duty role describes an entitlement granted to any job role that includes that duty role.

Warning

Review but do not modify HCM data security policies in APM except as a custom implementation. Use the HCM Manage Data Role And Security Profiles task to generate the necessary data security policies and data roles.

The reference implementation only enforces a portion of the data security policies in business intelligence that is considered most critical to risk management without negatively affecting performance. For performance reasons it is not practical to secure every level in every dimension. Your enterprise may have a different risk tolerance than assumed by the security reference implementation.

HCM Security Profiles in the Security Reference Implementation

The security reference implementation includes some predefined HCM security profiles for initial usability. For example, a predefined HCM security profile allows line managers to see the people that report to them.

The IT security manager uses HCM security profiles to define the sets of HCM data that can be accessed by the roles that are provisioned to users

Data Roles

The security reference implementation includes no predefined data roles to ensure a fully secured initial Oracle Fusion Applications environment.

The security reference implementation includes data role templates that you can use to generate a set of data roles with entitlement to perform predefined business functions within data dimensions such as business unit. Oracle Fusion Payables invoicing and expense management are examples of predefined business functions. Accounts Payable Manager - US is a data role you might generate from a predefined data role template for payables invoicing if you set up a business unit called US.

HCM provides a mechanism for generating HCM related data roles.

Data Security: Explained

By default, users are denied access to all data.

Data security makes data available to users by the following means.

You secure data by provisioning roles that provide the necessary access. Enterprise roles provide access to data through data security policies defined for the inherited application roles.

When setting up the enterprise with structures such as business units, data roles are automatically generated that inherit job roles based on data role templates. Data roles also can be generated based on HCM security profiles. Data role templates and HCM security profiles enable defining the instance sets specified in data security policies.

When you provision a job role to a user, the job role implicitly limits data access based on the data security policies of the inherited duty roles. When you provision a data role to a user, the data role explicitly limits the data access of the inherited job role to a dimension of data.

Data security consists of privileges conditionally granted to a role and used to control access to the data. A privilege is a single, real world action on a single business object. A data security policy is a grant of a set of privileges to a principal on an object or attribute group for a given condition. A grant authorizes a role, the grantee, to actions on a set of database resources. A database resource is an object, object instance, or object instance set. An entitlement is one or more allowable actions applied to a set of database resources.

Data is secured by the following means.


Data security feature

Does what?

Data security policy

Grants access to roles by means of entitlement

Role

Applies data security policies with conditions to users through role provisioning.

Data role template

Defines the data roles generated based on enterprise setup of data dimensions such as business unit.

HCM security profile

Defines data security conditions on instances of object types such as person records, positions, and document types without requiring users to enter SQL code

Masking

Hides private data on non-production database instances

Encryption

Scrambles data to prevent users without decryption authorization from reading secured data

The sets of data that a user can access via roles are defined in Oracle Fusion Data Security. Oracle Fusion Data Security integrates with Oracle Platform Security Services (OPSS) to entitle users or roles (which are stored externally) with access to data. Users are granted access through the entitlement assigned to the roles or role hierarchy with which the user is provisioned. Conditions are WHERE clauses that specify access within a particular dimension, such as by business unit to which the user is authorized.

Data Security Policies

Data security policies articulate the security requirement "Who can do What on Which set of data," where 'Which set of data' is an entire object or an object instance or object instance set and 'What' is the object entitlement.

For example, accounts payable managers can view AP disbursements for their business unit.


Who

can do

what

on which set of data

Accounts payable managers

view

AP disbursements

for their business unit

A data security policy is a statement in a natural language, such as English, that typically defines the grant by which a role secures business objects. The grant records the following.

For example, disbursement is a business object that an accounts payable manager can manage by payment function for any employee expenses in the payment process.

Note

Some data security policies are not defined as grants but directly in applications code. The security reference manuals for Oracle Fusion Applications offerings differentiate between data security policies that define a grant and data security policies defined in Oracle Fusion applications code.

A business object participating in a data security policy is the database resource of the policy.

Data security policies that use job or duty roles refer to data security entitlement.

For example, the data security policy for the Accounts Payable Manager job role refers to the view action on AP disbursements as the data security entitlement.

Important

The duty roles inherited by the job role can be moved and job roles reassembled without having to modify the data security.

As a security guideline, data security policies based on user session context should entitle a duty role. This keeps both function and data security policies at the duty role level, thus reducing errors.

For example, a Sales Party Management Duty can update Sales Party where the provisioned user is a member of the territory associated with the sales account. Or the Sales Party Management Duty can update Sales Party where the provisioned user is in the management chain of a resource who is on the sales account team with edit access. Or the Participant Interaction Management Duty can view an Interaction where the provisioned user is a participant of the Interaction.

For example, the Disbursement Process Management Duty role includes entitlement to build documents payable into payments. The Accounts Payable Manager job role inherits the Disbursement Process Management Duty role. Data security policies for the Disbursement Process Management Duty role authorize access to data associated with business objects such as AP disbursements within a business unit. As a result, the user provisioned with the Accounts Payable Manager job role is authorized to view AP disbursements within their business unit.

A data security policy identifies the entitlement (the actions that can be made on logical business objects or dashboards), the roles that can perform those actions, and the conditions that limit access. Conditions are readable WHERE clauses. The WHERE clause is defined in the data as an instance set and this is then referenced on a grant that also records the table name and required entitlement.

Data Roles

Data roles are implemented as job roles for a defined set of data.

A data role defines a dimension of data within which a job is performed. The data role inherits the job role that describes the job. For example, a data role entitles a user to perform a job in a business unit.

The data role inherits abstract or job roles and is granted data security privileges. Data roles carry the function security privileges inherited from job roles and also the data security privilege granted on database objects and table rows.

For example, an accounts payables specialist in the US Business Unit may be assigned the data role Accounts Payables Specialist - US Business Unit. This data role inherits the job role Accounts Payables Specialist and grants access to transactions in the US Business Unit.

A data role may be granted entitlement over a set people.

For example, a Benefits Administrator A-E is allowed to administer benefits for all people that have a surname that begins with A-E.

Data roles are created using data role templates. You create and maintain data roles in the Authorization Policy Manager (APM). Use the Manage Data Roles and Security Profiles task to create and maintain HCM data roles in Oracle Fusion HCM.

HCM Security Profiles

HCM security profiles are used to secure HCM data, such as people and departments. You use HCM security profiles to generate grants for an enterprise role. The resulting data role with its role hierarchy and grants operates in the same way as any other data role.

For example, an HCM security profile identifies all employees in the Finance division.

Oracle Fusion Payroll uses HCM security profiles to secure project organizations. Applications outside of HCM can use the HCM Data Roles UI pages to give their roles access to HR people.

Masking and Encryption

Oracle Fusion Applications uses masking to protect sensitive data from view by unauthorized users. Encryption APIs mask sensitive fields in applications user interfaces. Additionally, Oracle Data Masking is available for masking data in non-production instances and Oracle Transparent Data Encryption is available for protecting data in transit or in backups independent of managing encryption keys.

Database Resources and Data Security Policies: How They Work Together

A data security policy applies a condition and allowable actions to a database resource for a role. When that role is provisioned to a user, the user has access to data defined by the policy. In the case of the predefined security reference implementation, this role is always a duty role. Data roles generated to inherit the job role based on data role templates limit access to database resources in a particular dimension, such as the US business unit.

The database resource defines and instance of a data object. The data object is a table, view, or flexfield.

The following figure shows the database resource definition as the means by which a data security policy secures a data object. The database resource names the data object. The data security policy grants to a role access to that database resource based on the policy's action and condition.

The database resource is a table or
view in the database, on which a policy is defined that consists of
a condition, an action, and a role.

Database Resources

A database resource specifies access to a table, view, or flexfield that is secured by a data security policy.

Data Security Policies

Data security policies consist of actions and conditions for accessing all, some, or a single row of a database resource.

Note

If the data security policy needs to be less restrictive than any available database resource for a data object, define a new data security policy.

Actions

Actions correspond to privileges that entitle kinds of access to objects, such as view, edit, or delete. The actions allowed by a data security policy include all or a subset of the actions that exist for the database resource.

Conditions

A condition is either a SQL predicate or an XML filter. A condition expresses the values in the data object by a search operator or a relationship in a tree hierarchy. A SQL predicate, unlike an XML filter, is entered in a text field in the data security user interface pages and supports more complex filtering than an XML filter, such as nesting of conditions or sub queries. An XML filter, unlike a SQL predicate, is assembled from choices in the UI pages as an AND statement.

Tip

An XML filter can be effective in downstream processes such as business intelligence metrics. A SQL predicate cannot be used in downstream metrics.

Securing Data Access: Points to Consider

Oracle Fusion Applications supports securing data through role-based access control (RBAC) by the following methods.


Method of securing data

Reason

Example

Data roles apply explicit data security policies on job and abstract roles

Appropriate for job and abstract roles that should only access a subset of data, as defined by the data role template that generates the data role or by HCM security profiles.

Accounts Payable Manager - US data role to provide an accounts payable manager in the US business unit with access to invoices in the US business unit.

Data security policies

Define data access for application roles and provide inheriting job and abstract roles with implicit data security

Projects

If a user has access to the same function through different roles that access different data sets, then the user has access to a union of those data sets.

When a runtime session is created, Oracle Platform Security Services (OPSS) propagates only the necessary user to role mapping based on Oracle Fusion Data Security grants. A grant can specify entitlement to the following.

Data is either identified by the primary key value of the row in the table where the data is stored. Or data is identified by a rule (SQL predicate) applied to the WHERE clause of a query against the table where the data is stored.

Grants

Oracle Fusion Data Security can be used to restrict the following.

Grants control which data a user can access.

Note

Attribute level security using grants requires a data security policy to secure the attribute and the entitlement check enforces that policy.

A grant logically joins a user or role and an entitlement with a static or parameterized object instance set. For example, REGION='WEST' is a static object instance set and REGION=&GRANT_ALIAS.PARAMETER1 is a parameterized object instance set. In the context of a specific object instance, grants specify the allowable actions on the set of accessible object instances. In the database, grants are stored in FND_GRANTS and object instance sets are stored in FND_OBJECT_INSTANCE_SETS. Object access can be tested using the privilege check application programming interface (API).

Securing a Business Object

A business object is a logical entity that is typically implemented as a table or view, and corresponds to a physical database resource. The data security policies of the security reference implementation secure predefined database resources. Use the Manage Data Security Policies task to define and register other database resources.

Data security policies identify sets of data on the registered business object and the actions that may be performed on the business object by a role The grant can be made by data instance, instance set or at a global level..

Note

Use parameterized object instance sets whenever feasible to reduce the number of predicates the database parses and the number of administrative intervention required as static object instances sets become obsolete. In HCM, security profiles generate the instance sets.

Data Role Templates: Explained

You use data role templates to generate data roles. You generate such data roles, and create and maintain data role templates in the Authorization Policy Manager (APM).

Note

HCM data roles are generated using the Manage Data Roles and Security Profiles task, which uses HCM security profiles, not data role templates, to define the data security condition.

The following attributes define a data role template.

The data role template specifies which base roles to combine with which dimension values for a set of data security policies. The base roles are the parent job or abstract roles of the data roles.

Note

Abstract, job, and data roles are enterprise roles in Oracle Fusion Applications. Oracle Fusion Middleware products such as Oracle Identity Manager (OIM) and Authorization Policy Manager (APM) refer to enterprise roles as external roles. Duty roles are implemented as application roles in APM and scoped to individual Oracle Fusion Applications.

The dimension expresses stripes of data, such as territorial or geographic information you use to partition enterprise data. For example, business units are a type of dimension, and the values picked up for that dimension by the data role template as it creates data roles are the business units defined for your enterprise. The data role template constrains the generated data roles with grants of entitlement to access specific data resources with particular actions. The data role provides provisioned users with access to a dimensional subset of the data granted by a data security policy.

An example of a dimension is a business unit. An example of a dimension value is a specific business unit defined in your enterprise, such as US. An example of a data security policy is a grant to access a business object such as an invoice with a view entitlement.

When you generate data roles, the template applies the values of the dimension and participant data security policies to the group of base roles.

The template generates the data roles using a naming convention specified by the template's naming rule. The generated data roles are stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store. Once a data role is generated, you provision it to users. A user provisioned with a data role is granted permission to access the data defined by the dimension and data security grant policies of the data role template.

For example, a data role template contains an Accounts Payable Specialist role and an Accounts Payable Manager role as its base roles, and region as its dimension, with the dimension values US and UK. The naming convention is [base-role-name]:[DIMENSION-CODE-NAME]. This data role template generates four data roles.

Making Changes To Data Role Templates

If you add a base role to an existing data role template, you can generate a new set of data roles. If the naming rule is unchanged, existing data roles are overwritten.

If you remove a base role from a data role template and regenerate data roles, a resulting invalid role list gives you the option to delete or disable the data roles that would be changed by that removal.

Making Changes to Dimension Values

If you add a dimension value to your enterprise that is used by a data role template, you must regenerate roles from that data role template to create a data role for the new dimension. For example if you add a business unit to your enterprise, you must regenerate data roles from the data role templates that include business unit as a dimension.

If you add or remove a dimension value from your enterprise that is used to generate data roles, regenerating the set of data roles adds or removes the data roles for those dimension values. If your enterprise has scheduled regeneration as an Oracle Enterprise Scheduler Services process, the changes are made automatically.

For information on working with data role templates, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Authorization Policy Manager (Oracle Fusion Applications Edition).

Define Document Sequences

Document Sequences: Explained

In Oracle Fusion Applications, each business document or business event is uniquely identified by a document sequence number that you assign to it. However, the document sequencing feature must be turned on (enabled) on the business document or event to allow the assignment. For example, if document sequencing is enabled, you can assign a document sequence number to an invoice that gets generated in response to a purchase order. You can use document sequences as a proof to track successfully executed transactions as well as failed transactions. Additionally, a document sequence helps in generating an audit trail, which can be used to identify how a particular transaction passed through various applications.

Document sequencing can be managed automatically, manually, and gaplessly.

Note

Plan your document sequencing carefully before you use the options available in the application to apply sequence numbers. Avoid changes to the options after you saved your work on the Manage Document Sequences and Manage Document Sequence Categories pages.

Automatic Sequencing

Automatic document sequencing assigns a unique number to each document as it is generated, and this unique number is stored in the database. The numbering is sequential by date and time of creation. If you define a sequence to automatically number documents, you can provide an initial value to begin the sequence. In absence of a custom value, the default value 1 is used.

Manual Sequencing

Manual sequencing requires you to assign a unique number to each document before it is generated. In manual sequencing, the numerical ordering and completeness of a transaction is not enforced. Users can skip or omit numbers when entering the sequence value. However, each time that a number is assigned, the application validates its uniqueness.

Gapless Sequencing

Gapless sequencing is similar to automatic sequencing. It automatically generates a unique number for each document, but does that only for successfully generated documents. As a result, the sequence is maintained for all the documents that are generated, and no sequence numbers are lost due to incomplete or failed document generation.

Important

Use this type of sequencing only if necessary because it may affect the performance of the system and slow down transaction processing.

Sequential Numbering Enforced Profile Options

The Sequential Numbering Enforced profile validates the documents being created and applies the relevant document sequence, based on the selected option. The following options are available:

Restriction

At the site level, the profile is by default set to Partially Used. Avoid changing this option as doing so may interfere with the validation logic and the data that was stored using the earlier option may not appear. However, you can change the option at the product or user level.

Document Sequence Categories: Explained

A document sequence category is a set of documents that share similar characteristics and that are formed into a logical group. Document sequence categories simplify the task of assigning number sequences to specific documents. Instead of assigning a number to each document, you assign a document sequence to one or more document sequence categories. The document sequence category automatically takes care of numbering the documents.

A document sequence category identifies the database table that stores documents resulting from transactions that your users enter. When you assign a sequence to a category, the sequence numbers the documents that are stored in a particular table. You must create document sequence categories to be able to manage the task of assigning document sequences.

Restriction

Once a document sequence category is created, you cannot change the application, the category code, or the table name. Therefore, carefully consider these details and plan your document sequencing requirement before you begin working with the application.

Once you create a document sequence category, it is available for use under the Document Sequences: Assignments section on the Manage Document Sequences page. The Category field contains the name of the document sequence category. After you create a document sequence, you can assign it to a document sequence category.

Document Sequences: Points to Consider

Sequencing documents is an important business and legal requirement. Certain aspects of the defining process are permanent and cannot be modified later. Therefore, it is important that you first decide the appropriate document sequence to use for a set of documents. You must also decide beforehand the type of document sequencing, because you are not allowed to switch to other types once a sequence is assigned to a document sequence category. Make a note of the details such as the document sequence and document sequence category so that you can refer to them at a later point in time. Also note if there are any restrictions or configuration prerequisites before you define document sequencing.

Note

Products that implement document sequencing have specifications about its usage. Refer to the corresponding product documentation for specific details and also to determine if there are any restrictions or configuration prerequisites.

Creating and Editing Document Sequences

You can create document sequences that are automatic, manual, or gapless, depending on the business or legal requirement. By default, the current date is considered as the start date. If the end date is left blank, it means that the sequence definition never expires. Among the several options used in creating and editing document sequences, the following options are functionally more important and therefore need to be carefully determined:

Creating and Editing Document Sequence Categories

Document sequence categories are defined to make it easy to assign document sequence definitions to a group of documents instead of to individual documents. Each document sequence category is mapped to a specific table, where the documents belonging to that category are stored. The table must already be enabled for document sequencing. When specifying the table, you must consider the following points:

Assigning Document Sequences

Identify the documents to be numbered before assigning them a document sequence. For each document sequence, there can be only one active assignment to a document sequence category, a method code, and a determinant value (if applicable). As part of the assignment, specify whether the document is created automatically (for example, due to a batch process, or manually through a form). If you do not specify an end date, the assignment continues to remain active throughout the process cycle. If a determinant type was specified for the document sequence, then enter a specific determinant value related to the selected determinant type.

At runtime, when users create documents, the document sequence to be assigned is determined by finding the active assignment that matches the correct combination of category, numbering method, and the date range containing the transaction date.

Define Trees

Trees: Overview

Use the tree management feature in Oracle Fusion applications to organize data into hierarchies. A hierarchy contains organized data and enables the creation of groups and rollups of information that exist within an organization. Trees are hierarchical structures that enable several data management functions such as better access control, application of business rules at various levels of hierarchies, improved query performance, and so on.

For example, XYZ Corporation has two departments: Marketing and Finance. The Finance department has two functional divisions: Receivables and Payables. Defining a tree for the XYZ Corporation establishes a hierarchy between the organization and its departments, and between the departments and their respective functional divisions. Such a hierarchical modeling of organizational data could be used for executing several data management functions within that organization.

You can create one or more versions of trees, and they can be labeled for better accessibility and information retrieval. You can create trees for multiple data sources, which allow the trees to be shared across Oracle Fusion applications.

Tree Structures

A tree structure is a representation of the data hierarchy, and guides the creation of a tree. A tree is an instance of the hierarchy as defined in the tree structure. Tree structures enable you to enforce business rules to which the data must adhere.

The root node is the topmost node of a tree. Child nodes report to the root node. Child nodes at the same level, which report to a common parent node, are called siblings. Leaves are details branching off from a node but not extending further down the tree hierarchy.

Tree Versions

A tree is created having only one version. However, users can create more than one tree version depending on the need, and they can make changes to those versions. Depending on varying requirements, users can create one or more tree versions and publish all of them or some of them by making the versions active at the same time. Similar to any other version control system, versions of trees are maintained to keep track of all the changes that a tree undergoes in its life cycle.

Tree Labels

Tree labels are short names associated with trees and tree structures and point directly to the data source. Tree labels are automatically assigned to the tree nodes. You can store labels in any table and register the label data source with the tree structure.

Tree Structures: Explained

A tree structure defines the hierarchy for creating trees and prescribes rules based on which trees are created, versioned, and accessed. You can associate multiple data sources with a tree structure. A tree is an instance of this hierarchy. Every tree structure can contain one or more trees.

You can create tree structures specific to an application but you can share tree structures across applications. If you apply version control to the tree structure, it is carried over to the trees that are based on the tree structure. Each tree version contains at least one root node. Occasionally, a tree version may have more than one root node.

An administrator controls the access to tree structures through a set of rules that are periodically audited for validity.

Tree Structure Definition: Points to Consider

Defining a tree structure involves specifying several important pieces of information on the Create Tree Structure: Specify Definition page.

Tree Node Selection

The Tree Node table displays data in nodes that exist in the data hierarchy. You must select the correct and most appropriate tree node table to be able to define the tree structure, based on the tree hierarchy you want to establish. This selection also affects the level of security that is set on a tree node and its child entities.

Tree Sharing Mode

The following options are used to determine the mode of sharing a tree structure across the applications.

Creation Mode

Indicates the source where the tree structure is being defined. For predefined tree structures select Oracle and for custom structures, select Customers.

Customization

You can customize the predefined tree structures as well as the ones that you created. However, customizing the predefined tree structures involves certain level of access restrictions, and will be limited to specific tree nodes and downwards in hierarchy.

Multiple Tree Versions

One or more trees and tree versions can be based on a tree structure. A tree structure can have one or more trees and tree versions based on it. Usually, only one active version is permitted at any given point of time. However, depending on the requirement, you can allow two or more tree versions to be in the active state for the same date range. This flexibility allows you to choose the tree version that you want to implement.

Managing Tree Structures: Points to Consider

You can create, edit, and delete tree structures depending upon the requirement. You can also audit and change the status a tree structure.

Creating and Editing Tree Structures

You can create trees on the basis of a tree structure. When you edit an active tree structure, the status of the tree structure and all associated trees and their versions change to draft. To reuse a tree structure, you can create a copy of it without copying the associated trees and tree versions. If you delete a tree structure, all the associated trees and tree versions are automatically deleted.

Note

For specific information on working with the predefined tree structures that exist in an Oracle Fusion application, refer to the specific product documentation.

Setting Status

If you change the status of a tree structure, the status of the trees and tree versions associated with that tree structure also changes.

The following table lists the different statuses of a tree structure.


Status

Meaning

Draft

Yet to be published or is in a modified state.

Active

In use and based on which one or more trees or tree versions are created.

Inactive

Not in use.

Auditing

Whenever a tree structure is set to active, the application automatically triggers an audit of that tree structure. Running an audit verifies the tree structure, checks for data integrity, and allows you to view audit details and messages and correct validation errors, if any.

Specifying Data Sources for Tree Structures: Points to Consider

The data sources provide the items for establishing hierarchy in a tree structure. In the tree management infrastructure, these data sources are Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF) business components view objects, which are defined by application development.

Labeling Schemes

Selecting a labeling scheme determines how the tree nodes are labeled. You may select a labeling scheme to assign at the data source level, at the parent node level, or keep it open for customer assignment. You may also choose not to have any labeling scheme. However, if you decide to use any of the labeling schemes, you may need to select the following additional options, to restrict the list of values that appear under the selected tree node.

Restriction of Tree Node Values

You can decide the depth of the tree structure by selecting an appropriate value from the list. Keeping the depth limit open renders an infinite list of values.

Using the following options, you can restrict the list of values that appear for selection under a specific tree node.

Data Source Values and Parameters

Tree data sources have optional data source parameters with defined view criteria and associated bind variables. You can specify view criteria as a data source parameter when creating a tree structure, and edit the parameters when creating a tree. Multiple data sources can be associated with a tree structure and can have well-defined relationships among them.

Note

Parameter values customized at the tree level override the default values specified at the tree-structure level.

The data source parameters are applied to any tree version belonging to that data source, when performing node operations on the tree nodes. Data source parameters also provide an additional level of filtering for different tree structures. The tree structure definition supports three data source parameter types.

You can also specify which of the data source parameters are mandatory while creating or editing the tree structure.

View objects from the ADF business components are used as data sources. To associate the view object with the tree structure, you can pick the code from ADF business component view objects and provide the fully qualified name of the view object, for example, oracle.apps.fnd.applcore.trees.model.view.FndLabelVO.

Specifying Performance Options for a Tree Structure: Points to Consider

Tree structures are heavily loaded with data. As a tree management guideline, use the following settings to improve performance of data rendering and retrieval.

Row Flattening

Row flattening optimizes parent-child information for run-time performance by storing additional rows in a table for instantly finding all descendants of a parent without initiating a CONNECT BY query. Row flattening eliminates recursive queries, which allows operations to perform across an entire subtree more efficiently.

To store row flattened data for the specific tree structure, users can either use the central FND_TREE_NODE_RF table or they can register their own row flattened table. For example, in a table, if Corporation is the parent of Sales Division (Corporation-Sales Division), and Sales Division is the parent of Region (Sales Division-Region), a row-flattened table contains an additional row with Corporation directly being the parent of Region (Corporation-Region).

Column Flattening

Column flattening optimizes parent-child information for run-time performance by storing an additional column in a table for all parents of a child.

To store column flattened data for the specific tree structure, users can either use the central FND_TREE_NODE_CF table or they can register their own column flattened table. For example, in a table, if Corporation is the parent of Sales Division (Corporation-Sales Division), and Sales Division is the parent of Region (Sales Division-Region), a flattened table in addition to these columns, contains three new columns: Region, Sales Division, and Corporation. Although positioned next to each other, the column Region functions at the lower level and Corporation at the higher level, retaining the data hierarchy.

Column Flattened Entity Objects

In the absence of a column-flattened table, if you need to generate the business component view objects for your tree structure for the flattened table, use the tree management infrastructure to correctly provide the fully qualified name of the entity object for the column flattened table.

ADF Business Component View Objects

View objects from the ADF business components can also be used as data sources, eliminating the need to create new types of data sources. This field is to store the fully qualified name for the business component view object generated by the tree management for business intelligence reporting and usage The business component view object is a combination of the tree data source and column flattened entity. Using this option prevents data redundancy and promotes greater reuse of existing data, thereby improving the performance of the tree structure.

Tree Labels: Explained

Tree labels are tags that are stored on tree nodes. You can store labels in any table and register the label data source with the tree structure. When a labeling scheme is used for trees, the selected labels are stored in the tree label entity and each tree node contains a reference to a tree label in the labeling scheme.

The following table lists the three ways in which tree labels are assigned to the tree nodes.


Labeling Scheme

Description

Level

Labels that are automatically assigned based on the data source to which the tree node belongs. A level label points to a specific data source. For example, in a tree that reflects the organizational hierarchy of an enterprise, all division nodes appear on one level and all department nodes on another.

Group

Labels that you can arbitrarily assign to tree nodes.

Depth

Labels that are automatically assigned based on the depth of the tree node within the tree. No manual assignment is performed.

Note

In an unbalanced hierarchy, a level may not be equal to depth.

Managing Trees and Tree Versions: Points to Consider

You can create and edit trees and tree versions depending upon the requirement. A tree can have one or more tree versions. Typically, when changes are made to an existing tree, a new version is created and published.

Creating and Editing Trees

Trees are created based on the structure defined in the tree structure. You can create trees, modify existing trees, and delete trees. If you want to copy an existing tree, you can duplicate it. However, only the tree is duplicated and not its versions.

Creating a tree involves specifying the tree definition and specifying the labels that are used on its nodes. If the selected tree structure has data sources and parameters defined for it, they appear on the page allowing you to edit the parameter values at the tree node level.

Note

Parameter values customized at the tree level will override the default values specified at the tree-structure level.

Creating and Editing Tree Versions

Tree versions are created at the time of creating trees. A tree must contain a version.

Editing an existing tree provides you the choice to update the existing version. You can also edit the existing version that lies nested under the tree in the search results.

When you edit a tree version bearing Active status, the status changes to Draft until the modifications are saved or cancelled.

Trees and Data Sources: How They Work Together

Data sources form the foundation for tree management in Oracle Fusion Applications. Tree structures, trees, and tree versions establish direct and real-time connectivity with the data sources. Changes to the data sources immediately reflect on the Manage Trees and Tree Versions page and wherever the trees are being used.

Metadata

Tree structures contain the metadata of the actual data that is used in Oracle Fusion Applications. Tree structures contain the core business logic that is manifested in trees and tree versions.

Data Storage

Trees and tree versions are built upon the tree structures. They employ the business rules defined in the tree structures and allow an application to select and enable a subset of trees to fulfill a specific purpose in that application.

Access Control

Source data is mapped to tree nodes at different levels in the database. Therefore, changes you make to the tree nodes affect the source data. Access control set on trees prevents unwanted data modifications in the database. Access control can be applied to the tree nodes or anywhere in the tree hierarchy.

Adding Tree Nodes: Points to Consider

Tree nodes are points of data convergence that serve as the building blocks of a tree structure. Technically, the node may be stored either in a product-specific table or in an entity that has been established by tree management as the default storage mechanism. However, since all data in Oracle Fusion Applications usually have a storage home, only user-created data needs to be stored in an entity.

Nodes are attached to tree versions. Whenever you create or edit a tree version, you need to specify its tree node.

Managing Tree Nodes

You can create, modify, or delete tree nodes on the Tree Version: Specify Nodes page. To add a tree node, ensure that the tree structure with which the tree version is associated is mapped to a valid data source. You can also duplicate a tree node if the multiple root node feature is enabled.

Node Levels

In most trees, all nodes at the same level represent the same kind of information. For example, in a tree that reflects the organizational hierarchy, all division nodes appear on one level and all department nodes on another. Similarly, in a tree that organizes a user's product catalog, the nodes representing individual products might appear on one level and the nodes representing product lines on the next higher level.

When levels are not used, the nodes in the tree have no real hierarchy or reporting structure but do form a logical summarization structure. Strictly enforced levels mean that the named levels describe each node's position in the tree. This is natural for most hierarchies. Loosely enforced levels mean that the nodes at the same visual level of indentation do not all represent the same kind of information, or nodes representing the same kind of information appear at multiple levels. With loosely enforced levels, users assign a level to each node individually. The level is not tied to a particular visual position.

Node Types

A tree node has the following node types.

Define Profile Options

Profile Options: Explained

Profile optionsmanage configuration data centrally and influence the behavior of applications. Profile options serve as permanent user preferences and application configuration parameters. You configure profile options with settings for specific contexts or groups of users. Users customize how their user interfaces look and behave by changing the values of available profile options.

Profile options store the following kinds of information.


Type of Information

Profile Option Example

User preferences

Settings to provide access to social networking features

Installation information

Setting to identify the location of a portal

Configuration choices

Settings to change user interface skins and behaviors

Processing options

Settings to affect how much information to log either for an entire site or a specific user

You can add and configure new profile options in addition to configuring predefined profile options that are implemented as updateable.

Profile Option Definition and Configuration

Application developers add new profile options and configure ones that are not to be updated by other users. Application administrators and implementation consultants configure profile options with profile option values that are implemented as updatable.

Profile option definitions consist of the following.

Profile options can appear on any user interface page without indication that a profile option is what is being set.

Profile Option Values

Some profile options have predefined profile option values.

The Manage Profile Option Values task flow allows an administrator to set updatable profile option values at the available levels, including the user level. You can access the Manage Profile Option Values task starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for profile option tasks.

You can set profile option values at different levels: site, product, and user. The following table provides examples.


Profile Option Level

Value of the Profile Option Level

Profile Option Value

Effect

User

Manager1

UK pound sterling

Access to site and all products shows UK pounds sterling in effect

User

Manager2

US dollar

Access to site and all products shows US dollars in effect

Product

Financials for EMEA

Euro

Unless superseded by a user level value, euros in effect for Financials for EMEA applications

Site

Site

UK pound sterling

UK pounds sterling in effect for all other users and products

Context such as user session or accessed product determines which profile option value is associated with the profile option name. In the example, if manager1 does not set a profile option value for this profile option, access to Financials for EMEA shows currency in Euros; and access to other products shows currency in UK pounds sterling.

Profile Option Categories

Categories group profile options based on their functional area. Profile option categories facilitate searching and defining data security.

For example, in Oracle Fusion Receivables, the Transactions profile option category groups profile options related to setting how Receivables transactions are to be processed, such as Require Adjustment Reason.

A profile option can be in more than one category.

Profile Option Hierarchies and Levels

Application developers specify at which hierarchy level a profile option is enabled. The predefined profile option hierarchy levels are site, product, and user.

The hierarchy levels specified in the profile option definition determine the context in which a profile option value may be set. If the profile option value at a particular level is updatable, an administrator can update the profile option value for that context.

Note

Profile options should only be enabled for context levels that are appropriate for that profile option. For example, a profile option indicating a global configuration setting should not be enabled at the user level, if users cannot choose a different value for that setting.

For security, one level in the hierarchy is designated as a user level. A profile option may be enabled at any or all hierarchy levels. When enabled at all levels, the predefined ordering of profile option hierarchy levels gives precedence to the values that are set at the user level over values set at the product and site levels, and precedence to values set at the product level to values set at the site level. If there is no value for the current user, then the product value applies. If there is no value for the user or product, then the site value applies.

The table shows the predefined profile option hierarchy and ordering.


Hierarchy Level

Priority When Multiple Levels Set

Effect on Applications

Example

Site

Lowest

Affect all applications for a given implementation

Currency for the site is set to Euors.

Product

Supersedes Site

Affect all applications of a product family such as Financials

Currency for the Financials products set to UK pound sterling.

User

Highest, supersedes Product

Affect only the experience of the current user

Currency for the user of Financials applications set to US dollars.

You can configure updatable values for profile options at one or more levels depending on which levels are enabled in the profile option definition. When a profile is set at more than one level, higher levels of specificity override lower levels of specificity.

In the example, if the currency setting for the site is UK pounds sterling, but the Financials division works in the Netherlands using the euro, a manager in the US can override that product level setting at the user level to use US dollars when accessing Financials applications.

In another example, if a profile option called Printer is set only at the site and product levels. When a user logs on, the Printer profile option assumes the value set at the product level, since it is the highest level setting for the profile.

Tip

Set site-level profile option values before specifying values at any other level. The profile option values specified at the site-level work as defaults until profile option values are specified at the other levels.

Planning Profile Options: Points to Consider

Plan profile options before defining and configuring them.

The following aspects assist you in better planning how to manage profile options.

Profile Option Tasks

Users may be able to set their own profile options, depending on settings in the profile option definition. However, not all profile options are visible to end users, and some profile options, while visible, may not be updated by end users.

The following table lists tasks and considerations relevant to planning profile options.


Tasks

Role

Considerations

Planning, creating, and editing a new profile option

Applications developer

Since profile options are for permanent settings, do not use profiles options to cache temporary session attributes.

Add capacity for user preferences and system configuration. Customize profile options with values, value behaviors, validation, category values, and security. Define the levels at which the profile option is enabled.

Configure values in an existing profile option

Applications developer, application administrator, and implementation consultant

Manage the values for existing profile options.

Create and edit profile option categories

Applications developer, application administrator, and implementation consultant

Manage categories for organizing existing profile options.

Note

Since a profile option enables a behavior in an application user interface or across applications, a value change made by an end user is reflected in the UI page for managing profile option values.

Before Creating a Profile Option

Profile options are best defined for managing configuration data centrally and influencing the behavior of applications.

If the purpose of a profile option setting is specific to a piece of data (typically setup data), it is best implemented as an attribute of that data.

Do not use profile options for behavior that is not configurable.

Profile options exist independent of role.

Do not use profile options to implement function security. For example, an application should not check for a profile option value set to yes to provide access to a page. Do not use profile options to implement data security, such as a profile option value that must be set to a specific value to provide view access to an entity.

Do not use profile options to capture a dynamic system states, such as data stored in a temporary table. Use Global Variables for temporary states instead.

Evaluate if there is a genuine need before creating a profile option. Do not force users to make a decision about an aspect of their application use that is of no concern.

Evaluating need includes looking for duplicate or similar profile options, even in other products, before creating a new one. For example, you do not need multiple profile options to choose a preferred currency.

Profile Options Data Model

The profile option data model illustrates the relationships among profile option elements.

The figure shows the data model of profile option entities.

Data model shows a profile option with
multiple profile option values and multiple profile option levels
defined. Each profile option level consists of a profile level hierarchy
definition.

For more information about planning profile options, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Managing Profile Options: Points to Consider

A profile option definition consists of a name for the profile option and valid values. It is defined within a module of the application taxonomy. Application developers manage profile options to create new profile options or modify existing profile option definitions, which includes specifying the levels at which a profile option is enabled and defining values. Implementation consultants and application administrators configure existing profile options by managing the profile option's updatable values, and creating categories that group profile options.

Configuring a Profile Option

A profile option definition includes information about the owning application and module in the application taxonomy. A start or end date, or both may limit when a profile option is active. The profile option definition may include an SQL validation statement that determines which values are valid, and the hierarchy levels at which the profile option is enabled and updatable.

To be visible to users, a profile option must be user enabled. You can also allow user updates of the profile option, which means users can make changes to the validation and the profile option level information.

Profile option levels specify at which context level profile values may be enabled or updated. .

Profile options should only be enabled for context levels that are appropriate for that profile option. For example, a profile option indicating a global configuration setting should not be enabled at the user level, if users cannot choose a different value for that setting.

SQL Validation

The SQL validation of the profile option definition determines what valid profile option values are available. In the absence of validation, any value is valid.

For example, SQL validation provides a means of defining a list of values for the valid values of the profile option. The SQL validation can use lookups to provide the valid values for profile options, such as the lookup codes of the YES_NO lookup type.

SELECT DESCRIPTION Language, NLS_LANGUAGE
FROM FND_LANGUAGES_VL
WHERE INSTALLED_FLAG IN ('B','I')
ORDER BY DESCRIPTION

 

This results in the following list of values based on data in FND_LANUGUAGE_VL.


Display Value

Hidden Value

American English

US

French

F

Spanish

E

Hidden values must be varchar2(2000).

Profile options generally provide configuration values within a particular context. Though you can create a profile option to be global, think of global values as default values to avoid storing inappropriate configuration information as profile option values. Create global profile options that have corresponding contextual levels.

Managing Profile Option Categories: Points to Consider

Use profile option categories to group profile options.

Organizing Profile Options in Categories

As a guideline, group profile options in a single category if the profile options affect the same feature, or if an administrator would likely want to see the profile options in the results of a single search.

Application developers are responsible for the initial groupings and then administrators can make changes based on their specific needs. Administrators can categorize profile options and then easily search on profile options by category.

Tip

Define profile option categories first and assign new profile options to existing categories rather than defining profile options first and then defining categories to categorize them.

Adding New Profile Option Categories

You can add new categories or add profiles to an existing category.

You can create a profile option category by duplicating an existing category and editing it for a new grouping of profile options. You can add multiple profile options to a category. A profile option can exist in multiple categories.

Profile Option Order in a Category

Specify a profile option sequence to determine the order of profile options when queried by profile option category.

Viewing and Editing Profile Option Values: Points to Consider

A profile option value consists of the value and the context or level where the value is set. You specify the context with a pairing of the profile option value's level and level value, such as the product level and the level value GL for Oracle Fusion General Ledger. Adding or modifying profile option values can include deciding which valid values are enabled or updatable at which level.

The SQL validation of the profile option definition determines what valid profile option values are available. In the absence of validation, any value is valid.

Profile Option Levels and User Session Context

Site level profile option values affect the way all applications run for a given implementation. Product level profile option values affect the way applications owned by a particular product code behave. For example, a product may use profile options set at the product level to determine how regions provided by a common module such as those available from Oracle Fusion Trading Community Model or CRM display in a particular work area or dashboard. User level profile option values affect the way applications run for a specific application user

Whichever profile option value is most specific to a user session, that is the value at which the profile option is set for the user session.

For example, the predefined FND_LANGUAGE profile option sets the default language. In addition to a site level value, you can define a value for various product or user levels.


Level Name

Level Value

Profile Option Value

Site

InFusion

American English

Product

Customer Center

French

Product

CRM Application Composer

American English

User

Application Administrator

American English

User

Hima

Hindi

Values at the site level take affect for any user unless overridden by a different value set at the more specific levels of product and user. Product level profile option values affect the way applications owned by a particular product code behave. In addition to user level profile option values in applications, selections may be available in the user preferences workspace.

The profile option values for various user session contexts are as follows.


Site

Product

User

Highest Available Level

Active Profile Option Value

InFusion

CRM Application Composer

Hima

User

Hindi

Acme

Payables

Application Administrator

User

American English

InFusion

Customer Center

Guillaume

Product

French

InFusion

Payables

Implementation Consultant

Site

American English

Acme

Payables

Implementation Consultant

none

no value

Note

More than one site level value is relevant in an enterprise with multiple tenants using a single instance of Oracle Fusion Applications.

