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Oracle® Fusion Applications Incentive Compensation Implementation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1.2)
Part Number E20381-02
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5 Common Applications Configuration: Define Persons for Incentive Compensation

This chapter contains the following:

Securing Identities and Users: Points To Consider

Role Provisioning and Deprovisioning: Explained

Role Mappings: Explained

Role Mappings: Examples

Securing Identities and Users: Points To Consider

Identity covers all aspects of an entity's existence within the contexts in which it is used. The identity of an enterprise user consists of HR attributes, roles, resources, and relationships.

HR attributes include identifying information about a user that is relatively static and well understood, such as first and last name, title, and job function.

Roles are part of a user's identity and define the user's purpose and responsibilities.

Within identity management, resources define what a user can and does do. In an enterprise, this typically translates into what resources a user has access to, what privileges they have on that resource, and what they have been doing on that resource. Resources can be application accounts or physical devices such as laptops or access cards. The enterprise owns the resources, secures them, and manages access to the resources by managing the user's identity and access.

Relationships establish the portion of user identities that involve organizational transactions such as approvals.

An Oracle Fusion Applications user and corresponding identity are usually created in a single transaction, such as when a worker is created in Human Resources (HR). That transaction automatically triggers provisioning requests for the user based on role provisioning rules.

User accounts for some identities that are not employees, such as partner contacts, may be created in a later transaction using an identity that is already created in the identity store. Supplier contacts are created in the Supplier Model, not HR.

Stores

Various locations store identity and user data.

Identity data consists of the following.

In Oracle Fusion Applications, identities and users correspond one to one, but not all identities correspond to a user, and not all users are provisioned with an identity. Some identities stored in HR and Trading Community Model may not be provisioned to user accounts and therefore are not synchronized with Oracle Identity Management (OIM). For example, a contact for a prospective customer is an identity in Trading Community Model but may not be provisioned with a user account in OIM. Some users stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) store may not be provisioned with identities. For example, system user accounts used to run Web services to integrate third party services with Oracle Fusion Applications are not associated with a person record in HR or Trading Community Model. Some identifying credentials such as name, department, e-mail address, manager, and location are stored with user data in the LDAP store.

Importing Users

You can import users or user attributes in bulk from existing legacy identity and user stores.

Your tasks may include the following.

You can reserve a specific user name not currently in use for use in the future, or release a reserved username from the reservation list and make it available for use. Between a user registration request and approved registration, Oracle Fusion Applications holds the requested user name on the reservation list, and releases the name if an error occurs in the self-registration process or the request is rejected. Self-registration processes check the reservation list for user name availability and suggest alternative names.

Provisioning Events

New identities, such as new hires, trigger user and role provisioning events. In addition to user creation tasks, other tasks, such as Promote Worker or Transfer Worker, result in role provisioning and recalculation based on role provisioning rules.

When an identity's attributes change, you may need to provision the user with different roles. Role assignments may be based on job codes, and a promotion triggers role provisioning changes. Even if the change in the identities attributes requires no role assignment change, such as with a name change, OIM synchronizes the corresponding user information in the LDAP store.

Deactivating or terminating an identity triggers revocation of some roles to end all assignments, but may provision new roles needed for activities, such as a pay stub review. If the corresponding user for the identity was provisioned with a buyer role, terminating the identity causes the user's buyer record in Procurement to be disabled, just as the record was created when the user was first provisioned with the buyer role.

Notifications and Audits

Oracle Fusion Applications provides mechanisms for notifying and auditing requests or changes affecting identities and users.

Oracle Fusion Applications notifies requestors, approvers, and beneficiaries when a user account or role is provisioned. For example, when an anonymous user registers as a business-to-customer (B2C) user, the B2C user must be notified of the registration activation steps, user account, password and so on once the approver (if applicable) has approved the request and the user is registered in the system.

User ID and GUID attributes are available in Oracle Fusion Applications session information for retrieving authenticated user and identity data.

End user auditing data is stored in database WHO columns and used for the following activities.

You can conduct real time audits that instantiate a runtime session and impersonate the target user (with the proxy feature) to test what a user has access to under various conditions such as inside or outside firewall and authentication level.

For information on configuring audit policies and the audit store, see the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide.

Delegated Administration

You can designate local administrators as delegated administrators to manage a subset of users and roles.

Delegated administrators can be internal or external persons who are provisioned with a role that authorizes them to handle provisioning events for a subset of users and roles.

For example, internal delegated administrators could be designated to manage users and roles at the division or department level. External delegated administrators could be designated to manage users and roles in an external organization such as a primary supplier contact managing secondary users within that supplier organization.

You can also define delegated administration policies based on roles. You authorize users provisioned with specific roles named in the policy to request a subset of roles for themselves if needed, such as authorizing a subset of roles for a subset of people. For example, the policy permits a manager of an Accounts Payables department to approve a check run administrator role for one of their subordinates, but prohibits the delegated administrator from provisioning a budget approver role to the subordinate.

Credentials

You activate or change credentials on users by managing them in Oracle Identity Management (OIM)

Applications themselves must be credentialed to access one another.

Oracle Fusion Applications distinguishes between user identities and application identities (APPID). Predefined application identities serve to authorize jobs and transactions that require higher privileges than users.

For example, a payroll manager may submit a payroll run. The payroll application may need access to the employee's taxpayer ID to print the payslip. However, the payroll manager is not authorized to view taxpayer IDs in the user interface as they are considered personally identifiable information (PII).

Calling applications use application identities (APPID) to enable the flow of transaction control as it moves across trust boundaries. For example, a user in the Distributed Order Orchestration product may release an order for shipping. The code that runs the Pick Notes is in a different policy store than the code that releases the product for shipment. When the pick note printing program is invoked it is the Oracle Fusion Distributed Order Orchestration Application Development Framework (ADF) that is invoking the program and not the end user.

Role Provisioning and Deprovisioning: Explained

A user's access to data and functions depends on the user's roles: users have one or more roles that enable them to perform the tasks required by their jobs or positions. Roles must be provisioned to users; otherwise, users have no access to data or functions.

Role Provisioning Methods

Roles can be provisioned to users:

For both automatic and manual role provisioning, you create a role mapping to identify when a user becomes eligible for a role.

Oracle Identity Management (OIM) can be configured to notify users when their roles change; notifications are not issued by default.

Role Types

Data roles, abstract roles, and job roles can be provisioned to users. Roles available for provisioning include predefined roles, HCM data roles, and roles created using OIM.

Automatic Role Provisioning

A role is provisioned to a user automatically when at least one of the user's assignments satisfies the conditions specified in the relevant role-mapping definition. The provisioning occurs when the assignment is either created or updated. For example, when a person is promoted to a management position, the line manager role is provisioned automatically to the person if an appropriate role mapping exists. Any change to a person's assignment causes the person's automatically provisioned roles to be reviewed and updated as necessary.

Role Deprovisioning

Automatically provisioned roles are deprovisioned automatically as soon as a user no longer satisfies the role-mapping conditions. For example, a line manager role that is provisioned to a user automatically is deprovisioned automatically when the user ceases to be a line manager.

Automatically provisioned roles can be deprovisioned manually at any time.

Manually provisioned roles are deprovisioned automatically only when all of the user's work relationships are terminated; in all other circumstances, users retain manually provisioned roles until they are deprovisioned manually.

Changes to Assignment Managers

When a person's line manager is changed, the roles of both new and previous line managers are updated as necessary. For example, if the person's new line manager now satisfies the conditions in the role mapping for the line manager role, and the role is one that is eligible for autoprovisioning, then that role is provisioned automatically to the new line manager. Similarly, if the previous line manager no longer satisfies the conditions for the line manager role, then that role is deprovisioned automatically.

Roles at Termination

When a work relationship is terminated, all automatically provisioned roles for which the user does not qualify in other work relationships are deprovisioned automatically. Manually provisioned roles are deprovisioned automatically only if the user has no other work relationships; otherwise, the user retains all manually provisioned roles until they are deprovisioned manually.

Automatic deprovisioning can occur either as soon as the termination is submitted or approved or on the day after the termination date. The user who is terminating the work relationship selects the appropriate deprovisioning date.

Role mappings can provision roles to users automatically at termination. For example, the locally defined roles Retiree and Beneficiary could be provisioned to users at termination based on assignment status and person type values.

If a termination is later reversed, roles that were deprovisioned automatically at termination are reinstated and post-termination roles are deprovisioned automatically.

Date-Effective Changes to Assignments

Automatic role provisioning and deprovisioning are based on current data. For a future-dated transaction, such as a future promotion, role changes are identified and role provisioning occurs on the day the changes take effect, not when the change is entered. The process Send Pending LDAP Requests identifies future-dated transactions and manages role provisioning and deprovisioning at the appropriate time. Note that such role-provisioning changes are effective as of the system date; therefore, a delay of up to 24 hours may occur before users in other time zones acquire the access for which they now qualify.

Role Mappings: Explained

User access to data and functions is determined by abstract, job, and data roles, which are provisioned to users either automatically or manually. To enable a role to be provisioned to users, you define a relationship, known as a mapping, between the role and a set of conditions, typically assignment attributes such as department, job, and system person type. In a role mapping, you can select any role stored in the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory, including Oracle Fusion Applications predefined roles, roles created in Oracle Identity Management (OIM), and HCM data roles.

The role mapping can support:

Automatic Provisioning of Roles to Users

A role is provisioned to a user automatically if:

For example, for the HCM data role Sales Manager Finance Department, you could select the Autoprovision option and specify the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Department

Finance Department

Job

Sales Manager

Assignment Status

Active

The HCM data role Sales Manager Finance Department is provisioned automatically to users with at least one assignment that satisfies all of these conditions.

Automatic role provisioning occurs as soon as the user is confirmed to satisfy the role-mapping conditions, which can be when the user's assignment is either created or updated. The provisioning process also removes automatically provisioned roles from users who no longer satisfy the role-mapping conditions.

Note

The automatic provisioning of roles to users is effectively a request to OIM to provision the role. OIM may reject the request if it violates segregation-of-duties rules or fails a custom OIM approval process.

Manual Provisioning of Roles to Users

Users such as human resource (HR) specialists and line managers can provision roles manually to other users; you create a role mapping to identify roles that can be provisioned in this way.

Users can provision a role to other users if:

For example, for the HCM data role Quality Assurance Team Leader, you could select the Requestable option and specify the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Manager with Reports

Yes

Assignment Status

Active

Any user with at least one assignment that satisfies both of these conditions can provision the role Quality Assurance Team Leader manually to other users, who are typically direct and indirect reports.

If the user's assignment subsequently changes, there is no automatic effect on roles provisioned by this user to others; they retain manually provisioned roles until either all of their work relationships are terminated or the roles are manually deprovisioned.

Role Requests from Users

Users can request roles when reviewing their own account information; you create a role mapping to identify roles that users can request for themselves.

Users can request a role if:

For example, for the Expenses Reporting role you could select the Self-requestable option and specify the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Department

ABC Department

System Person Type

Employee

Assignment Status

Active

Any user with at least one assignment that satisfies all of these conditions can request the role. The user acquires the role either immediately or, if approval is required, once the request is approved. Self-requested roles are classified as manually provisioned.

If the user's assignment subsequently changes, there is no automatic effect on self-requested roles. Users retain manually provisioned roles until either all of their work relationships are terminated or the roles are manually deprovisioned.

Immediate Provisioning of Roles

When you create a role mapping, you can apply autoprovisioning from the role mapping itself.

In this case, all assignments and role mappings in the enterprise are reviewed. Roles are:

Immediate autoprovisioning from the role mapping enables bulk automatic provisioning of roles to a group of users who are identified by the role-mapping conditions. For example, if you create a new department after a merger, you can provision relevant roles to all users in the new department by applying autoprovisioning immediately.

To provision roles immediately to a single user, the user's line manager or an HR specialist can autoprovision roles from that user's account.

Role-Mapping Names

The names of role mappings must be unique in the enterprise. You are recommended to devise a naming scheme that reveals the scope of each role mapping. For example:


Name

Description

Autoprovisioned Roles Sales Department

Mapping includes all roles provisioned automatically to anyone in the sales department

Benefits Specialist Autoprovisioned

Mapping defines the conditions for autoprovisioning the Benefits Specialist role

Line Manager Requestable Roles

Mapping includes all roles that a line manager can provision manually to direct and indirect reports

Role Mappings: Examples

Roles must be provisioned to users explicitly, either automatically or manually; no role is provisioned to a user by default. This topic provides some examples of typical role mappings to support automatic and manual role provisioning.

Creating a Role Mapping for Employees

You want all employees in your enterprise to have the Employee role automatically when they are hired. In addition, employees must be able to request the Expenses Reporting role when they need to claim expenses. Few employees will need this role, so you decide not to provision it automatically to all employees.

You create a role mapping called All Employees and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

System Person Type

Employee

Assignment Status

Active

In the role mapping you include the:

You could create a similar role mapping for contingent workers called All Contingent Workers, where you would set the system person type to contingent worker.

Note

If the Employee and Contingent Worker roles are provisioned automatically, pending workers acquire them when their periods of employment or placements start. If they need roles before then, you create a separate role mapping for the pending worker system person type.

Creating a Role Mapping for Line Managers

Any type of worker can be a line manager in the sales business unit. You create a role mapping called Line Manager Sales BU and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Business Unit

Sales

Assignment Status

Active

Manager with Reports

Yes

You include the Line Manager role and select the Autoprovision option. This role mapping ensures that the Line Manager role is provisioned automatically to any worker with at least one assignment that matches the role-mapping conditions.

In the same role mapping, you could include roles that line managers in this business unit can provision manually to other users by selecting the roles and marking them as requestable. Similarly, if line managers can request roles for themselves, you could include those in the same role mapping and mark them as self-requestable.

Creating a Role Mapping for Retirees

Retirees in your enterprise need a limited amount of system access to manage their retirement accounts. You create a role mapping called All Retirees and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

System Person Type

Retiree

Assignment Status

Inactive

You include the locally defined role Retiree in the role mapping and select the Autoprovision option. When at least one of a worker's assignments satisfies the role-mapping conditions, the Retiree role is provisioned to that worker automatically.

Creating a Role Mapping for Sales Managers

Grade 6 sales managers in the sales department need the Sales Manager role. In addition, sales managers need to be able to provision the Sales Associate role to other workers. You create a role mapping called Sales Managers Sales Department and enter the following conditions.


Attribute

Value

Department

Sales

Job

Sales manager

Grade

6

Assignment Status

Active

In the role mapping, you include the: