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Oracle® Fusion Accounting Hub Implementation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1.2)
Part Number E20374-02
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2 Define Enterprise Structures for Fusion Accounting Hub

This chapter contains the following:

Enterprise Structures: Overview

Enterprise Structures Business Process Model: Explained

Global Enterprise Configuration: Points to Consider

Modeling Your Enterprise Management Structure in Oracle Fusion: Example

Define Initial Configuration with the Enterprise Structures Configurator

Define Enterprise for Fusion Accounting Hub

Enterprise Structures: Overview

Oracle Fusion Applications have been designed to ensure your enterprise can be modeled to meet legal and management objectives. The decisions about your implementation of Oracle Fusion Applications are affected by your:

Every enterprise has three fundamental structures, legal, managerial, and functional, that are used to describe its operations and provide a basis for reporting. In Oracle Fusion, these structures are implemented using the chart of accounts and organizations. Although many alternative hierarchies can be implemented and used for reporting, you are likely to have one primary structure that organizes your business into divisions, business units, and departments aligned by your strategic objectives.

This figure is a grid in the shape
of a cube with the Business Axis representing the enterprise division,
Legal Axis representing the companies, and the Functional Axis representing
the business functions.

Legal Structure

The figure above shows a typical group of legal entities, operating various business and functional organizations. Your ability to buy and sell, own, and employ comes from your charter in the legal system. A corporation is a distinct legal entity from its owners and managers. The corporation is owned by its shareholders, who may be individuals or other corporations. There are many other kinds of legal entities, such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and government agencies.

A legally recognized entity can own and trade assets and employ people in the jurisdiction in which it is registered. When granted these privileges, legal entities are also assigned responsibilities to:

Many large enterprises isolate risk and optimize taxes by incorporating subsidiaries. They create legal entities to facilitate legal compliance, segregate operations, optimize taxes, complete contractual relationships, and isolate risk. Enterprises use legal entities to establish their enterprise's identity under the laws of each country in which their enterprise operates.

In the figure above, a separate card represents a series of registered companies. Each company, including the public holding company, InFusion America, must be registered in the countries where they do business. Each company consists of various divisions created for purposes of management reporting. These are shown as vertical columns on each card. For example, a group might have a separate company for each business in the United States (US), but have their United Kingdom (UK) legal entity represent all businesses in that country. The divisions are linked across the cards so that a business can appear on some or all of the cards. For example, the air quality monitoring systems business might be operated by the US, UK, and France companies. The list of business divisions is on the Business Axis. Each company's card is also horizontally striped by functional groups, such as the sales team and the finance team. This functional list is called the Functional Axis. The overall image suggests that information might, at a minimum, be tracked by company, business, division, and function in a group environment. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the legal structure is implemented using legal entities.

Management Structure

Successfully managing multiple businesses requires that you segregate them by their strategic objectives, and measure their results. Although related to your legal structure, the business organizational hierarchies do not need to be reflected directly in the legal structure of the enterprise. The management structure can include divisions, subdivisions, lines of business, strategic business units, and cost centers. In the figure above, the management structure is shown on the Business Axis. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the management structure is implemented using divisions and business units.

Functional Structure

Straddling the legal and business organizations is a functional organization structured around people and their competencies. For example, sales, manufacturing, and service teams are functional organizations. This functional structure is represented by the Functional Axis in the figure above. You reflect the efforts and expenses of your functional organizations directly on the income statement. Organizations must manage and report revenues, cost of sales, and functional expenses such as research and development (R&D) and selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses. In Oracle Fusion Applications, the functional structure is implemented using departments and organizations, including sales, marketing, project, cost, and inventory organizations.

Enterprise Structures Business Process Model: Explained

In Oracle Fusion Applications, the Enterprise Performance and Planning Business Process Model illustrates the major implementation tasks that you perform to create your enterprise structures. This process model includes the Set Up Enterprise Structures business process, which consist of implementation activities that span many product families. Information Technology is a second Business Process Model which contains the Set Up Information Technology Management business process. Define Reference Data Sharing is one of the activities in this business process and is important in the implementation of the enterprise structures. This activity creates the mechanism to share reference data sets across multiple ledgers, business units, and warehouses, reducing the administrative burden and decreasing the time needed to implement.

The following figure and chart describes the Business Process Model structures and activities.

This diagram lists the
BPM activities: Define Enterprise, Define Enterprise Structures, Define
Legal Jurisdictions and Authorities, Define Legal Entity, Define Business
Units, Define Financial Reporting Structures, Define Chart of Accounts,
Define Ledgers, Define Accounting Configurations, Define Facilitates,
and Define Reference Data Sharing.


BPM Activities

Description

Define Enterprise

Define the enterprise to capture the name of the deploying enterprise and the location of the headquarters. There is normally a single enterprise organization in a production environment. Multiple enterprises are defined when the system is used to administer multiple customer companies, or when you choose to set up additional enterprises for testing or development.

Define Enterprise Structures

Define enterprise structures to represent an organization with one or more legal entities under common control. Define internal and external organizations to represent each area of business within the enterprise.

Define Legal Jurisdictions and Authorities

Define information for governing bodies that operate within a jurisdiction.

Define Legal Entities

Define legal entities and legal reporting units for business activities handled by the Oracle Fusion Applications.

Define Business Units

Define business units of an enterprise to allow for flexible implementation, to provide a consistent entity for controlling and reporting on transactions, and to be an anchor for the sharing of sets of reference data across applications.

Define Financial Reporting Structures

Define financial reporting structures, including organization structures, charts of accounts, organizational hierarchies, calendars, currencies and rates, ledgers, and document sequences which are used in organizing the financial data of a company.

Define Chart of Accounts

Define chart of accounts including hierarchies and values to enable tracking of financial transactions and reporting at legal entity, cost center, account, and other segment levels.

Define Ledgers

Define the primary accounting ledger and any secondary ledgers that provide an alternative accounting representation of the financial data.

Define Accounting Configurations

Define the accounting configuration that serves as a framework for how financial records are maintained for an organization.

Define Facilities

Define inventory, item, and cost organizations. Inventory organizations represent facilities that manufacture or store items. The item master organization holds a single definition of items that can be shared across many inventory organizations. Cost organizations group inventory organizations within a legal entity to establish the cost accounting policies.

Define Reference Data Sharing

Define how reference data in the applications is partitioned and shared.

Note

There are product specific implementation activities that are not listed here and depend on the applications you are implementing. For example, you can implement Define Enterprise Structures for Human Capital Management, Project Management, and Sales Management.

Global Enterprise Configuration: Points to Consider

Start your global enterprise structure configuration by discussing what your organization's reporting needs are and how to represent those needs in the Oracle Fusion Applications. Consider deployment on a single instance, or at least, on as few instances as possible, to simplify reporting and consolidations for your global enterprises. The following are some questions and points to consider as you design your global enterprise structure in Oracle Fusion.

Enterprise Configuration

What is the level of configuration needed to achieve the reporting and accounting requirements? What components of your enterprise do you need to report on separately? Which components can be represented by building a hierarchy of values to provide reporting at both detail and summary levels? Where are you on the spectrum of centralization versus decentralization?

Business Unit Management

What reporting do I need by business unit? How can you set up your departments or business unit accounts to achieve departmental hierarchies that report accurately on your lines of business? What reporting do you need to support the managers of your business units, and the executives who measure them? How often are business unit results aggregated? What level of reporting detail is required across business units?

Security Structure

What level of security and access is allowed? Are business unit managers and the people that report to them secured to transactions within their own business unit? Are the transactions for their business unit largely performed by a corporate department or shared service center?

Compliance Requirements

How do you comply with your corporate external reporting requirements and local statutory reporting requirements? Do you tend to prefer a corporate first or an autonomous local approach? Where are you on a spectrum of centralization, very centralized or decentralized?

Modeling Your Enterprise Management Structure in Oracle Fusion: Example

This example uses a fictitious global company to demonstrate the analysis that can occur during the enterprise structure configuration planning process.

Scenario

Your company, InFusion Corporation, is a multinational conglomerate that operates in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). InFusion has purchased an Oracle Fusion enterprise resource planning (ERP) solution including Oracle Fusion General Ledger and all of the Oracle Fusion subledgers. You are chairing a committee to discuss creation of a model for your global enterprise structure including both your US and UK operations.

InFusion Corporation

InFusion Corporation has 400 plus employees and revenue of $120 million. Your product line includes all the components to build and maintain air quality monitoring (AQM) systems for homes and businesses. You have two distribution centers and three warehouses that share a common item master in the US and UK. Your financial services organization provides funding to your customers for the start up costs of these systems.

Analysis

The following are elements you need to consider in creating your model for your global enterprise structure.

Global Enterprise Structure Model

The following figure and table summarize the model that your committee has designed and uses numerical values to provide a sample representation of your structure. The model includes the following recommendations:

InFusion Corporation is the enterprise
and has two division , InFusion United States (US) and InFusion United
Kingdom (UK). InFusion US has two legal entities, InFusion America,
Inc. and InFusion Financial Services, Inc. each with its own ledger.
InFusion UK has one legal entity, Infusion UK Systems, Inc. which
has on primary ledger in Great Britain Pounds (GBP) and a Reporting
Currency representation in United States Dollar (USD). Each legal
entity has its own business unit (BU). InFusion America also has a
BU that processes general and administrative transactions across all
legal entities. InFusion Corporation has a US and a UK distribution
centers with three associated warehouses. InFusion Corporation shares
one common item master.

The table indicates if the enterprise
structure entities are mandatory or optional.

In this chart, the green globe stands for mandatory and gold globe stands for optional setup. The following statements expand on the data in the chart.

Note

Some Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) implementations do not require recording of accounting transactions and therefore, do not require implementation of a ledger.

Note

The InFusion Corporation is a legal entity but is not discussed in this example.

Define Initial Configuration with the Enterprise Structures Configurator

Establishing Enterprise Structures Using the Enterprise Structures Configurator: Explained

The Enterprise Structures Configurator is an interview-based tool that guides you through the process of setting up a basic enterprise structure. By answering questions about your enterprise, the tool creates a structure of divisions, legal entities, business units, and reference data sets that reflects your enterprise structure. After you create your enterprise structure, you also follow a guided process to determine whether or not to use positions, and whether to set up additional attributes for jobs and positions. After you define your enterprise structure and your job and position structures, you can review them, make any necessary changes, and then load the final configuration.

This figure illustrates the process to configure your enterprise using the Enterprise Structures Configurator.

A figure that shows the process to
create an enterprise configuration using the ESC

To be able to use the Enterprise Structures Configurator, you must select the Enterprise Structures Guided Flow feature within the offerings in the Functional Setup Manager (FSM). If you do not select this feature, then you must set up your enterprise structure using individual tasks provided elsewhere in the offerings, and you cannot create multiple configurations to compare different scenarios.

Establish Enterprise Structures

To define your enterprise structures, you use the guided flow within the Establish Enterprise Structures task to enter basic information about your enterprise, such as the primary industry and the location of your headquarters. You then create divisions, legal entities, business units, and reference data sets. The Establish Enterprise Structures task enables you to create multiple enterprise configurations so that you can compare different scenarios. Until you load a configuration, you can continue to create and edit multiple configurations until you arrive at one that best suits your enterprise.

Establish Job and Position Structures

In addition to using the Establish Enterprise Structures task to create the basic structure of your enterprise, you also use a guided process to determine whether you want to use jobs only, or jobs and positions. The primary industry that you select in the Establish Enterprise Structures task provides the application with the information needed to make an initial recommendation. You can either accept the recommendation, or you can answer additional questions about how you manage people in your enterprise, and then make a selection. After you select whether to use jobs or positions, the guided process prompts you to set up a descriptive flexfield structure for jobs, and for positions if you have chosen to use them. Descriptive flexfields enable you to capture additional information when you create jobs and positions.

Review Configuration

After you create enterprise configurations and job and position structures, you can review a summary of the results of the two interview processes. For each configuration, the online summary lists the divisions, legal entities, business units, reference data sets, and job and position structures that the application will create when you load the configuration.

For a more detailed analysis of a configuration, you can access the Technical Summary Report. This report lists the same information as the online summary, but also lists the following information that will be created by the application when you load the configuration, based on your configuration:

The Technical Summary report also lists the default settings that will be loaded for these fields, which you access from the Manage Enterprise HCM Information task: Worker Number Generation, Employment Model and Allow Employment Terms Override. You can print the Technical Summary Report for each of your configurations and compare each scenario.

Load Configuration

You can load only one configuration. When you load a configuration, the application creates the divisions, legal entities, business units, and so on. After you load the configuration, you then use individual tasks to edit, add, and delete enterprise structures.

Designing an Enterprise Configuration: Example

This example illustrates how to set up an enterprise based on a global company operating mainly in the US and the UK with a single primary industry.

Scenario

InFusion Corporation is a multinational enterprise in the high technology industry with product lines that include all the components that are required to build and maintain air quality monitoring (AQM) systems for homes and businesses. Its primary locations are in the US and the UK, but it has smaller outlets in France, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Enterprise Details

In the US, InFusion employs 400 people and has a company revenue of $120 million. Outside the US, InFusion employs 200 people and has revenue of $60 million.

Analysis

InFusion requires three divisions. The US division will cover the US locations. The Europe division will cover the UK and France. Saudi Arabia and the UAE will be covered by the Middle East division.

InFusion requires legal entities with legal employers, payroll statutory units, tax reporting units, and legislative data groups for the US, UK, France, Saudi Arabia, and UAE, in order to employ and pay its workers in those countries.

InFusion requires a number of departments across the enterprise for each area of business, such as sales and marketing, and a number of cost centers to track and report on the costs of those departments.

InFusion requires business units for human capital management (HCM) purposes. Infusion has general managers responsible for business units within each country. Those business units may share reference data. Some reference data can be defined within a reference data set that multiple business units may subscribe to. Business units are also required for financial purposes. Financial transactions are always processed within a business unit.

Resulting Enterprise Configuration

Based on this analysis, InFusion requires an enterprise with multiple divisions, ledgers, legal employers, payroll statutory units, tax reporting units, legislative data groups, departments, cost centers, and business units.

This figure illustrates the enterprise configuration that results from the analysis of InFusion Corporation.

A figure of an enterprise configuration

Division: Explained

Managing multiple businesses requires that you segregate them by their strategic objectives and measure their results. Responsibility to reach objectives can be delegated along the management structure. Although related to your legal structure, the business organizational hierarchies do not need to reflect directly the legal structure of the enterprise. The management entities and structure can include divisions and subdivisions, lines of business, and other strategic business units, and include their own revenue and cost centers. These organizations can be included in many alternative hierarchies and used for reporting, as long as they have representation in the chart of accounts.

Divisions

A division refers to a business oriented subdivision within an enterprise, in which each division organizes itself differently to deliver products and services or address different markets. A division can operate in one or more countries, and can be comprised of many companies or parts of different companies that are represented by business units.

A division is a profit center or grouping of profit and cost centers, where the division manager is responsible for attaining business goals including profit goals. A division can be responsible for a share of the company's existing product lines or for a separate business. Managers of divisions may also have return on investment goals requiring tracking of the assets and liabilities of the division. The division manager reports to a top corporate executive.

By definition a division can be represented in the chart of accounts. Companies may choose to represent product lines, brands, or geographies as their divisions: their choice represents the primary organizing principle of the enterprise. This may coincide with the management segment used in segment reporting.

Oracle Fusion Applications supports a qualified management segment and recommends that you use this segment to represent your hierarchy of business units and divisions. If managers of divisions have return on investment goals, make the management segment a balancing segment. Oracle Fusion applications allows up to three balancing segments. The values of the management segment can be comprised of business units that roll up in a hierarchy to report by division.

Historically, divisions were implemented as a node in a hierarchy of segment values. For example, Oracle E-Business Suite has only one balancing segment, and often the division and legal entity are combined into a single segment where each value stands for both division and legal entity.

Use of Divisions in Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM)

Divisions are used in HCM to define the management organization hierarchy, using the generic organization hierarchy. This hierarchy can be used to create organization based security profiles.

Legal Entities: Explained

A legal entity is a recognized party with rights and responsibilities given by legislation.

Legal entities have the right to own property, the right to trade, the responsibility to repay debt, and the responsibility to account for themselves to regulators, taxation authorities, and owners according to rules specified in the relevant legislation. Their rights and responsibilities may be enforced through the judicial system. Define a legal entity for each registered company or other entity recognized in law for which you want to record assets, liabilities, and income, pay transaction taxes, or perform intercompany trading.

A legal entity has responsibility for elements of your enterprise for the following reasons:

The Role of Your Legal Entities

In configuring your enterprise structure in Oracle Fusion Applications, you need to understand that the contracting party on any transaction is always the legal entity. Individual legal entities own the assets of the enterprise, record sales and pay taxes on those sales, make purchases and incur expenses, and perform other transactions.

Legal entities must comply with the regulations of jurisdictions, in which they register. Europe now allows for companies to register in one member country and do business in all member countries, and the US allows for companies to register in one state and do business in all states. To support local reporting requirements, legal reporting units are created and registered.

You are required to publish specific and periodic disclosures of your legal entities' operations based on different jurisdictions' requirements. Certain annual or more frequent accounting reports are referred to as statutory or external reporting. These reports must be filed with specified national and regulatory authorities. For example, in the United States (US), your publicly owned entities (corporations) are required to file quarterly and annual reports, as well as other periodic reports, with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), who enforces statutory reporting requirements for public corporations.

Individual entities privately held or held by public companies do not have to file separately. In other countries, your individual entities do have to file in their own name, as well as at the public group level. Disclosure requirements are diverse. For example, your local entities may have to file locally to comply with local regulations in a local currency, as well as being included in your enterprise's reporting requirements in different currency.

A legal entity can represent all or part of your enterprise's management framework. For example, if you operate in a large country such as the United Kingdom or Germany, you might incorporate each division in the country as a separate legal entity. In a smaller country, for example Austria, you might use a single legal entity to host all of your business operations across divisions.

Creating Legal Entities in the Enterprise Structures Configurator: Points to Consider

Using the Enterprise Structures Configurator (ESC), you can create legal entities for your enterprise automatically, based on the countries in which divisions of your business operate, or you can upload a list of legal entities from a spreadsheet.

Automatically Creating Legal Entities

If you are not certain of the number of legal entities that you need, you can create them automatically. To use this option, you first identify all of the countries in which your enterprise operates. The application opens the Map Divisions by Country page, which contains a matrix of the countries that you identified, your enterprise, and the divisions that you created. You select the check boxes where your enterprise and divisions intersect with the countries to identify the legal entities that you want the application to create. The enterprise is included for situations where your enterprise operates in a country and acts on behalf of several divisions within the enterprise and is a legal employer in a country. If you select the enterprise for a country, the application creates a country holding company.

The application automatically creates the legal entities that you select, and identifies them as payroll statutory units and legal employers. For each country that you indicated that your enterprise operates in, and for each country that you created a location for, the application also automatically creates a legislative data group.

Any legal entities that you create automatically cannot be deleted from the Create Legal Entities page within the Enterprise Structures Configurator. You must return to the Map Divisions by Country page and deselect the legal entities that you no longer want.

Example: Creating Legal Entities Automatically

InFusion Corporation is using the ESC to set up their enterprise structure. They have identified two divisions, one for Lighting, and one for Security. The Lighting division operates in Japan and the US, and the Security division operates in the UK and India.

This figure illustrates InFusion Corporation's enterprise structure.

A figure that shows an enterprise with
divisions and countries in which the divisions operate

This table represents the selections that InFusion Corporation makes when specifying which legal entities to create on the Map Divisions by Country page.


Country

Enterprise

InFusion Lighting

InFusion Security

Japan

No

Yes

No

US

No

Yes

No

UK

No

No

Yes

India

No

No

Yes

Based on the selections made in the preceding table, the ESC creates the following four legal entities:

Creating Legal Entities Using a Spreadsheet

If you have a list of legal entities already defined for your enterprise, you can upload them from a spreadsheet. To use this option, you first download a spreadsheet template, then add your legal entity information to the spreadsheet, and then upload directly to your enterprise configuration. You can export and import the spreadsheet multiple times to accommodate revisions.

Legal Entity in Oracle Fusion: Points to Consider

Oracle Fusion Applications support the modeling of your legal entities. If you make purchases from or sell to other legal entities, define these other legal entities in your customer and supplier registers, which are part of the Oracle Fusion Trading Community Architecture. When your legal entities are trading with each other, you represent both of them as legal entities and also as customers and suppliers in your customer and supplier registers. Use legal entity relationships to determine which transactions are intercompany and require intercompany accounting. Your legal entities can be identified as legal employers and therefore, are available for use in Human Capital Management (HCM) applications.

There are several decisions that need to be considered in creating your legal entities.

The Importance of Legal Entity in Transactions

All of the assets of the enterprise are owned by individual legal entities. Oracle Fusion Financials allow your users to enter legal entities on transactions that represent a movement in value or obligation.

For example, the creation of a sales order creates an obligation for the legal entity that books the order to deliver the goods on the acknowledged date, and an obligation of the purchaser to receive and pay for those goods. Under contract law in most countries, damages can be sought for both actual losses, putting the injured party in the same state as if they had not entered into the contract, and what is called loss of bargain, or the profit that would have made on a transaction.

In another example, if you revalued your inventory in a warehouse to account for raw material price increases, the revaluation and revaluation reserves must be reflected in your legal entity's accounts. In Oracle Fusion Applications, your inventory within an inventory organization is managed by a single business unit and belongs to one legal entity.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Business Units

A business unit can process transactions on behalf of many legal entities. Frequently, a business unit is part of a single legal entity. In most cases the legal entity is explicit on your transactions. For example, a payables invoice has an explicit legal entity field. Your accounts payables department can process supplier invoices on behalf of one or many business units.

In some cases, your legal entity is inferred from your business unit that is processing the transaction. For example, your business unit A agrees on terms for the transfer of inventory to your business unit B. This transaction is binding on your default legal entities assigned to each business unit. Oracle Fusion Procurement, Oracle Fusion Projects, and Oracle Fusion Supply Chain applications rely on deriving the legal entity information from the business unit.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Divisions

The division is an area of management responsibility that can correspond to a collection of legal entities. If desired, you can aggregate the results for your divisions by legal entity or by combining parts of other legal entities. Define date-effective hierarchies for your cost center or legal entity segment in your chart of accounts to facilitate the aggregation and reporting by division. Divisions and legal entities are independent concepts.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Ledgers

One of your major responsibilities is to file financial statements for your legal entities. Map legal entities to specific ledgers using the Oracle Fusion General Ledger Accounting Configuration Manager. Within a ledger, you can optionally map a legal entity to one or more balancing segment values.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Balancing Segments

Oracle Fusion General Ledger supports up to three balancing segments, Best practices recommend that one of these segments represents your legal entity to ease your requirement to account for your operations to regulatory agencies, tax authorities, and investors. Accounting for your operations means you must produce a balanced trial balance sheet by legal entity. If you account for many legal entities in a single ledger, you must:

  1. Identify the legal entities within the ledger

  2. Balance transactions that cross legal entity boundaries through intercompany transactions

  3. Decide which balancing segments correspond to each legal entity and assign them in Oracle Fusion General Ledger Accounting Configuration Manager. Once you assign one balancing segment value in a ledger, then all your balancing segment values must be assigned. This recommended best practice facilitates reporting on assets, liabilities, and income by legal entity.

Represent your legal entities by at least one balancing segment value. You may represent it by two or three balancing segment values if more granular reporting is required. For example, if your legal entity operates in multiple jurisdictions in Europe, you might define balancing segment values and map them to legal reporting units. You can represent a legal entity by more than one balancing segment value, do not use a single balancing segment value to represent more than one legal entity.

In Oracle Fusion General Ledger, there are three balancing segments. You can use separate balancing segments to represent your divisions or strategic business units to enable management reporting at the balance sheet level for each division or business unit. For example, use this solution to empower your business unit and divisional managers to track and assume responsibility for their asset utilization or return on investment. Using multiple balancing segments is also useful when you know at the time of implementation that you are disposing of a part of a legal entity and need to isolate the assets and liabilities for that entity.

Note

Implementing multiple balancing segments requires every journal entry that is not balanced by division or business unit, to generate balancing lines. Also, you cannot change to multiple balancing segments easily after you have begun to use the ledger because your historical data is not balanced by the new multiple balancing segments. Restating historical data must be done at that point.

To use this feature for disposal of a part of a legal entity, implement multiple balancing segments at the beginning of the legal entity's corporate life or on conversion to Oracle Fusion.

If you decided to account for each legal entity in a separate ledger, there is no requirement to identify the legal entity with a balancing segment value within the ledger.

Note

While transactions that cross balancing segments don't necessarily cross legal entity boundaries, all transactions that cross legal entity boundaries must cross balancing segments. If you make an acquisition or are preparing to dispose of a portion of your enterprise, you may want to account for that part of the enterprise in its own balancing segment even if it is not a separate legal entity. If you do not map legal entities sharing the same ledger to balancing segments, you will not be able to distinguish them using the intercompany functionality or track their individual equity.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Consolidation Rules

In Oracle Fusion Applications you can map legal entities to balancing segments and then define consolidation rules using your balancing segments. You are creating a relationship between the definition of your legal entities and their role in your consolidation.

Legal Entity and its Relationship to Intercompany Transactions

Use Oracle Fusion Intercompany functionality for automatic creation of intercompany entries across your balancing segments. Intercompany processing updates legal ownership within the enterprise's groups of legal entities. Invoices or journals are created as needed. To limit the number of trading pairs for your enterprise, set up intercompany organizations and assign then to your authorized legal entities. Define processing options and intercompany accounts to use when creating intercompany transactions and to assist in consolidation elimination entries. These accounts are derived and automatically entered on your intercompany transactions based on legal entities assigned to your intercompany organizations.

Intracompany trading, in which legal ownership isn't changed but other organizational responsibilities are, is also supported. For example, you can track assets and liabilities that move between your departments within your legal entities by creating departmental level intercompany organizations.

Note

In the Oracle Fusion Supply Chain applications, model intercompany relationships using business units, from which legal entities are inferred.

Legal Entity and Its Relationship to Worker Assignments and Legal Employer

Legal entities that employ people are called legal employers in the Oracle Fusion Legal Entity Configurator. You must enter legal employers on worker assignments in Oracle Fusion HCM.

Legal Entity and Payroll Reporting

Your legal entities are required to pay payroll tax and social insurance such as social security on your payroll. In Oracle Fusion Applications, you can register payroll statutory units to pay and report on payroll tax and social insurance on behalf of many of your legal entities. As the legal employer, you might be required to pay payroll tax, not only at the national level, but also at the local level. You meet this obligation by establishing your legal entity as a place of work within the jurisdiction of a local authority. Set up legal reporting units to represent the part of your enterprise with a specific legal reporting obligation. You can also mark these legal reporting units as tax reporting units if the legal entity must pay taxes as a result of establishing a place of business within the jurisdiction.

Define Enterprise for Fusion Accounting Hub

Enterprise: Explained

An enterprise consists of legal entities under common control and management.

Enterprise Defined

When implementing Oracle Fusion Applications you operate within the context of an enterprise that has already been created in the application for you. This is either a predefined enterprise or an enterprise that has been created in the application by a system administrator.

An enterprise organization captures the name of the deploying enterprise and the location of the headquarters. There is normally a single enterprise organization in a production environment. Multiple enterprises are defined when the system is used to administer multiple customer companies, for example, multiple tenants, or when a customer chooses to set up additional enterprises for testing or development.

Oracle Fusion Applications offers capabilities for multiple tenants to share the same applications instance for some human resources processes. If you offer business process outsourcing services to a set of clients, each of those clients may be represented as an enterprise within an Oracle Fusion Application instance. To support this functionality, system owned reference data such as sequences, sets, and flexfields are also defined within an enterprise.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, an organization classified as an enterprise is defined before defining any other organizations in the HCM Common Organization Model. All other organizations are defined as belonging to an enterprise.