Effect of Changes to Profile Option Values

Any change you make to a user level profile option has an immediate effect on the way applications run for that session. When you sign in again, changes made to your user level profile options in a previous session are still in effect. When you change profile option value at the product level and no user level values are set, you see the update immediately, but other users may not see the changed value until signing out and back in. When you change a profile option value and the new value affects other users, the change takes effect only when users sign in the next time.

Changes to site level profile options take effect for any user session that is started after the setting has been changed. Changes to site or user level profile options do not affect any user sessions that are already in progress when the change is made.

Changes to site or user level profile options take effect for any C or PL/SQL processes, such as scheduled jobs, that are launched after the setting has been changed. Profile option changes do not affect C or PL/SQL processes that are already running.

Define Flexfields

Flexfields: Overview

A flexfield is an extensible data field that is divided into segments and available for capturing enterprise specific information. Each segment captures a single atomic value, which is represented in your application database as a single column.

Flexfields allow enterprise requirements to be met without changing the data model. Different data can be captured on the same database table.

The following three types of flexfields are available in Oracle Fusion Applications and provide a means to customize applications features without programming.

Flexfields encapsulate all of the pieces of information related to a specific purpose, such as a key identifying a particular purchase, or the components of a student's contact information, or the features of a product in inventory. Setup of key flexfields is generally required for correct operations of a product. In the case of descriptive and extensible flexfields, segments store attributes on an entity to capture additional information, so setup is usually optional.

End users see flexfield segments as attributes of information displayed in the application user interface. They enter a value for the attribute. End users do not modify the configuration of attributes; they enter values only for attributes that are already configured.

Segments

All flexfields consist of segments. Segments represent attributes of information. They can appear globally wherever the flexfield is implemented, or based on a structure or context.

Value Sets

A value set is a predefined, named group of values that can be used to validate the content of a flexfield segment. The value set you assign to a flexfield segment defines the valid values for the attribute represented by that segment.

Structure

Key flexfields have structure, or a specific configuration of segments. Adding or removing segments, or rearranging their order, produces a different structure. A key flexfield can have multiple structures if registered to support more than one structure. Each instance of a structure shares the same number and order of segments, but differs in the allowable values or value sets that validate the segments.

In some applications, different users need to see different segment structures for the same flexfield. For example, the correctly formatted local postal address for customer service inquiries differs based on locale. The postal address key flexfield can display different segments and prompts for different end users based on a data condition in your application data, such as the user's role or a value entered by the user.

Context

Descriptive flexfield segments can be context-sensitive and extensible flexfield segments must be context-sensitive. Segments are made available to an application as groups of attributes called contexts. A context is a set of context-sensitive segments that store a particular type of related information.

You define contexts as part of configuring a descriptive or extensible flexfield.

The database columns on which context-sensitive segments are based can be reused in as many contexts as desired.

The same column can be used by a similar segment in different contexts. For example, you can define a Dimensions context that consists of segments representing height, width and depth. You can also define a Measurements context that contains segments which reuse the same underlying height, width and depth columns for length values on an x, y, and z axis, and which additionally includes segments for weight, volume and density.

The same underlying column can be used by different segments in different contexts. For example, you can define a Dimensions context that uses the ATTRIBUTE1 column for height, the ATTRIBUTE2 column for width, and the ATTRIBUTE3 column for depth. You can also define a Measurements context that uses the same columns for other attributes: the ATTRIBUTE1 column for weight, the ATTRIBUTE2 column for volume, and the ATTRIBUTE3 column for density.

Usage

Usage affects various aspects of flexfields. The usage of the flexfield is set when the flexfield is registered and specifies the application and table with which the flexfield is associated.

Entity usage indicates the table containing the segments of a flexfield.

A flexfield can have multiple usages. The first table registered for a flexfield is the master usage. Segments are based on the master usage, and other usages of the same table for the same flexfield use the same segment setup, though the column names optionally may have a differentiating prefix.

You can configure different behavior for extensible flexfield contexts at the usage level. The usage of an extensible flexfield context determines in which scenarios or user interfaces the segments of a context appear to end users. For example, if a Supplier page displays an extensible flexfield's supplier usage and a buyer page displays that same extensible flexfield's buyer usage, a context that is associated to the supplier usage but not the buyer usage displays only on the supplier page and not the buyer page.

The usage of value sets specifies the segments where the value set is assigned.

Deployment

A flexfield must be deployed to display its current definition in a runtime application user interface. For example, if the deployment status is Edited, the flexfield segments may already appear in the UI based on the flexfield definition at the time of last deployment.

You can deploy a flexfield as a sandbox for testing the configuration before deploying it to the mainline for test or production users.

Runtime Appearance

In an application user interface, flexfield segments appear as label and field pairs or as a table of fields where the column headers correspond to the labels. The fields represent the flexfield segments and accept entered input or a selection from a list of choices that correspond to the segment's assigned value set. Extensible flexfield segments appear grouped within labeled regions, where each grouping is a context and the region labels are the context names.

All segments of a single flexfield are grouped together by default. The layout and positions of the flexfield segments depend on where the application developer places the flexfield on the page. Flexfields may also be presented in a separate section of the page, alone in a table, or on their own page.

You can use Oracle Composer to edit the layout, position, or other display features of the flexfield segments.

Manage flexfields using the tasks of the Define Flexfields activity, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for flexfield tasks.

Flexfields and Oracle Fusion Application Architecture: How They Work Together

Administrators configure flexfield segments to capture data that represents the values of attributes. Flexfield segments represent attributes of entities (business objects). Most business objects are enabled for descriptive flexfields. Some business objects are enabled for extensible flexfields.

The figure shows the layers of a flexfield: the business entity table and metadata in the database, business components that are Application Development Framework (ADF) objects or ADFbc objects derived from the metadata and stored in the Metadata Services Repository (MDS), and the user interface where the input fields defined by the flexfield segments are rendered. The flexfield definition consists of all the metadata defined during configuration and stored in the database.

The figure follows flexfield development
from adding capacity in the database to enable flexfield segments
through applications development creating the flexfield and administrators
configuring the flexfield so the definition is stored in the database
and the business components are deployed to the Metadata Services
repository, which makes the attributes representing the flexfields
available in the user interface accessing those business components.

Application developers create a flexfield and register it so that it is available for configuration. Administrators and implementation consultants configure segments and other properties of the available flexfields. This information is stored as additional flexfield metadata in the database. Deploying the flexfield generates ADF business components based on the flexfield metadata in the database.

Accessing Flexfields For Configuration

A flexfield affects the Web Services Description Language (WSDL) schemas exposed by ADF services and used by SOA composites. The Web services that expose base entity data also expose flexfield segment data.

Attributes incorporate into SOA infrastructure (BPEL, Rules) and integrate with Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition and Extended Spread Sheet Database (ESSbase). This ensures that flexfields are preserved across Oracle Fusion Applications updates.

Deployment

The metadata for the flexfield is stored in the application database as soon as you save your configuration changes. Deploying the flexfield generates the ADF business components so that the runtime user interface reflects the latest definition of the flexfield in the metadata.

Runtime

For a flexfield to reflect the latest flexfield definition at runtime it must be deployed. The user interface accesses a business object and the deployed flexfield definition indicates which business object attributes the flexfield captures values for. If you add display customizations for a flexfield using Oracle Composer, these are customizations on the page so that the same flexfield segments can appear differently on various different pages.

Values entered for segments are validated using value sets.

Managing Flexfields: Points To Consider

Managing flexfields involves, registering, planning, and configuring flexfields.

You plan and configure the registered flexfields provided in your applications by applications developers. How you configure flexfield segments determines how the flexfield segments appear to end users. Optionally, you can customize the UI page to change how the flexfield segments appear to end users on that page.

The figure shows the processes involved in making flexfields available to end users. The tasks in the Define Flexfields activity allow administrators to configure and deploy flexfields. If you deploy a flexfield to a sandbox and decide not to make further changes, you select the flexfield in the Manage Flexfields tasks of the Define Flexfields activity and deploy the flexfield in the mainline so it is available to users.

Figure shows flow from planning to
making the flexfield available to users. Configuration and deploying
falls within the tasks of the Define Flexfield activity.

Registering Flexfields

Application development registers flexfields so they are available to administrators and implementation consultants for configuration.

Application development creates the capacity of database tables to support flexfields so an enterprise can capture specific information about an entity. Many flexfields are predefined in Oracle Fusion Applications.

A flexfield must be registered before it can be configured.

For more information on registering flexfields, see Oracle Fusion Applications: Developer's Guide.

Planning Flexfields

All flexfields consist of segments which represent attributes of an entity. The values an end user inputs for an attribute are stored in a column of the entity table. Application development enables columns of entity tables for use in flexfields during flexfield registration.

A flexfield must be registered before it can be configured. Before configuring new flexfield segments for your enterprise, be sure to plan their implementation carefully.

For more information on planning flexfield configuration, see Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Configuring Flexfields

Administrators or implementers configure flexfields so they meet the needs of the enterprise. Some flexfields require configuration to make an application operate correctly.

Configuring a flexfield includes the following.

Tip

As a flexfield guideline, define value sets before configuring the flexfield, because you assign value sets to each segment as you configure a flexfield.

Some descriptive and extensible flexfields provide parameters, which are attributes of the same or related entity objects. You use parameters to set the initial value or derivation value of an attribute from external reference data, such as a column value or a session variable, rather than from user input.

Note

Adding segments to represent additional attributes is considered a custom task. For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

For more information on adding columns to a table, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

For more information on configuring flexfields for custom attributes, see also the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Enabling a Flexfield for Business Intelligence

You can enable key flexfields segment instances and descriptive flexfield segments for business intelligence if the flexfield is registered in the database as an Oracle Business Intelligence-enabled flexfield. For more information on enabling segments for business intelligence, see points to consider for managing key and descriptive flexfields.

If you BI-enable multiple segment instances from the same flexfield, the business components of the flexfield are flattened automatically to include a separate attribute for each of the BI enabled segment instances, even if some of them serve the same purpose in your application. You can prevent this duplication and the extra workload and complexity that result, by enabling equalization for any set of segment instances that serve the same purpose in different structure instances. Segment instances that are equalized will appear in the flattened flexfield as a single attribute.

Deploying Flexfields

Once you have configured a flexfield, you must deploy it to make the latest definition available to end users.

You deploy a flexfield in the mainline for general use in a test or production environment, or you can deploy a flexfield as a flexfield-enabled sandbox to confirm that it is correctly configured before deploying it to the mainline.

Deploying a flexfield results in a deployment status. Once deployed, the deployment status indicates the state of the currently configured flexfield relative to the last deployed definition

Optionally Changing How Flexfield Segments Appear in a User Interface Page

The flexfield attributes you define integrate with the user interface pages where users access the attributes' business object. Application development determines the UI pages where business objects appear and the display patterns used by default to render flexfield segments.

You can customize the appearance of the flexfield segments in the UI page using Oracle Composer once the flexfield is deployed to the mainline.

For more information on customizing flexfield appearance with Oracle Composer, see guidance on customizing existing pages in Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

For more information on planning flexfields or customizing them beyond the configuration possible in the Define Flexfields tasks, see Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

For more information on creating flexfields and adding them to a UI page, see Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Flexfield Segment Properties: Explained

Independent of the value set assigned to a segment, segments may have properties such as validation.

Range Validation of Segments

Range validation enables you to enforce an arithmetic inequality between two segments of a flexfield. For example, a product must be ordered before it can be shipped, so the order date must be on or before the ship date, and consequently the order date segment value must be less than or equal to the ship date segment value. You can use range validation to ensure this relationship.

The conditions for range validation are as follows.

You can configure as many range validated pairs as you want within the same flexfield. Your application automatically detects and applies range validation to the segment pairs that you define, in sequence order. It must encounter a low value segment first, and the next range validated segment it encounters must be a high value segment. These two segments are assumed to be a matching pair. The low value and the high value can be equal.

Flexfields and Value Sets: How They Work Together

Value sets are specific to your enterprise. When gathering information using flexfields, your enterprise's value sets validate the values your users enter based on how you defined the value set.

You can assign a value set to any number of flexfield segments in the same or different flexfields. Value set usage information indicates which flexfields use the value set.

Defining and Assigning Value Sets

As a flexfield guideline, define value sets before configuring the flexfield, because you assign value sets to each segment as you configure a flexfield.

Caution

Be sure changes to a shared value set are compatible with all flexfield segments using the value set.

Shared Value Sets

When you change a value in a shared value set, the change affects the value set for all flexfields that use that value set. The advantage of a shared values set is that a single change propagates to all usages. The drawback is that the change shared across usages may not be appropriate in every case.

Deployment

When you deploy a flexfield, the value sets assigned to the segments of the flexfield provide end users with the valid values for the attributes represented by the segments.

Defaulting and Deriving Segment Values: Explained

To populate a flexfield segment with a default value when a row is created, specify a default type of constant or parameter and a default value.

To synchronize a segment's value with another field's value whenever it changes, specify the derivation value to be the flexfield parameter from which to derive the attribute's value. Whenever the parameter value changes, the attribute's value is changed to match. If you derive an attribute from a parameter, consider making the attribute read-only, as values entered by users are lost whenever the parameter value changes.

When defaulting or deriving a default value from a parameter, only those attributes designated by development as parameters are available to be chosen.

Different combinations of making the segments read only or editable in combination with the default or derivation value or both, have different effects.

Initial runtime behavior corresponds to the row for the attribute value being created in the entity table. If the default value is read only, it cannot subsequently be changed through the user interface. If the default value is not read only, users can modify it. However, if the segment value is a derived value, a user-modified segment value is overwritten when the derivation value changes.


Default Type

Default value specified?

Derivation value specified?

Initial runtime behavior

Runtime behavior after parameter changes

None

No

Yes

No initial segment value

Changed parameter derivation value updates segment value

Constant

Yes

No

Default segment value

N/A

Constant

Yes

Yes

Default segment value

Changed parameter derivation value updates segment value

Parameter

Yes

No

Default segment value is the parameter's default value

N/A

Parameter

Yes

Yes, and same as default value

Default segment value is parameter's default and derivation value

Changed parameter derivation value updates segment value

Parameter

Yes

Yes, and different from default value

Default segment value is parameter's default value

Changed parameter default value does not update segment value. Only the changed derivation value updates the segment value.

Define Flexfields: Flexfield Deployment

Flexfield Deployment: Explained

To use a flexfield at runtime, the flexfield must have been deployed at least once. Deployment generates or refreshes the Application Development Framework (ADF) business component objects that render the flexfield in a user interface. Flexfields are deployed for the first time during the application provisioning process.

You can deploy a flexfield to a sandbox for testing or to the mainline for use.

Deployment Status

Every flexfield has a: deployment status.

A flexfield can have the following deployment statuses.


Deployment Status

Meaning

Edited

The flexfield metadata definition has not been deployed yet. Updates of the metadata definition are not applied in the runtime yet.

Patched

The flexfield metadata definition has been modified through a patch, but the flexfield has not yet been deployed so the patched definition is not reflected in the runtime.

Deployed to Sandbox

The current metadata for the flexfield is deployed in ADF artifacts and available as a flexfield-enabled sandbox. The status of the sandbox is managed by the Manage Sandboxes task available to the Administrator menu of Setup and Maintenance work area.

Deployed

The current metadata for the flexfield is deployed in ADF artifacts and available to end users. There have not been any changes to the flexfield since it was last deployed in the mainline.

Error

The deployment attempt in the mainline failed.

Note

Whenever a value set definition changes, the deployment status of a flexfield that uses that value set changes to edited. If the change results from a patch, the deployment status of the flexfield changes to patched.

Initial Deployment Status of Flexfields

The Oracle Fusion Applications installation loads flexfield metadata into the database. This initial load sets the flexfield status to Edited to indicate that the flexfield has not been deployed yet. The application provisioning process during installation deploys the predefined flexfields of the provisioned applications, which sets their status to Deployed if no errors are encountered.

When accessing a provisioned application, deployed flexfields are ready to use. In some cases, flexfield availability at runtime requires setup, such as defining key flexfields.

Metadata Validation

Use the Validate Metadata command to view possible metadata errors before attempting to deploy the flexfield. Metadata validation is the initial phase of the Deploy and Deploy to Sandbox commands. By successfully validating metadata before running the deployment commands, you can avoid failures in the metadata validation phase of a deployment attempt. Errors in the metadata validation phase of deployment cause the deployment attempt to abort. Metadata validation results do not affect the deployment status of a flexfield.

Flexfield Deployment Status: How It Is Calculated

Flexfield deployment status indicates how the flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Applications database relates to the Application Development Framework (ADF) business components generated into a Metadata Services (MDS) repository.

Settings That Affect Flexfield Deployment Status

If you have made a change to a flexfield and expect a changed deployment status, be sure you have saved your changes. No settings affect flexfield deployment status.

How Flexfield Deployment Status Is Calculated

If the flexfield definition has been edited through the Define Flexfields activity task flows, the status is Edited. The latest flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Fusion application diverges from the latest deployed flexfield definition. Any change, including if a value set used in a flexfield changes, changes the deployment status to Edited. If a flexfield has never been deployed, its status is Edited.

Note

When an application is provisioned, the provisioning framework attempts to deploy all flexfields in that application.

If you deploy the flexfield to a sandbox successfully, the status is Deployed to Sandbox. The latest flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Fusion Application matches the metadata definition that generated ADF business components in a sandbox MDS repository. Whether the sandbox is active or not does not affect the deployment status. If the flexfield was deployed by a sandbox and has not been edited or re-deployed to the mainline since then, the status remains Deployed to Sandbox independent of whether the sandbox is active, or who is viewing the status.

If you deploy the flexfield successfully, meaning to the mainline, the status is Deployed. The latest flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Fusion application matches the metadata definition that generated ADF business components in a mainline MDS repository. Change notifications are sent when a flexfield is deployed successfully to the mainline.

If either type of deployment fails so the current flexfield definition is not deployed, the status is Error. The deployment error message gives details about the error. The latest flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Fusion application likely diverges from the latest successfully deployed flexfield definition.

If the flexfield definition has been modified by a patch, the status is Patched. The latest flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Fusion application diverges from the latest deployed flexfield definition.

When a deployment attempt fails and you can access the Deployment Error Message for details.

Deploying a Flexfield-Enabled Sandbox: How It Works With Mainline Metadata

The flexfield definition in a sandbox corresponds to the flexfield metadata definition in the Oracle Fusion Applications database at the time the flexfield was deployed to the sandbox. When the flexfield is ready for end users, the flexfield must be deployed to the mainline.

A flexfield-enabled sandbox uses the following components.

The figure shows the two types of deployment available in the Manage Flexfield tasks of the Define Flexfields activity. Deploying a flexfield to a sandbox creates a sandbox MDS repository for the sole purpose of testing flexfield behavior. The sandbox is only accessible to the administrator who activates and accesses it, not to users generally. Deploying a flexfield to the mainline applies the flexfield definition to the mainline MDS repository where it is available to end users. After deploying the flexfield to the mainline, customize the page where the flexfield segments appear. Customization of the page in the sandbox MDS repository cannot be published to the mainline MDS repository.

The figure shows a flow in the Define
Flexfields activity that includes testing the flexfield in a sandbox
and possibly also making changes to the MDS data in Oracle Composer
after deploying the flexfield to the mainline for access to users.

Sandbox Metadata Services Repository Data

Deploying the flexfield to a sandbox generates the Application Development Framework (ADF) business components of a flexfield in a sandbox MDS repository for testing in isolation.

Warning

Do not make changes to flexfield segment display features in a flexfield-enabled sandbox as these changes will be lost when deploying the flexfield to the mainline.

Mainline Metadata Services Repository Data

The Oracle Fusion Applications database stores the single source of truth about a flexfield. From this the ADF business component objects that implement the flexfield in the runtime user interface are generated in the mainline MDS repository when the flexfield is deployed.

Deploying a Flexfield-Enabled Sandbox: Points to Consider

Deploying a flexfield to a sandbox creates a flexfield-enabled sandbox . Each flexfield-enabled sandbox contains only one flexfield.

You can test the runtime behavior of a flexfield in the flexfield-enabled sandbox. If changes are needed, return to the Define Flexfield tasks to change the flexfield definition.

When you deploy a flexfield to sandbox, the process reads the metadata about the segments from the database, generates flexfield Application Development Framework (ADF) business component artifacts based on that definition, and stores in the sandbox only the generated artifacts derived from the definition.

Sandbox MDS Repository Data

The sandbox data allows you to test the flexfield in isolation without first deploying it in the mainline where it could be accessed by users.

Warning

Do not make changes to flexfield segment display features in a flexfield-enabled sandbox as these changes will be lost when deploying the flexfield to the mainline.

Managing a Flexfield-Enabled Sandbox

When you deploy a flexfield as a sandbox, that flexfield-enabled sandbox automatically gets activated in your user session. When you sign back in to see the changes, the sandbox is active in your session.

You can only deploy a flexfield to a sandbox using the Define Flexfields task flow pages.

You also can use the Manage Sandboxes feature in the Administration menu of the Setup and Maintenance work area to activate, access, or delete a flexfield-enabled sandbox.

Note

Whether you use the Define Flexfields or Manage Sandboxes task flows to access a flexfield-enabled sandbox, you must sign out and sign back in before you can see the changes you deployed in the runtime.

You cannot publish the flexfield from the sandbox to the mainline. You must use the Define Flexfields task flow pages to deploy the flexfield for access by users of the mainline because the flexfield configuration in the mainline is the single source of truth.

Deploying Flexfields Using the Command Line: Explained

You can use the Manage Key Flexfields, Manage Descriptive Flexfields, and Manage Extensible Flexfields tasks to deploy flexfields. You can also use WebLogic Server Tool (WLST) commands for priming the Metadata Services (MDS) repository with predefined flexfield artifacts and for deploying flexfields.

The table describes the available commands.


WebLogic Server Tool Command

Description

deployFlexForApp

 

Deploys all flexfields for the specified enterprise application. Only flexfields whose status is other than deployed are affected by this command unless the option is enabled to force all flexfields to be deployed regardless of deployment status.

Initial application provisioning runs this command to prime the MDS repository with flexfield artifacts.

deployFlex

 

Deploy a single flexfield regardless of deployment status

deployPatchedFlex

 

Deploys flexfield changes that have been delivered using a flexfield Seed Data Framework (SDF)patch. Deploys flexfields that have a Patched deployment status.

Executing these commands outputs a report at the command line. The report provides the following information for every flexfield that is processed.

In case of errors, the report lists the usages for which the errors were encountered. If a runtime exception occurs, the output displays the traceback information.

Consider the following aspects of command line deployment.

Preparing To Use the WLST Flexfield Commands

You can only execute the WLST flexfield commands on a WebLogic Administration Server for a domain that has a running instance of the Oracle Fusion Middleware Extensions for Applications (Applications Core) Setup application.

For more information on deploying the Applications Core Setup application, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Ensure that the AppMasterDB data source is registered as a JDBC data source with the WebLogic Administration Server and points to the same database as the ApplicationDB data source.

Start the WebLogic Server Tool (WLST) tool, if it is not currently running.

UNIX:

sh $JDEV_HOME/oracle_common/common/bin/wlst.sh

 

Windows:

wlst.cmd

 

Connect to the server, replacing the user name and password arguments with your WebLogic Server user name and password.

connect('wls_username', 'wls_password', 'wls_uri')

 

The values must be wrapped in single-quotes. The wls_uri value is typically T3://localhost:7101.

For more information on the WLST scripting tool, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool.

Using the deployFlexForApp Command

The deployFlexForApp command translates the product application's predefined flexfield metadata into artifacts in the MDS repository.

Important

This command is run automatically when you provision applications. However, after custom applications development, you must run the deployFlexForApp command after you configure your application to read the flexfield artifacts from the MDS repository and before you log into the application for the first time, even if there is no predefined flexfield metadata.

This command does not deploy flexfields that have a status of Deployed unless the force parameter is set to 'true' (the default setting is 'false').

For more information on priming the MDS partition with configured flexfield artifacts, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

From the WLST tool, execute the following commands to deploy the artifacts to the MDS partition, replacing product_application_shortname with the application's short name wrapped in single-quotes.

deployFlexForApp('product_application_shortname'[, 'enterprise_id'] [,'force']) 

 

In a multi-tenant environment, replace enterprise_id with the Enterprise ID to which the flexfield is mapped. Otherwise, replace with 'None' or do not provide a second argument.

To deploy all flexfields regardless of their deployment status, set force to 'true' (the default setting is 'false'). If you want to deploy all flexfields in a single-tenant environment, you either can set enterprise_id to 'None', or you can use the following signature:

deployFlexForApp(applicationShortName='product_application_shortname',force='true')

 

Tip

The application's short name is the same as the application's module name.

For more information about working with application taxonomy, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Using the deployFlex Command

From the WLST tool, execute the following command to deploy a flexfield, replacing flex_code with the code that identifies the flexfield, and replacing flex_type with the flexfield's type, which is either DFF, KFF, or EFF.

deployFlex('flex_code', 'flex_type')

 

The values must be wrapped in single-quotes.

Using the deployPatchedFlex Command

Use the deployPatchedFlex command for situations where the patching framework does not invoke the command, such as when an application has been patched offline.

If the installation is multi-tenant enabled, the command deploys all patched flexfields for all enterprises. This command is not intended to be invoked manually.

Check with your provisioning or patching team, or the task flows for managing flexfields, to verify that the flexfield has a Patched deployment status.

From the WLST tool, execute the following command to deploy the artifacts to the MDS partition.

deployPatchedFlex()

 

Exiting the WLST and Checking the Results

To exit the tool, execute the following command.

disconnect()

 

Optionally, sign into the application, access user interface pages that contain flexfields, and confirm the presence of flexfields for which configuration exists, such as value sets, segments, context, or structures.

Define Flexfields: Manage Value Sets

Value Sets: Explained

A value set is a set of valid values that you assign to a flexfield segment.

An end user enters a value into a flexfield segment while using the application. The flexfield validates the segment against the set of valid values that you configured as a value set and assigned to the segment.

For example, you can define a required format, such as a five digit number, or a list of valid values, such as green, red, and blue.

Flexfield segments are usually validated, and typically each segment in a given flexfield uses a different value set. You can assign a single value set to more than one segment, and you can share value sets among different flexfields.

Caution

Be sure changes to a shared value set are compatible with all flexfields segments using the value set.

Defining value sets involves making decisions about the following.

Validation

The following types of validation are available for value sets.

A segment that uses a format only value set does not present a list of valid values to users.

You can build a tree structure from the values in an independent value set whose data type is character.

Note

Adding table validated value sets to the list of available value sets available for configuration is considered a custom task.

For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Security

Value set security only works in conjunction with usage within flexfield segments. If a value set is used standalone, meaning outside a flexfield, value set security is not applied, but Oracle Fusion data security is enforced.

You can specify that data security be applied to the values in flexfield segments that use a value set. Based on the roles provisioned to users, data security policies determine which values of the flexfield segment end users can view or modify.

Value set security applies at the value set level. If a value set is secured, every usage of it in any flexfield is secured. It is not possible to disable security for individual usages of the same value set.

Value set security applies to independent, dependent or table-validated value sets.

Value set security applies mainly when data is being created or updated, and to key flexfield combinations tables for query purposes. Value set security does not determine which descriptive flexfield data is shown upon querying.

Security conditions defined on value sets will always use table aliases. When filters are used, table aliases are always used by default. When predicates are defined for data security conditions, make sure that the predicates will also use table aliases.

For key flexfields, the attributes in the view object that correspond to the code combination ID (CCID), structure instance number (SIN) and data set number (DSN) cannot be transient. They must exist in the database table. For key flexfields, the SIN segment is the discriminator attribute, and the CCID segment is the common attribute.

Precision and Scale

For a value set with the data type Number, you can specify the precision (maximum number of digits user can enter) or scale (maximum number of digits following the decimal point).

Usage and Deployment

The usage of a value set is the flexfields where that value set is used. The deployment status of flexfields in which the value set is used indicates the deployment status of the value set instance.

The figure shows a value set used by a segment in a key flexfield and the context segment of a descriptive flexfield.

Figure shows a value set shared by
both a key flexfield and a descriptive flexfield.

For most value sets, when you enter values into a flexfield segment, you can enter only values that already exist in the value set assigned to that segment.

Global and context-sensitive segment require a value set. You can assign a value set to a descriptive flexfield context segment. If you specify only context values, not value sets for contexts, the set of valid values is equal to the set of context values.

Defining Value Sets: Critical Choices

Validation and usage of value sets determine where and how end users access valid values for attributes represented by flexfield segments.

Tip

As a flexfield guideline, define value sets before configuring the flexfield, because you assign value sets to each segment as you configure a flexfield.

Value Sets for Context Segments

When assigning a value set to a context segment, you can only use table-validated or independent value sets. The data type must be character and the maximum length of the values being stored must not be larger than column length of the context.

Format Only Validation

The format only validation type enables end users to enter any value, as long as it meets your specified formatting rules. That is, the value must not exceed the maximum length you define for your value set, and it must meet any format requirements for that value set.

For example, if the value set allows only numeric characters, your user could enter the value 456 (for a value set with maximum length of three or more), but could not enter the value ABC. A format only value set does not otherwise restrict the range of different values that users can enter. For numeric values, you can also specify if a numeric value should be zero filled or how may digits should follow the radix separator

Interdependent Value Sets

You cannot specify a dependent value set for a given segment without having first defined an independent value set that you apply to another segment in the same flexfield. You use a dependent value set to limit the list of values for a given segment based on the value that the end user has chosen for a related independent segment. The available values in a dependent list and the meaning of a given value depend on which value was selected for the independently validated segment.

For example, you could define an independent value set of U.S. states with values such as CA, NY, and so on. Then you define a dependent value set of U.S. cities, with values such as San Francisco and Los Angeles that are valid for the independent value CA, and New York City and Albany that are valid for the independent value NY. In the UI, only the valid cities can be selected for a given state.

Because you define a subset value set from an existing independent value set, you must define the independent value set first. End users do not need to choose a value for another segment first to have access to the subset value set.

Table Validation

Typically, you use a table-validated set when the values you want to use are already maintained in an application table (for example, a table of vendor names). Table validation allows you to enable a segment to depend upon multiple prior segments in the same context or structure.

Table-validated value sets have unique values across the table, irrespective of bind variables. The WHERE clause fragment of the value set is considered if it does not have bind variables. If it has bind variables, the assumption is that the values are unique in the value set.

Range

In the case of format, independent, or dependent value sets, you can specify a range to further limit which values are valid. You can specify a range of values that are valid within a value set. You can also specify a range validated pair of segments where one segment represents the low end of the range and another segment represents the high end of the range

For example, you might specify a range for a format-only value set with format type Number where the user can enter only values between 0 and 100. If you use a table value set, you cannot reference flexfield segments in the WHERE clause of the value set . For example, the WHERE clause cannot reference a segment or a value set.

Security

In the case of independent and dependent values, you can specify that data security be applied to the values in segments that use a value set. Based on the roles provisioned to users, data security policies determine which values of the flexfield segment end users can view or modify.

When you enable security on a table-validated value sets, the security rule that is defined is absolute and not contingent upon the bind variables (if any) that may be used by the WHERE clause of the value set. For example, suppose a table-validated value set has a bind variable to further filter the value list to x, y and z from a list of x, y, z, xx, yy, zz. The data security rule or filter written against the value set should not assume anything about the bind variables; it must assume the whole list of values is available and write the rule, for example, to allow x, or to allow y and z. By default in data security all values are denied, and show only rows to which access has been provided.

Maintenance

There is no need to define or maintain values for a table-validated or subset value set, as the values are managed as part of the referenced table or independent value set, respectively.

If your application has more than one language installed, or there is any possibility that you might install one or more additional languages for your application in the future, select Translatable. This does not require you to provide translated values now, but you cannot change this option if you decide to provide them later.

For more information about defining value sets, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide.

Define Flexfields: Manage Descriptive Flexfields

Descriptive Flexfields: Explained

Descriptive flexfields provide a way to add custom attributes to entities, and define validation and display properties for them. These attributes are generally standalone. They don't necessarily have anything to do with each other and are not treated together as a combination.

All Oracle Fusion Applications business entities that you can access are enabled for descriptive flexfields. Descriptive flexfields are entirely optional. You can choose to configure and expose the descriptive flexfield defined and registered in your database, or not.

A descriptive flexfield provides a set amount of segments for an entity. The segments of a descriptive flexfield are made available to end users as individual fields in the application user interface.

Segments and Contexts

Descriptive flexfield segments are of the following types.


Segment Type

Runtime Behavior

Global segment

Always available

Context segment

Determines which context-sensitive segments are displayed

Context-sensitive segment

Displayed depending on the value of the context segment

In the figure, a descriptive flexfield has one context segment called Category for which there are three values: Resistor, Battery, and Capacitor. In addition, the descriptive flexfield consists of two global segments that appear in each of the contexts, and three context-sensitive segments that only appear in the context in which they are configured.

Context segment serves as a category
for the attributes, whether resistor, battery, or capacitor. Global
segments are always available. Depending on context, context-sensitive
segments are available.

Application development determines the number of segments available for configuring. During implementation you determine which attributes to add using the available segments, and the context values and the combination of attributes in each context. A segment can be used for different attributes, such as Height in Context1 and Color in Context2. Each segment of a descriptive flexfield that you make available to end users is exposed in the user interface as an individual field.

Value Sets

For each global and context-sensitive segment, you configure the values allowed for the segment and how the values that end users enter are validated, including interdependent validation among the segments.

Managing Descriptive Flexfields: Points To Consider

Configuring descriptive flexfields involves managing the available flexfields registered with your Oracle Fusion Applications database and configuring their flexfield-level properties, defining and managing descriptive flexfield contexts, and configuring global and context-sensitive segments.

Every descriptive flexfield is registered to include a context segment, which you may choose to use or not.

Segments

Assign sequence order numbers to global segments. Segment display is always in a fixed order. You cannot enter a number for one segment that is already in use for a different segment.

Value sets are optional for context segments. The value set that you specify for a context segment consists of a set of context codes, each of which corresponds to a context that is appropriate for the descriptive flexfield. If you do not specify a value set for a context segment, the valid values for that context segment are derived from the context codes. The definition of each context segment specifies the set of context-sensitive segments that can be presented when that context code is selected by the end user.

For reasons of data integrity, you cannot delete an existing context. Instead, you can disable the associated context value in its own value set by setting its end date to a date in the past.

You can configure the individual global segments and context-sensitive segments in a descriptive flexfield. These segment types are differentiated by their usage, but they are configured on application pages that use most of the same properties.

Usages

Descriptive flexfield usages allow for the same definition to be applied to multiple entities. Descriptive flexfield tables define the placeholder entity where the flexfield segment values are stored once you have configured the descriptive flexfield.

Parameters

Parameters are public arguments to a descriptive flexfield. Parameters provide outside values in descriptive flexfield validation. Parameters can be referenced by the logic that derives the default segment value and in table-validated VALUE set WHERE clauses.

Delimiters

A segment delimiter or separator visually separates segment values when the flexfield is displayed as a string of concatenated segments.

Business Intelligence

If a descriptive flexfield is registered in the database as enabled for Oracle Business Intelligence, you can specify that a global, context, or context-sensitive segment is BI Enabled so it is available for use in Oracle Business Intelligence. The BI Enabled setting is otherwise unavailable.

If you BI-enable a context-sensitive segment, the business components of the flexfield are flattened automatically to include a separate attribute for each of the BI-enabled segments, even if some of them serve the same purpose in your application. If you BI-enable a global segment or context segment, the business components of the flexfield automatically include a single attribute for the global segment or context segment. Descriptive flexfields do not support equalization across context-sensitive segments.

Define Flexfields: Manage Extensible Flexfields

Extensible Flexfields: Explained

Extensible flexfields are like descriptive flexfields, with some additional features.

When you configure a context for multiple rows per entity, the segments are displayed as a table.

Unlike descriptive flexfields, the extension columns corresponding to extensible flexfields segments are part of extension tables, separate from the base application table. Unlike descriptive flexfield contexts, the set of attributes in an extensible flexfield context remains constant and does not differ by context value.

An extensible flexfield describes an application entity, with the runtime ability to expand the database that implementation consultants can use to define the data structure that appears in the application.

Extensible flexfields support one-to-many relationships between the entity and the extended attribute rows.

Usages

As with descriptive flexfields, you can define multiple usages for an extensible flexfield, which enables several application tables to share the same flexfield.

For example, a flexfield for shipping options can be used by both a Supplier table and a Buyer table. In addition, you can associate a context with one, some, or all of the flexfield's usages. Thus, with the shipping information example, you can associate a warehouse context with the Supplier usage, a delivery location context with the Buyer usage, and a ship-via context with all usages.

Categories

You can define categories for extensible flexfields, and you can associate any combination of contexts with a given category.

For example, the Electronics and Computers category hierarchy might include a Home Entertainment category, which in turn might include an Audio category and a TV category, and so on. The Home Entertainment product might have contexts that specify voltage, dimensions, inputs and outputs. Contexts are reusable within a given extensible flexfield. For example, the dimensions context could be assigned to any category that needs to include dimensional information.

Pages

Extensible flexfields allow you to combine contexts into groups known as pages, which serve to connect the contexts so they will always be presented together in the application user interface.

Each application page corresponds to one extensible flexfield category, with a separate region of the page for each associated context.

Managing Extensible Flexfields: Points To Consider

Configuring extensible flexfields involves managing the available flexfields registered with your application database and configuring their flexfield-level properties, defining contexts, categories, and pages, and configuring the segments for each extensible flexfield.

Contexts

A context can be defined as single row or multi row. Single row contexts are the same as descriptive flexfields contexts. A single row context has only one set of context-sensitive segments. A multi-row context enables you to associate multiple sets of values with the same object instance.

For example, for a BOOK table, you could create a multi-row context named chapters that contains a chapter segment and a number of pages segment. Multiple chapters can then be associated with each book in the BOOK table.

Set the context to translatable so free-form text entered by end users is stored in the language of the user's locale, and different translations of that text can be stored in other languages. Segments in the translated contexts should utilize format-only value sets for storing free-form, user-entered text.

Categories

A category is a grouping of related data items that can be considered to belong together. You can associate any combination of contexts with a given category.

A category hierarchy logically organizes a set of categories.

For example, the Electronics and Computers category hierarchy might include a Computer category and a Home Entertainment category, which in turn might include an Audio category and a TV category, and so on.

A category can be a child or sibling of an existing category. The hierarchy can be as simple or as complex as desired, with any combination of zero or more sibling categories and zero or more child categories. If no category is defined, the data items are grouped under a single predefined default category.

Each category has associated contexts that store relevant information about a data item in that category. For example, a Home Entertainment product has contexts that specify Voltage, Dimensions, Inputs and Outputs. Contexts are reusable within a given extensible flexfield; the Dimensions context could be assigned to any category that needs to include dimensional information.

If a hierarchy includes child categories, each child category inherits the contexts from its parent category; for example, the Home Entertainment category inherits Voltage and Dimensions from the Electronics and Computers category.

Each extensible flexfield is associated with a particular category hierarchy. You can think of category hierarchies as the defining framework for extensible flexfields and their contexts. A category hierarchy specifies which contexts are valid for each category.

An extensible flexfield can include multiple contexts which you define to support a given category. These contexts can be suitable for a variety of different purposes, but within a particular category, some contexts might be considered to be related to, or dependent on, each other. You can combine these contexts into groups known as pages, which serve to connect the contexts so they will always be presented together in the application user interface.

For example, the Home Entertainment category might have an Electrical Specifications page that contains the Voltage, Inputs and Outputs contexts, and a Physical Specifications page that contains the Dimensions and Form Factor contexts.

Indexed Segments

You can designate an extensible flexfield segment as indexed so that it is one of the selectively required attributes an end user can use in an attribute search. If you indicate in the Manage Extensible Flexfield UI page that a segment should be indexed, the column representing the segment must be added to the database index. This is commonly done by a database administrator (DBA).

When an extensible flexfield with indexed segments is deployed, search task flows are generated along with the other flexfield artifacts and specify the indexed attributes as selectively required. In the deployed extensible flexfield's search task flow, an end user must specify at least one of the indexed attributes in the search criteria. This prevents non-selective searches which could cause performance issues.

For example, if you index the memory and processor attributes and ensure that the corresponding columns in the database are indexed, an end user can search an item catalog for computers by entering processor or memory or both as a search criterion. No search is performed if an end user enters an attribute as search criteria that is not indexed.

Define Flexfields: Manage Key Flexfields

Key Flexfields: Explained

Key flexfields provide a means to capture a key such as a part number, a job code, or an account code. A key flexfield consists of one or more segments, where each segment can have a meaning.

For example, a part number 10-PEN-BLA-450 might correspond to a black pen from vendor #450 sold by division #10 (office supplies). Behind the scenes, the application uses a unique number, 13452, for this part, but the end user always see the 10-PEN-BLA-450 part number.

The following aspects are important to understanding key flexfields.

Key flexfields are not optional. You must configure key flexfields to ensure that your applications operate correctly. You configure and maintain key flexfield definitions with the Manage Key Flexfields task.

Architecture

When you configure a key flexfield, you define metadata about the key flexfield such as how many segments are in a structure, how many structures the flexfield uses, what value sets each segment uses, and so on. This is flexfield metadata stored in flexfield metadata tables.

Based on the flexfield metadata, actual part numbers are captured at runtime as a combination of segment values and stored in a combinations table. A combinations table contains all the segment columns for a flexfield, plus a unique ID column and a structure instance number column that differentiates multiple arrangements of the segment columns.

For example, a part number that can be comprised of multiple segments can be represented by a key flexfield. A part number key flexfield has a corresponding combinations table, where the flexfield stores a list of the complete codes, with one column for each segment of the code, together with the corresponding unique ID and structure instance number for the code. When users define a new part number or maintain existing part numbers in the parts catalog, they directly maintain rows in the combination table.

The foreign key table contains a different business entity than the combinations table. For example, the business entity in the foreign key table is order lines or invoice lines that contain foreign key references to parts for ordering and so on. Any number of foreign key tables can reference a particular entity represented by a key flexfield.

Segments and Segment Labels

A key flexfield consists of segments. Segments consist of a prompt, a short prompt, display width, a number that determines where in the sequence of a key flexfield structure the segment exists, the range type and the column name of the attribute being captured by the segment, a default value set and a label for the segment. A segment label identifies a particular segment of a key flexfield. Segment labels are defined and made available by applications development.

Applications identify a particular segment for some purpose such as security or computations. Segment name or segment order cannot reliably identify a segment because key flexfield segments can be configured to appear in any order with any prompts. A segment label functions as a tag for a segment.

For example, Oracle Fusion General Ledger needs to identify which segment in the Accounting Flexfield contains balancing information and which segment contains natural account information. General Ledger uses a segment label to determine which segment you are using for natural account information. When you define your Accounting Flexfield, you must specify which segment label apply to which segments.

Some labels must be unique, and cannot be applied to more than one segment in each structure. Other labels are required, and must be applied to at least one segment in each structure.

A segment label orients an end user's search of segments, such as the Cost Center label for all segments across key flexfields that capture a value for cost center.

Structures

A key flexfield structure definition includes the number of segments and their order.

A delimiter separates the segments when they appear to end users. The delimiter value of a structure specifies the character used to visually separate segment values when the key flexfield is displayed as a string of concatenated segments in the UI.

Tip

Choose the delimiter value of your key flexfield carefully so that it does not conflict with the flexfield data. For example, if your data frequently contains periods, such as in monetary or numeric values, do not use a period as your segment separator. Any character you expect to appear frequently in your segment values or descriptions is not a good choice for the delimiter.

If you change the configuration of a key flexfield, such as the delimiter, the change affects the previously stored key flexfields with that structure.

Each structure can have one or more segments. Thus a segment is a child of a structure. If you want to store a particular segment, such as Cost Center, in two different structures, you must define the segment separately in each structures.

Structure and Segment Instances

You can define multiple configurations of a key flexfield structure. These structure instances have the same segment structure, in the same sequence order. They differ primarily in how each segment is validated. You define a structure instance for each key flexfield and each key flexfield structure instance.

The segments in a key flexfield structure instance are segment instances. A segment instance is a segment with a specific value set assigned to it.

If a key flexfield has been registered with a tree structure, you can specify a tree code for a segment instance, where the tree code defines a hierarchical relationship between the segment values.

Combinations

A combination is a complete code, or combination of segment values that makes up the code, that uniquely identifies an object.

For example, each part number is a single combination, such as PAD-YEL-11x14 or 01-COM-876-7BG-LTN. In these combinations, the hyphen is the segment separator. If you had ten parts you would define ten combinations. A valid combination is simply an existing or new combination that can currently be used because it is not out of date or disabled, and does not violate cross-validation or security rules. A combination has different segments depending on the flexfield structure being used for that combination. Any combination is associated with only one particular flexfield structure.

Many Oracle Fusion Applications products refer to a key flexfield combination by using the name of the entity or the key flexfield itself. For example, Oracle Fusion Assets uses the asset key flexfield and refers to one of its combinations as an asset key or asset key flexfield. In another example, other Oracle Fusion Applications products including Oracle Fusion General Ledger (GL) refer to combinations of the accounting flexfield as account or GL account.

Each key flexfield has one corresponding table, known as the combinations table, where the flexfield stores a list of the complete codes, with one column for each segment of the code, together with the corresponding unique ID number (a code combination ID number or CCID) for that code. Then, other tables in the application have a column that stores just the unique ID for the code. For example, you may have a part number code, such as PAD-YEL-11x14. The Parts combinations table stores that code along with its ID, 57494. If your application allows you to take orders for parts, you might then have an Orders table that stores orders for parts. That Orders table would contain a single column that contains the part ID, 57494, instead of several columns for the complete code PAD-YEL-11x14.

Typically one combinations page maintains the key flexfield, where the key flexfield is the representation of an entity in your application. The combinations page is where you maintain individual combinations, such as part numbers.

Dynamic Combination Creation

Dynamic combination creation is the insertion of a new valid combination into a combinations table from a page other than the combinations page.

Dynamic combination creation may be enabled at the following levels.


Level Of Dynamic Combination Creation

Controlled By:

Flexfield

Application development

Each usage or reference to the key flexfield

Application development

Structure instance

Administrators and implementation consultants

Other

Administrators and implementation consultants

If your key flexfield or certain usages or references of the key flexfield do not permit dynamic combination creation, you may control whether dynamic combination creation is enabled for each structure instance. If enabled, a user can enter a new combination of segment values using the flexfield window from a foreign key page. For example, when entering a transaction, a GL user can enter a new expense account code combination for an account that does not yet exist. Your application creates the new account by inserting the new combination into the combinations table behind the scenes. Assuming that the new combination satisfies any existing cross-validation rules, the flexfield inserts the new combination into the combinations table, even though the combinations table is not the underlying table for the foreign key page.

Managing Key Flexfields: Points to Consider

Consider the plans for a key flexfield, security, and resulting runtime pages when configuring key flexfields.

Planning

Plan structures carefully and allow for future needs.

Caution

Do not change the number, order, and maximum length of segments once you have acquired flexfield data.

Business Intelligence

If a key flexfield is registered in the database as enabled for Oracle Business Intelligence integration, you can specify that a segment instance is BI Enabled, which makes the segment instance available for use in Oracle Business Intelligence. The BI Enabled setting is otherwise unavailable.

If you BI-enable multiple segment instances from the same key flexfield, the business components of the flexfield are flattened automatically to include a separate attribute for each of the BI enabled segment instances, even if some of them serve the same purpose in your application. You can prevent this duplication and the extra workload and complexity that result, by enabling equalization for any set of segment instances that serve the same purpose in different structure instances. Enable equalization by assigning a unique segment label to those segment instances that you wish to be equalized across structure instances. Equalized segment instances appear in the flattened flexfield as a single attribute. Segment instances that are assigned non-unique segment labels are not equalized.

Security

Oracle Fusion data security enforces value set security.

Within key flexfields, value set security applies to the selection of the individual segment values in the segment list of values. When selecting a key flexfield segment value from the combination table, data security allows display of only the combinations whose segment values you have access to. Applications development controls whether or not value set security rules propagate to the foreign key table. By default they do.

Runtime Pages

Application development determines the user interface (UI) pages used to render flexfields. The types of key flexfield UI pages are as follows.

The same key flexfield can be used in different ways on different pages.

A page with a foreign key reference has a base table or view that contains a foreign key reference to a combinations table with the actual flexfield segment columns. This allows manipulating rows containing code combination IDs (CCID).

A page with partial usage of a key flexfield presents segments that are defined on a product's transactional table in addition to being defined on a combinations table. In the case of a partial usage page, it is possible that only part of the configuration is visible. This allows the key flexfield to behave more like a descriptive flexfield.

A code combination maintenance page or combinations page presents the combinations table. This allows directly creating and maintaining code combinations. The combinations table contains all key flexfield segment columns and a unique ID column.

A typical application has one and only one combinations page. An application might not have a combinations page if it does not support maintenance by administrators.

A page containing a search region enables end users to select which attributes of the key flexfield view object to use as criteria to search for flexfield metadata.

For example, you can configure seven segments for the Account key flexfield. In a foreign key reference page, end users see the typical key flexfield picker with all seven segments where they can search for combinations. In a partial usage page using the same key flexfield, end users potentially could see only a single segment such as the Cost Center labeled segment, or they might see multiple segments but displayed as individual segments rather than as a picker for choosing combinations

For more information on key flexfield pages, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Key Flexfield Structures: Explained

A key flexfield structure arranges the segments of a key so you can reuse a single key flexfield in multiple combinations of the same or a subset of segments. Multiple instances of a single structure can accommodate differences in the value sets assigned to the structure's segments.

The structure determines the following aspects of a key flexfield.

Managing Key Flexfield Structures

All the segments defined for a key flexfield are available to be included in a key flexfield structure.

You can define as many segments as there are defined segment columns in your key flexfield combinations table.

Restriction

Be sure to add segments in the order that your key requires. Once deployed, the order cannot be changed.

Enable segments to indicate that they are in use. A flexfield does not display disabled segments in runtime.

Tip

To protect the integrity of your data, disable a segment if you have already used it to enter data.

Key Flexfield Structure Instances and Segment Instances: Explained

A key flexfield structure can have one or more alternate structure instances.

The instances of a key flexfield structure share the following aspects of the structure.

Differences among structure instances at the structure level include whether dynamic combination creation is allowed.

Differences among segment instances at the structure instance level include the following.

For example, you could use one group of value sets for the US and another for France.

The figure shows two structures instances for a part number structure. The structures differ in the number of segments and the segment separators used. The structure instances of a structure share all properties that are defined for the structure, but can vary in the properties defined at the structure instance or segment instance level, such as the value set assigned to the segment instances.

A part number key flexfield has multiple
possible structures. A given structure has multiple possible instances.
And a given structure instance has segment instances that differentiate
it from other structure instances.

Query Required Segment Instances

You can designate a key flexfield segment instance as query required so that it is one of the selectively required attributes an end user can use in a key flexfield combination search. If you indicate in the Manage Key Flexfields UI page that a segment instance should be indexed, the column representing the segment must be added to the database index. This is commonly done by a database administrator (DBA).

Following deployment, the combination picker of the key flexfield displays the query required attributes as selectively required. An end user must specify at least one of the query required attributes in the search criteria. This prevents non-selective searches that could cause performance issues.

For example, if you mark the cost center and account attributes as query required and ensure that the corresponding columns in the database are indexed, an end user can search for combinations by entering cost center or account or both as a search criterion. No search is performed if an end user does not enter at least one query required attribute as search criteria.

Tip

Index the Structure Instance Number column on your combinations table to improve performance.

Dynamic Combinations

If a key flexfield supports dynamic combination creation, you can choose to enable this feature by selecting Dynamic Combination Creation Allowed. This will allow end users to enter values at runtime that produce new code combinations for the flexfield. If not enabled, new valid combinations can only be entered using the combinations table for the flexfield.

Trees

If a tree code has been defined for the value set assigned to the segment instance, and you assign the tree code to the segment instance, tree hierarchy search operations are available on the segment values.

For a segment instance to be based on a tree, the following must be true.

Provided these conditions are satisfied, different segment instances that use the same value set can be assigned the same or different tree codes, meaning they use a different hierarchy definition over the same values.

Key Flexfields: Example

A key flexfield can capture expense account information.

Scenario

When entering details for each expense, the user specifies an account to which the expense is charged.

Entering Expense Accounts

A user interface for entering expenses gives the user the option of selecting an expense account that identifies the cost center and other details needed for processing the expense.

Analysis

The expense account field is a foreign key reference to a code combination (EXPENSE_LINES.EXPENSE_ACCOUNT = ACCOUNTS.CCID).

Code Combination Table for Entering Accounts and Employees

The code combination table supports entering account information, such as for expense accounts.

The figure shows the origin in the code combination table of the account specified by the user. The code combination ID record stores the information of the key flexfield segments used to assemble the expense account based on the key flexfield configuration.

The figure shows the expenses table,
the code combinations table picking up the code combination ID from
the expenses table and supplying the project number to the expense
account key so that a user can enter the expense account in an expense
details user interface.

The combinations page, which is the maintenance page for the key flexfield, is for managing rows in the combination table. In this example, managing the combinations means adding or editing account numbers that adhere to the key flexfield metadata rules.

The figure shows the code combination details for the example expense account reflected in the flexfield configuration and the code combination table.

The figure shows the combination details
user interface where the code combination table is maintained and
the combination details that result from the code combination table.

If dynamic combination creation is not enabled, then when entering an expense line, the user can only select an account that already exists in the ACCOUNTS (combinations) table. If they require an account that does not exist, they must consult with the appropriate application administrator who can add the account to the combinations table.

If dynamic combination creation is enabled, then when entering an expense line, the user can either select a pre-existing account, or type in a new account that created dynamically on the fly in the ACCOUNTS (combinations) table. Once the new combination is created, the same user can refer to it on the expense line.

When managing employee information, the user specifies the cost center that the employee belongs to. The cost center field corresponds to a single, labeled segment of the Account Key Flexfield and has metadata defined such as the allowable value set for that segment.

In this figure, instead of specifying a cost center ID reference to an account, only the Cost Center segment is used and the value is stored directly on the employee table.

The figure shows the combinations details
and how they appear in the Employee Details user interface.

FAQs for Define Flexfields

Why did my flexfield changes not appear in the runtime UI?

The ADF business components or artifacts of a flexfield, which are generated into an metadata services (MDS) repository when the flexfield is deployed, are cached within a user session. You must sign out and back in again to view flexfield definition changes reflected in the runtime application user interface page.

A flexfield's status relative to its deployment determines whether the flexfield segments as currently defined in the metadata are available to end users. The flexfield segments seen by end users in the runtime correspond to the flexfield definition that was last deployed successfully.

What happens if a value set is security enabled?

Value set security is a feature that enables you to secure access to value set values based on the end user's role in the system.

As an example, suppose you have a value set of US state names. When this value set is used to validate a flexfield segment, and users can select a value for the segment, you can use value set security to restrict them to selecting only a certain state or subset of states based on their assigned roles in the system.

For example, Western-region employees may choose only California, Nevada, Oregon, and so on as valid values. They cannot select non-Western-region states. Eastern-region employees may choose only New York, New Jersey, Virginia, and so on as valid values, but cannot select non-Eastern-region states. Value set security is implemented using Oracle Fusion Applications data security.

How can I set a default value for a flexfield segment?

When you define or edit a flexfield segment, you specify a default value from the values provided by the value set assigned to that segment.

You can set the default value to be a parameter, which means the entity object attribute to which the parameter you choose is mapped will provide the initial default value for the segment.

You can set to be a constant, if appropriate to the data type of the value set assigned to the segment.

In addition to an initial default value, you can set a derivation value for updating the attribute's value every time the parameter value changes. The parameter you choose identifies the entity object source attribute. Any changes in the value of the source attribute during runtime are reflected in the value of the segment.

If the display type of the segment is a check box, you can set whether the default value of the segment is checked or unchecked.

Define Attachments

Attachments: Explained

Attachments are pieces of supplementary information that users can associate with specific business objects such as expense reports or purchase orders. Attachments can be URLs, desktop files, text, or in cases where available, repository folders. For any given business object, a user may be able to only view attachments, or also create, delete, or edit attachments, depending on security. For more information on an introduction to attachments, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Repository

Attachments are stored in a content server, the Oracle Enterprise Content Management document repository. Users have no real interaction with the repository unless the repository mode is enabled for attachments on specific business objects. In which case, users can share attachments among objects, update attachments by checking them out of and back in to the repository, and perform other tasks. Access to attachment files is controlled by a digital signing mechanism. Depending on security, users might have direct access to the repository.

Security

Data security that applies to a specific business object also applies to attachments for that object, as determined by the attachment entity defined for the object. For example, if a user has no access to a specific expense report, then the same user cannot access attachments for the expense report. You can also use attachment categories to control access and actions on attachments, based on roles associated with the category. For more information on securing attachments, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide

Attachment Entities: Explained

An attachment entity is usually a database entity, for example a table or view, that represents a business object attachments can be associated with. Each attachment UI must be defined with a corresponding attachment entity, which not only identifies the business object to attach to, but also controls what users can do. Attachment entities are used only in the context of attachments and exist separately from the database entities that they are based on.

Edit and create attachment entities on the Manage Attachment Entities page, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Manage Attachment Entities task. Though you would generally use predefined attachment entities with attachment UIs, you might need to create new entities, for example when developing custom UIs.

Entity Names

An attachment entity name should match the name of the table or view that represents the business object to attach to. The name is also used in the repository folder that is automatically created to store attachments for the entity. The attachment entity display name should be something that users know to represent the business object.

Database Resource

The data security policies associated with the database resource defined for the attachment entity would apply to attachments for that entity. For example, based on the database resource for the expense reports attachment entity, the same policies apply to attachments for expense reports. The database resource value must match the value in the OBJ_NAME column in the FND_OBJECTS table for the business object that the entity represents.

Enabling Security

Security based on the database resource associated with the attachment entity is always in effect. What you can enable or disable is security based on attachment categories. If any of the attachment categories associated with the attachment entity has data security defined, then that security applies to this entity only if enabled.

Attachment Entities and Attachment Categories: How They Work Together

The association between attachment entities and categories determines which categories can be used for an entity. For example, categories associated with the expense report attachment entity are available to be implemented in attachment UIs for expense reports. You can define these associations when managing either entities or categories. Any association changes in either the Manage Attachment Entities or Manage Attachment Categories page are reflected on the other page. You can access either page by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for attachment tasks.

Managing Entities

You determine which attachment categories are relevant to a particular entity on the Manage Attachment Entities page, and each entity must have at least one category. Depending on configuration, any or all of the available categories for that entity are used. For example, you assign three categories to the expense reports attachment entity. For a particular expense report page with attachments functionality, you can customize the attachments component to specify which of the three categories are used. Based on your selection, the data security defined for each category, if any, is applied to attachments on that page if the attachment entity has category-based security enabled.

Managing Categories

If you create an attachment category and need to assign it to multiple attachment entities, use the Manage Attachment Categories page. The association means the same as the association on the Manage Attachment Entities page.

FAQs for Define Attachments

What's an attachment category?

An attachment category is used to classify and secure attachments. Each attachment user interface must be defined with at least one category for users to be able to add attachments. If there are multiple categories, users can view them and select one when adding attachments. For example, attachments for an expense report can be categorized as receipts, scanned invoice images, and so on.

You can also associate roles with categories to determine user access and actions for attachments, based on the categories assigned to the attachment entity. For example, security for expense report attachments can be based in part on the categories assigned to the expense report attachment entity. You can define multiple categories per module, and add and manage custom categories for your own purposes. For more information on attachment category data security, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Use the Manage Attachment Categories page, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Manage Attachment Categories task.

Set Activity Stream Options

Activity Stream Options: Highlights

Activity Stream is a region on the Oracle Fusion Applications Welcome dashboard and other pages in various applications. Users track the activities and transactions of other users in this region. You can set options that affect the all Activity Stream regions for all users across your site. Individual users can still override your settings through Activity Stream preferences.

Activity stream settings are described in the Oracle Fusion Middleware User's Guide for Oracle WebCenter Spaces. When you read content from that guide, note that:

Setting Activity Stream Options

Manage Menu Customizations

Managing Menu Customizations: Highlights

You can customize the Navigator menu, which is the main menu of Oracle Fusion Applications and is always available in the global area. Use the Manage Menu Customizations page, which you can access by starting in the Setup and Maintenance Overview page and searching for the Manage Menu Customization task.

An overview of customizing the Navigator menu is provided in the Oracle Fusion Applications Extensibility Guide. Details of the values you enter to define menu items are provided in the Oracle Fusion Applications Developer's Guide.

Overview

Menu Items

When you customize items in the Navigator menu, you determine if the item takes users to a specific page in Oracle Fusion Applications or to another application or Web site. The details of what you enter to define the menu item depend on the type of destination. If you duplicate a menu item, the new item appears below the selected source item.

Manage Applications Core Common Reference Objects

Common Messages: Points to Consider

Common messages, which have message names that begin with FND_CMN and message numbers between 0 and 999, are used throughout Oracle Fusion Applications. Each common message can appear in multiple places in any product family. For example, the FND_CMN_NEW_SRCH message can be used for any search to indicate that no results were found. Common messages that are of type error or warning are part of the message dictionary.

Editing Common Messages

Because a common message can be used in any application, consider the ramifications if you edit any aspect of the message, including incident and logging settings. Changes would be reflected in all instances where the message is used. For example, if you change the message text, make sure that the text would make sense to all users across Oracle Fusion Applications who might see it.

Creating Common Messages

You can create custom common messages for use in multiple places within a single product. Do not begin the message name with FND_CMN, but use another suitable convention. The message number should be within the range that is designated for the product.

Document Sequences: Explained

In Oracle Fusion Applications, each business document or business event is uniquely identified by a document sequence number that you assign to it. However, the document sequencing feature must be turned on (enabled) on the business document or event to allow the assignment. For example, if document sequencing is enabled, you can assign a document sequence number to an invoice that gets generated in response to a purchase order. You can use document sequences as a proof to track successfully executed transactions as well as failed transactions. Additionally, a document sequence helps in generating an audit trail, which can be used to identify how a particular transaction passed through various applications.

Document sequencing can be managed automatically, manually, and gaplessly.

Note

Plan your document sequencing carefully before you use the options available in the application to apply sequence numbers. Avoid changes to the options after you saved your work on the Manage Document Sequences and Manage Document Sequence Categories pages.

Automatic Sequencing

Automatic document sequencing assigns a unique number to each document as it is generated, and this unique number is stored in the database. The numbering is sequential by date and time of creation. If you define a sequence to automatically number documents, you can provide an initial value to begin the sequence. In absence of a custom value, the default value 1 is used.

Manual Sequencing

Manual sequencing requires you to assign a unique number to each document before it is generated. In manual sequencing, the numerical ordering and completeness of a transaction is not enforced. Users can skip or omit numbers when entering the sequence value. However, each time that a number is assigned, the application validates its uniqueness.

Gapless Sequencing

Gapless sequencing is similar to automatic sequencing. It automatically generates a unique number for each document, but does that only for successfully generated documents. As a result, the sequence is maintained for all the documents that are generated, and no sequence numbers are lost due to incomplete or failed document generation.

Important

Use this type of sequencing only if necessary because it may affect the performance of the system and slow down transaction processing.

Sequential Numbering Enforced Profile Options

The Sequential Numbering Enforced profile validates the documents being created and applies the relevant document sequence, based on the selected option. The following options are available:

Restriction

At the site level, the profile is by default set to Partially Used. Avoid changing this option as doing so may interfere with the validation logic and the data that was stored using the earlier option may not appear. However, you can change the option at the product or user level.

FAQs for Manage Applications Core Common Reference Objects

How can I determine who sees the user or administrator components of a message?

Set the Message Mode profile option to determine if the administrator or user details and action components of the message text is displayed. For example, you can set the profile option at the user level for a particular user to see the administrator information. All users can see the message short text and cause; the profile option does not apply to those message components. This profile option also applies only to messages in the message dictionary.

Define WebLogic Communication Services Configuration

Click to Dial: Top Tasks

Click to Dial is a feature of the customer contact process. Phone communication to customers and employees is initiated with a click of the mouse, leveraging your customer contact information and the application context. The Click to Dial feature uses Oracle WebLogic Communication Services, OWLCS, to enable communications. Applications that provide the Click to Dial functionality do so primarily through contextual actions in the application.

Additionally, Click to Dial utilizes Oracle Fusion Interactions as an optional transaction logging feature that will track information about the call such as the customer, call participants, a timestamp noting the start time of the call, the direction of the communication, in or outbound, and the resolution code.

Click to Dial integrates with your telephony environment and must be manually enabled in your deployment. This topic highlights what is required to set up the Click to Dial feature and to implement logging of the calls made using the Click to Dial feature.

Terms used in setting up these communications

The set up task list Define WebLogic Communication Services Configuration delineates five tasks required for the correct configuration and implementation of Click to Dial. There is an optional task, separate from the set up task list, required for implementing Interaction logging.

Information about implementing Click to Dial can be found in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide. Detailed information about configuring and maintaining WebLogic Communication Services is found in the Oracle WebLogic Communication Services Administrator's Guide

Configure and Deploy WebLogic Server

Integrate Communications Services

Specify the Domain and Address

Enable Click to Dial

Call Logging via Fusion Interactions

Click to Dial: Explained

Use Click to Dial to place a call to a contact from a hyperlink on the phone number or phone icon.

Here are a few topics that are important to know when using Click to Dial:

Note

Click to Dial must be enabled to make calls using the various contact information pages and pop-up UIs. When enabled, phone numbers appear as hyperlinks. Interaction logging is available if that feature is enabled. If interaction logging is available, a note indicating that fact will be displayed in the UI. See Click to Dial: Top Tasks for more information about enabling these features.

Normal Call Flow

Click to Dial uses a call-the-caller-then-call-the-callee procedure for completing a phone call. That format and the normal flow of this procedure are described below.

Note

Click to Dial does not work on phone numbers that are marked with a Do Not Call icon.

Interaction Records and Notes

Click to Dial automatically creates an interaction record of the call, when that feature is enabled. The details window that provides the phone number may also show an Interaction icon that you can click to display a list of interaction records to edit, for example to provide a description of the call. The window may also provide a notes feature that you can use to record notes during the call.

Interaction Logging

The interaction record is logged as soon as the call is either successfully set up or known to have failed.

The interaction log records the customer, call participants, a timestamp noting the start time of the call, the direction of the communication, in or outbound, and the resolution code. The description is automatically updated with these three items:

The call resolution code is determined from OWLCS and recorded in the interaction:


OWLCS Call Status

Resolution Code in Interaction

CallConnected

CALL ANSWERED

CallAborted

FAILED

CallHangUp

FAILED

CalledPartyBusy

NOT AVAILABLE

CalledPartyNoAnswer

NOT AVAILABLE

CalledPartyNotReachable

NOT AVAILABLE

CallingPartyBusy

FAILED

CallingPartyNoAnswer

FAILED

CallingPartyNotReachable

FAILED

Editing interactions

Once the call is established, if Interactions is available, you can use the Interactions icon on the UI to launch the interaction record list view. Select the current interaction record to edit it.

Operational Notes

Because of the call-the-caller-then-call-the-callee format, there are some conditions that may occur due to several calling situations. Some of these conditions are described below: