PK %j?oa,mimetypeapplication/epub+zipPK%j?iTunesMetadata.plistP artistName Oracle Corporation book-info cover-image-hash 814566969 cover-image-path OEBPS/dcommon/oracle-small.JPG package-file-hash 657640923 publisher-unique-id E17157-08 unique-id 563055297 genre Oracle Documentation itemName Oracle® Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2) releaseDate 2011-08-23T14:1:33Z year 2011 PKo PKYuPK%j?OEBPS/index.htm Index


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V  W 


24x365, 1.1
64-bit systems
migration from 32-bit,


access control
security, 3.14
Active Data Guard
See Oracle Active Data Guard option
Active Session History (ASH)
reporting on transient performance problems, 6.1
default values for columns, 4.5.5
advisor framework, 6.1
enabling real-time query, 5.4.1
determining high availability requirements, 2
defining a virtual IP address, 7.1.2
online maintenance and upgrades, 4.5
applying interim database patches, 4.1.3
choosing, 7.2, 7.2
CPU, 3.6
failures in, 1.1
grid computing, 5.1
MAA, 7
manageability, 2.2.5
multiple standby database,
Oracle Application Server, 7.2, 7.3, 7.3.1
Oracle Clusterware, 7.1.2
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard,, 7.1.6
Oracle Data Guard, 7.1.5
Oracle Data Guard standby hub,,
Oracle Database, 7.1.1
Oracle RAC, 7.1.4
Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard, 7.1.8
Oracle RAC on extended clusters,
Oracle RAC One Node, 7.1.3
Oracle RAC One Node and Oracle Data Guard, 7.1.7
recommendations, 7.2
requirements, 1.1, 2.1, 2.3
roadmap, 1.5
same processor platforms, 4.1.2
single standby database, 7.1.5,
See Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
security control, 3.14
security controls, 3.14
automatic block repair, 3.8.9, 3.20
automatic failover
Oracle Data Guard,
automatic maintenance tasks, 6.1
automatic shared memory management
dynamic memory allocation, 4.2.1
Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), 6.1
about, 1.1
disruptions, 1.3
roadmap, 1.5
See also high availability


backing out a transaction, 3.8.3
fast recovery area, 3.10
offload from the primary database, 3.6.1
Oracle Secure Backup, 3.13
between objects, 4.5.6
block corruption
repairing, 3.20
block recovery
reducing time, 3.20
using Flashback logs, 3.8.9
block recovery using flashback logs, 3.8.9
bounded recovery, 3.2
Bourne shell script
physru, 3.6.3
budget planning, 2.3.1
business impact analysis
internal knowledge management system example, 2.2.1
semiconductor manufacturer example, 2.2.1
business performance planning, 2.3.1


change assurance, 6
fast-start fault recovery, 3.2
choosing the correct high availability architecture, 7.2
client failover, 3.19
Cluster Ready Services (CRS)
avoiding downtime during upgrades, 4.1.4
Oracle Clusterware, 7.1.2
cold cluster failover, 7.1.2, 7.1.6
with Oracle Clusterware, 7.1.2
with Oracle Clusterware and Data Guard, 7.1.6
integrated with Oracle Restart, 3.3
compressed redo data
Oracle Data Guard, 7.1.5
computer failure, 1.4
prevention and detection, 3.21
repairing, 3.20
quantifying, 2.2.2
CPU architectures, 3.6
clauses for, 4.5.4
crossedition triggers,


data corruptions, 1.4
automatic detection and repair, 3.20
detecting, 3.21
prevention and detection parameters, 3.21
data distribution
Oracle GoldenGate, 3.7
data encryption, 3.14
Data Guard
See Oracle Data Guard
data integration
Oracle GoldenGate, 3.7
data protection
maximizing, 1.2
Data Recovery Advisor, 3.12
data transformation, 3.7.1
data type restrictions
resolving with Extended Datatype Support (EDS),,
data types
supporting advanced with EDS, 3.6.3
Database Replay, 6.2
Database Server Grid, 5.1
about, 5.2
Database Storage Grid, 5.1
about, 5.3
database upgrades
using transportable tablespace,
applying Oracle interim patches, 4.1.3
checkpointing, 3.2
dynamic reconfiguration, 4.2.1
security, 3.14
server grid, 5.1
data-loss tolerance, 2.2.4
DBFS Content Store, 3.18
DDL with the WAIT option, 4.5.3
dependencies, 4.5.6
DISABLE clause
FOLLOWS clause
CREATE TRIGGER statement, 4.5.4
disaster recovery solutions
Oracle Application Server, 7.3.1
disk group
administering with Oracle ASM, 3.9
causes, 1.4
cost, 1.3, 2.2.2
minimizing with Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Data Guard,
mitigating, 1.3
solutions summary
planned, 4.1
unplanned, 3.1
See also unplanned downtime
dynamic reconfiguration, 4.2.1


edition-based redefinition, 4.5.1
crossedition triggers,
editioning view,
ENABLE clause
CREATE TRIGGER statement, 4.5.4
of data, 3.14
endian format platforms
avoiding downtime during migration of different, 4.1.11
avoiding downtime during migration of same, 4.1.10
Exadata Cell, 3.16
See also Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software
of the RMAN RECOVER BLOCK command, 3.20
extended clusters
Extended Data Type Support (EDS)
rolling upgrades, 3.6.3
Extended Datatype Support (EDS)
patch set and database upgrades, 4.1.9


multiple standby databases
single standby database architecture,
failure group
administering with Oracle ASM, 3.9
Oracle ASM, 3.9
computer, 1.4
probability, 7.2
site, 1.4
storage, 1.4
fast application notification (FAN)
for hardware upgrades, 4.1.1
for operating system upgrades, 4.1.1
Fast Connection Failover
for nonpooled connections, 3.4.2
Fast Mirror Resync
Oracle ASM, 3.9
fast recovery area
about, 3.10
benefits, 3.10
in a Data Guard configuration, 7.1.5
fast-start failover
single standby database failover,
Fast-Start Fault Recovery
benefits of using, 3.2
fault diagnosability infrastructure, 6.1
flashback logs
block recovery using, 3.8.9
used by Flashback features, 3.8
Flashback technology
block recovery using Flashback logs, 3.8.9
See also Oracle Flashback technology
forward crossedition triggers,
frequency of outages, 7.2, 7.2
FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace) API
with Client for Database Filesystem (CDF), 3.18


grid computing, 5.1
Database Server Grid, 5.1
Database Storage Grid, 5.1
server and storage, 5.1
growth planning, 2.3.1


hangs or slow down, 1.4
hardware upgrades
avoiding downtime during, 4.1.1
using FAN during, 4.1.1
high availability
24x365, 1.1
about, 1.1, 1.1
analysis framework, 2.1
applications, 7.3.1
architectures, 1.1, 2.2.5, 7, 7.2
business impact analysis, 2.2.1
determining requirements, 2
importance, 1.2
maximizing, 1.2
Oracle Application Server, 7.3
Oracle Database, 7.1
planned downtime, 4.1
planning, 2.3.1
setting manageability goals, 2.2.5
single-instance databases, 3.3
solutions, 1.1
unplanned downtime, 3
See also availability
high availability features
Oracle Database, 7.1.1
hub-and-spoke deployment, 3.7.1
human errors, 1.4


invisible, 4.5.7
intelligent infrastructure, 6, 6.1
interblock corruption, 1.4
Oracle RAC, 7.1.4
intrablock corruption, 1.4
invisible indexes, 4.5.7
I/O Resource Management
Oracle Storage Grid, 5.3


load balancing advisory, 3.4.2
logical corruption, 1.4
logical standby databases
about, 3.6.5
benefits of, 3.6.5
transient, 3.6.3, 3.6.3
LogMiner utility
about, 3.15
lost writes, 1.4


making data changes,
goals, 2.2.5
optimizing, 6
overhead (MO), 2.2.5, 7.2
manual block repair, 3.20
Maximum Availability Architecture
See Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)
media corruption
physical corruption, 1.4
automatic management of, 4.2.2
memory advisors, 6.1
MEMORY_MAX_TARGET initialization parameter, 4.2.2
MEMORY_TARGET initialization parameter, 4.2.2
dependencies, 4.5.6
migrating storage
avoiding downtime, 4.1.6
32-bit to 64-bit systems,
Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software, 4.1.7
storage, 4.1.6
Oracle ASM native, 3.9
multimaster replication, 3.7.1
multiple standby databases
Data Guard hub,
using transient logical standby, 3.6.3, 3.6.3


virtual IP addresses, 7.1.2


fast-start failover,
one-off patches, 4.1.3
online database relocation utility, 7.1.3
online maintenance
application, 4.5
online redefnition of tables, 4.3
online reorganization
about, 4.3
online table redefinition, 4.5.8
OPatch utility
patch upgrades for Oracle RAC, 4.1.3
operating systems
requirements for Oracle Clusterware, 7.1.2
upgrades, 4.1.1
using FAN during upgrades, 4.1.1
Oracle Active Data Guard
standby databases
benefits of, 3.6.2
Oracle Active Data Guard option, 5.4.1
collecting ASH samples on, 6.1
Oracle Application Server
high availability architectures, 7.3.1
security, 7.3.1
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
about, 3.9
benefits, 3.9
distribution of files, 4.2.3
failure group, 3.9
Fast Mirror Resync, 3.9
native mirroring, 3.9
storage migration, 4.1.5
upgrading, 4.1.5
with Database Storage Grid, 5.3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS), 3.9, 7.1.1
Oracle Call Interface (OCI), 3.4.2
Oracle Clusterware
about, 7.1.2
advantages over third-party clusterware, 7.1.2
avoiding downtime when upgrading, 4.1.4
benefits, 7.1.2
cold cluster failover, 7.1.2
configured with Data Guard, 7.1.6
Oracle Data Guard
about, 3.6
benefits, 3.6, 7.1.5
benefits of, 3.6
configured with Oracle Clusterware, 7.1.6
configuring with Oracle GoldenGate, 3.7.2,
hub architecture,
multiple standby database architecture,
single standby database architecture,
system and cluster upgrades, 4.1.2
Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET), 3.4.2
Oracle Database
basic architecture, 7.1.1
with Data Guard, 7.1.5
with Oracle Clusterware (cold cluster failover), 7.1.2
with Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard, 7.1.6
with Oracle RAC, 7.1.4
with Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard - MAA, 7.1.8
with Oracle RAC on an extended cluster,
Oracle Database File System (DBFS), 3.18, 7.1.5
Oracle Database Resource Manager Instance Caging, 7.1.3
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, 6, 6.3
Oracle Exadata Database Machine, 3.17
Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software, 3.16
combined with Sun Oracle Database Machine, 3.17
migrating, 4.1.7
upgrading, 4.1.8
Oracle Flashback Data Archive, 3.8.10
Oracle Flashback Database, 3.8.8
Oracle Flashback Drop, 3.8.6
Oracle Flashback Query, 3.8.1
Oracle Flashback Table, 3.8.5
Oracle Flashback technology, 3.8
Oracle Flashback Transaction, 3.8.3
Oracle Flashback Transaction Query, 3.8.4
Oracle Flashback Version Query, 3.8.2
Oracle GoldenGate, 3.7
about, 3.7
comparing to Oracle Streams, 3.7
configure to minimize downtime,
configuring with Oracle Data Guard, 3.7.2
rolling upgrades, 4.5.2
Oracle interim (one-off) patches, 4.1.3
applying, 4.1.3
avoiding downtime during, 4.1.3
Oracle Management Agents
Oracle Enterprise Management Grid Control, 6.3
Oracle Management Repository
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, 6.3
Oracle Management Service (OMS)
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, 6.3
Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)
about, 1.5
architectures, 7
benefits, 7.1.8
roadmap, 1.5
Oracle RAC One Node, 7.1.3
online database relocation utility, 7.1.3
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
about, 7.1.4
applying Oracle interim database patches, 4.1.3
automatic redundant interconnects, 7.1.4
benefits, 3.4.2
extended clusters,
operating system and hardware upgrades, 4.1.1
Storage Area Network (SAN),
Oracle Real Application Clusters One Node
See Oracle RAC One Node
Oracle Restart, 3.3
Oracle Secure Backup
about, 3.13
benefits, 3.13
Oracle Streams, 3.7
comparing to Oracle GoldenGate, 3.7
Oracle UCP run-time connection load balancing, 3.4.2
Oracle VM
Domain Live Migration, 5.5
with Oracle RAC One Node, 7.1.3
frequency, 7.2, 7.2
types of, 1.4


ASH sampling to address transient problems, 6.1
physical corruption, 1.4
physical standby databases
benefits of, 3.6.1
collecting ASH samples, 6.1
real-time query, 5.4.1
snapshot standby, 3.6.4
transient logical standby database, 3.6.3
physru shell script, 3.6.3
planned activities
probability of failure during, 7.2
planned downtime
online patching,
recovery times, 7.2
planned outages
minimizing with Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Data Guard,
platform migrations
using transportable database,
policy management
security, 3.14
high availability investment, 2.2.2
of different failures during unplanned and planned activities, 7.2
Program Global Area (PGA)
automatic management, 4.2.2


real-time query, 5.4.1
collecting ASH samples on, 6.1
databases dynamically, 4.2.1
Recovery Manager (RMAN)
about, 3.11
benefits, 3.11
recovery point objective (RPO)
about, 2.2.4, 7.2
recovery time objective (RTO)
about, 2.2.3, 7.2
recovery times
planned downtime, 7.2
reducing downtime from data block corruption, 3.20
unplanned downtime, 7.2
redundant interconnect, 7.1.4
online database, 7.1.3
Oracle GoldenGate, 3.7
Oracle Streams, 3.7
restore points
Oracle Flashback, 3.8.7
return on investment (ROI), 2.2.6, 7.2
optimizing, 5
reverse crossedition triggers,
repairing data block corruption, 3.20
roadmap to Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA), 1.5
transactions, 3.8.3
rolling upgrades
Oracle GoldenGate, 4.5.2
supporting data types with Extended Data Type Support (EDS), 3.6.3
using the physru shell script, 3.6.3
using transient logical standby, 3.6.3, 3.6.3
row level security
virtual private database, 3.14
run-time connection load balancing, 3.4.2


secure communications
between tiers in grid control environments, 6.3
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
enabling for secure communications, 6.3
use with grid control, 6.3
SecureFile LOBs, 3.18
about, 3.14
benefits, 3.14
between tiers in firewall-protected environments, 6.3
data encryption, 3.14
Oracle Application Server, 7.3.1
Oracle ASM, 3.9
RMAN, 3.11
Segment Advisor, 6.1
server grid, 5.1
server-generated alerts, 6.1
Oracle Clusterware requirements, 7.1.2
service-level agreements (SLAs), 2.1
single standby database architecture
single-instance databases
Oracle Restart, 3.3
site failure, 1.4
SLAs, 2.1
snapshot standby database
about, 3.6.4
snapshot standby databases
benefits of, 3.6.4
SQL Access Advisor, 6.1
SQL Apply
upgrades, 4.1.9,
with Extended Datatype Support (EDS),
with logical standby databases, 3.6.5
SQL Performance Analyzer, 6.2
SQL Tuning Advisor, 6.1
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
standby databases
active, 5.4
Active Data Guard option, 5.4.1
benefits of, 3.6
example hub configurations,
logical standby, 3.6.3, 3.6.3
multiple-standby architecture,
single-standby architecture,
snapshot standby database, 3.6.1
transient logical standby database, 3.6.1
standby reader farms, 5.4.2
failures, 1.4, 3.9
grid, 5.1
migration, 4.1.6
Oracle ASM protection, 3.9
Storage Area Network (SAN)
extended clusters,
System Global Area (SGA)
automatic management, 4.2.2
system upgrades
avoiding downtime during, 4.1.1


tape backups
with Oracle Secure Backup, 3.13
thin client watchdog
observer for fast-start failover,
total cost of ownership (TCO), 2.2.6, 7.2
backing out with Flashback Transaction, 3.8.3
transient logical standby databases
about, 3.6.3
benefits of, 3.6.3
physru shell script, 3.6.3
transportable database
for platform migration,
for unplanned downtime, 4.4
transportable tablespace
for unplanned downtime, 4.4
upgrading the database,


Undo Advisor, 6.1
undo data
used by flashback features, 3.8
unplanned activities
probability of failure during, 7.2
unplanned downtime
causes, 1.4
recovery times, 7.2
solutions summary, 3.1
transportable technologies, 4.4
updatable standby databases, 3.6.4
application, 4.5
cluster, 4.1.2
database, 4.1.9
hardware, 4.1.1
operating system, 4.1.1, 4.1.2
Oracle ASM, 4.1.5
Oracle Clusterware, 4.1.4
Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software, 4.1.8
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), 4.1.1
patches, 4.1.3
rolling with Oracle GoldenGate, 4.5.2
using crossedition triggers,
using transportable tablespace,
with logical standby databases (SQL Apply), 3.6.3, 3.6.3


virtual IP (VIP) address
defining for applications, 7.1.2
managed by Oracle Clusterware, 3.4.1
virtual private database
security, 3.14
with Oracle VM Domain Live Migration, 5.5


WAIT option
specifying DDL with, 4.5.3
Web scalability
using standby reader farms, 5.4.2
PKx%g&PK%j? OEBPS/toc.htm= Table of Contents


Title and Copyright Information


1 Overview of High Availability

2 Determining Your High Availability Requirements

3 Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Unplanned Downtime

4 Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Planned Downtime

5 Optimizing Return on Investment (ROI)

6 Optimizing Manageability

7 High Availability Architectures and Solutions



PK^~==PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw001.htmT Description of the illustration haovw001.eps

The illustration shows the process of planning and implementing a highly available enterprise. Business impact analysis identifies critical business processes; then the cost of downtime, recovery time objectives (RTO), recovery point objectives (RPO), and service-level agreements (SLA) are determined.

High availability system capabilities, and budget and growth plans are considered to determine and implement a highly available enterprise.

PK)nYTPK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw021.htmt Description of the illustration haovw021.eps

This figure shows Oracle RAC on an extended distance cluster. The configuration shows three nodes at each of two different locations, Site A and Site B. Below each site, a double-sided arrow links a disk labeled "Oracle RAC Database" to the site above it. Below each database is another disk that contains the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)" and "Voting Disk." An arrow between the disk drums indicates that Oracle ASM is used to store the database files.In the center of the figure above Sites A and B is a simple box that represents a third site. The box contains this label: "Third Site for Voting Disk (Mounted by NFS or iSCSI)." All nodes are connected by a redundant public network, a redundant private network, and a redundant storage area network (SAN).

PKOPK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw005.htm= Description of the illustration haovw005.eps

This figure is described in the preceding text.

PK5xR_PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw004.htm Description of the illustration haovw004.gif

This figure shows the components of a grid computing environment.

Several database server clusters are shown connected to one another through an interconnect to form the Database Server Grid. The Database Server Grid is then connected to the Database Storage Grid—shown as several database clusters—through storage switches.

PK PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw006.htmJ Description of the illustration haovw006.eps

This illustration shows the Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA). The MAA architecture consists of identical primary and secondary sites.

The primary site contains storage on an Oracle RAC database, two Oracle RAC database instances, and an Oracle Application Server. The secondary site is identical except that it is connected to the WAN traffic manager by a dotted line to indicate that the secondary site is not actively handling application requests at this time.

A dedicated network connects the primary site and the standby site. Oracle Data Guard transmits redo data from the primary site to the secondary site. A WAN traffic manager handles communication between the application servers on the primary and secondary sites. Clients send requests through the WAN traffic manager.

PKD{PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw002.htm= Description of the illustration haovw002.eps

This figure is described in the preceding text.

PK/PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw023.htm6 Description of the illustration haovw023.eps

This figure shows an Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard architecture that consists of a primary and a secondary site. At the top of the figure are three clients sending requests through the WAN traffic manager to several application servers on the primary site.

On the left side of the figure, the primary site contains an Oracle application server, two database nodes (active and passive), and an Oracle database. The secondary site on the right side of the figure contains a similar configuration, but the application servers are connected to the WAN traffic manager by a dotted line to indicate that they are not actively processing client requests at this time. A dedicated network connects the primary site and the standby site. An arrow pointing from the primary site to the standby site indicates that Oracle Data Guard is transmitting redo data from the primary database to the standby to keep the standby database synchronized transactionally. Another line goes from the primary site application servers to the active node on the standby site to indicate that real-time queries are occurring.

Oracle Clusterware is not shown in the figure because the Oracle Clusterware software transparently enables servers to operate as one server and manages the availability of user applications and Oracle databases.

PK*PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw010.htm Description of the illustration haovw010.eps

This figure shows a single primary database sending redo data to multiple physical standby databases (reader farm databases). For each reader database, there is an arrow pointing up to a monitor to indicate that clients and applications are accessing the physical standby database for queries and reporting purposes. Every standby database is a reader database, and one of the standby databases is also labeled as being enabled as the target for a fast-start failover. Finally, a picture of a monitor is shown next to the primary database to indicate that updates are continuously being made to primary database.

PKoPK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw020.htm Description of the illustration haovw020.gif

This figure is similar to and is a companion of the previous cold cluster failover figure, because this figure illustrates the same multi-instance, clustered architecture after a failover has occurred.

Starting at the top of the figure, two servers are in a box (outlined with a dotted line) that is labeled "Application/Web Servers."

To the left of the servers is another label: "Applications and Web Servers Managed with Oracle Clusterware API." Both servers are connected to another box labeled "Oracle Net Services Client Access" and this box shows separate connections to two nodes:

To the left of the nodes is another label: "Single-Instance Oracle Database Made Highly Available with Oracle Clusterware." A dotted line runs between Node 1 to Node 2 to indicate a heartbeat connection between the nodes.

At the bottom of the figure, directly below the nodes is a single a row of disks with the label "Pool of Storage." The six disks in the pool of storage are contained in a dotted-line box. Within this dotted-line box, the two leftmost disks are labeled "Database Area" and the four disks to right are labeled "Fast Recovery Area."

PK! K PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw018.htmG Description of the illustration haovw018.gif

This figure illustrates a single-instance, nonclustered Oracle Database configuration that includes an Oracle ASM instance and a pool of storage. Starting at the top of the figure, a box is labeled "Oracle Database Instance" and below that is another box labeled "ASM Instance" and to the left of these boxes is another label "Single-Instance Database (Nonclustered)." To the right of the box that represents the Oracle ASM Instance are four more boxes that are connected to each other and also to the Oracle ASM Instance box to signify that this configuration uses these particular Oracle high availability features:

At the bottom of the figure, directly below the "ASM Instance" box, is a picture of a single server with a line connecting the server to a row of disks with the label "Pool of Storage." The six disks in the pool of storage are contained in a dotted-line box. Within this dotted-line box, the two leftmost disks are labeled "Database Area" and the four disks to right are labeled "Fast Recovery Area."

PK*LGPK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw029.htm! Description of the illustration haovw029.gif

This figure shows two parallel configurations (old and new), both of which are running Oracle Data Guard with a production (primary) database and a standby database. Both configurations also show the Oracle Data Guard redo transport mechanism continuously shipping, validating, and applying redo data from the primary database to the standby database.

On the standby site in the old environment, the Oracle Data Guard standby database is protecting the primary database while at the same time the standby is hosting the GoldenGate capture process such that changes are captured from redo logs on the standby database and replicated over multiple parallel streams to a GoldenGate target in the new environment. Replication is shown using a layer of processing for each of thee processes: capture, source trail, target trail, and delivery

PK$PK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw028.htm= Description of the illustration haovw028.eps

This figure is described in the preceding text.

PK FPK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw019.html Description of the illustration haovw019.gif

This figure illustrates a clustered architecture in which both the applications and the Oracle database are managed by Oracle Clusterware for high availability.

Starting at the top of the figure, two servers are in a box (outlined with a dotted line) that is labeled "Application/Web Servers.

To the left of the servers is another label: "Applications and Web Servers Managed with Oracle Clusterware API." Both servers are connected to another box labeled "Oracle Net Services Client Access" and this box shows separate connections to two nodes:

To the left of the nodes is another label: "Single-Instance Oracle Database Made Highly Available with Oracle Clusterware." A dotted line runs between Node 1 to Node 2 to indicate a heartbeat connection between the nodes.

At the bottom of the figure directly below the nodes, is a single a row of disks with the label "Pool of Storage." The six disks in the pool of storage are contained in a dotted-line box. Within this dotted-line box, the two leftmost disks are labeled "Database Area" and the four disks to the right are labeled "Fast Recovery Area."

PK[ΎPK%j?OEBPS/img_text/haovw022.htm> Description of the illustration haovw022.eps

The figure is described in the preceding text.

PKC:PK%j?OEBPS/overview.html4 Overview of High Availability

1 Overview of High Availability

This chapter contains the following sections:

1.1 What Is High Availability?

Availability is the degree to which an application, service, or function is accessible on demand. Availability is measured by the perception of an application's end user. Users experience frustration when their data is unavailable or the computing system is not performing as expected, and they do not understand or care to differentiate between the complex components of an overall solution. Performance failures due to higher than expected usage create the same disruption as the failure of critical components in the architecture. If a user cannot access the system, it is said to be unavailable. Generally, the term downtime is used to refer to periods when a system is unavailable.

Users who want their systems to be ready to serve them at all times need high availability. A system that is highly available is designed to provide uninterrupted computing services during essential time periods, during most hours of the day, and most days of the week throughout the year; this measurement is often shown as 24x365. However, exceptions can be made for minimal downtime to perform certain operations such as upgrading the system's hardware or software.

Reliability, recoverability, timely error detection, and continuous operations are primary characteristics of a highly available solution:

More specifically, a high availability architecture should have the following traits:

  • Tolerate failures such that processing continues with minimal or no interruption

  • Be transparent to—or tolerant of—system, data, or application changes

  • Provide built-in preventive measures

  • Provide active monitoring and fast detection of failures

  • Provide fast recoverability

  • Automate detection and recovery operations

  • Protect the data to minimize or prevent data loss

  • Implement the operational best practices to manage your environment

  • Achieve the goals set in SLAs (for example, recovery time objectives (RTOs) and recovery point objectives (RPOs)) for the lowest possible total cost of ownership

1.3 Cost of Downtime

The need to deliver increasing levels of availability continues to accelerate as enterprises reengineer their solutions to gain competitive advantage. Most often, these new solutions rely on immediate access to critical business data. When data is not available, the operation can cease to function. Downtime can lead to lost productivity, lost revenue, damaged customer relationships, bad publicity, and lawsuits.

It is not always easy to place a direct cost on downtime. Angry customers, idle employees, and bad publicity are all costly, but not directly measured in currency. On the other hand, lost revenue and legal penalties incurred because SLA objectives are not met can easily be quantified. The cost of downtime can quickly grow in industries that are dependent on their solutions to provide service.

Other factors to consider in the cost of downtime are:

  • The maximum tolerable length of a single unplanned outage

    If the event lasts less than 30 seconds, then it may cause very little impact and may be barely perceptible to end users. As the length of the outage grows, the effect may grow exponentially and negatively affect the business.

  • The maximum frequency of allowable incidents

    Frequent outages, even if short in duration, may similarly disrupt business operations.

When designing a solution, it is important to recognize the true cost of downtime to understand how the business can benefit from availability improvements.

Oracle provides a range of high availability solutions to fit every organization regardless of size. Small workgroups and global enterprises alike are able to extend the reach of their critical business applications. With Oracle and the Internet, applications and data are reliably accessible everywhere, at any time.

1.4 Causes of Downtime

One of the challenges in designing a high availability solution is examining and addressing all of the possible causes of downtime. It is important to consider causes of both unplanned and planned downtime when designing a fault-tolerant and resilient IT infrastructure. Planned downtime can be just as disruptive to operations as unplanned downtime, especially in global enterprises that support users in multiple time zones.

Table 1-1 describes unplanned outage types and provides examples of each type.

Table 1-1 Causes of Unplanned Downtime


Site failure

A site failure may affect all processing at a data center, or a subset of applications supported by a data center.

  • Extended sitewide power failure

  • Sitewide network failure

  • Natural disaster makes a data center inoperable

  • Terrorist or malicious attack on operations or the site

Clusterwide failure

The whole cluster hosting an Oracle RAC database is unavailable or fails. This includes:

  • Failures of nodes in the cluster

  • Failure of any other components that result in the cluster being unavailable and the Oracle database and instances on the site being unavailable

  • The last surviving node on the Oracle RAC cluster fails and inability to restart the node

  • Both redundant cluster interconnects fail or clusterware failure

  • Database corruption so severe that continuity is not possible on the current data server

  • Disk storage failure

Computer failure

A computer failure outage occurs when the system running the database becomes unavailable because it has failed or is no longer accessible.

  • Database system hardware failure

  • Operating system failure

  • Oracle instance failure

  • Network interface failure

Storage failure

A storage failure outage occurs when the storage holding some or all of the database contents becomes unavailable because it has shut down or is no longer accessible.

  • Disk drive failure

  • Disk controller failure

  • Storage array failure

Data corruption

A corrupt block is a block that has been changed so that it differs from what Oracle Database expects to find. Block corruptions fall under the following categories: physical and logical block corruptions:

  • In a physical corruption, which is also called a media corruption, the database does not recognize the block at all: the checksum is invalid, the block contains all zeros, or the header and footer of the block do not match.

  • In a logical corruption, the contents of the block are logically inconsistent. Examples of logical corruption include corruption of a row piece or index entry.

Block corruptions can also be divided into interblock corruption and intrablock corruption:

A data corruption outage occurs when a hardware, software, or network component causes corrupt data to be read or written. The service-level impact of a data corruption outage may vary, from a small portion of the database (down to a single database block) to a large portion of the database (making it essentially unusable).

  • Operating system or storage device driver failure

  • Faulty host bus adapter

  • Disk controller failure

  • Volume manager error causing a bad disk read or write

  • Software defects

Human error

A human error outage occurs when unintentional or other actions are committed that cause data in the database to become incorrect or unusable. The service-level impact of a human error outage can vary significantly, depending on the amount and critical nature of the affected data.

  • File deletion (at the file system level)

  • Dropped database object

  • Inadvertent data changes

  • Malicious data changes

Lost writes

A lost write is another form of data corruption, but it is much more difficult to detect and repair quickly. A data block stray or lost write occurs when:

  • For a lost write, an I/O subsystem acknowledges the completion of the block write even though the write I/O did not occur in the persistent storage. On a subsequent block read on the primary database, the I/O subsystem returns the stale version of the data block, which might be used to update other blocks of the database, thereby corrupting it.

  • For a stray write, the write I/O completed but it was written somewhere else, and a subsequent read operation returns the stale value.

  • For an Oracle RAC system, a read I/O from one cluster node returns stale data after a write I/O is completed from another node (lost write). For example, this occurs if a network file system (NFS) is mounted in Oracle RAC without disabling attribute caching (for example, without using the noac option). In this case, the write I/O from one node is not immediately visible to another node because it is cached.

  • Operating system or storage device driver failure

  • Faulty host bus adapter

  • Disk controller failure

  • Volume manager error

  • Other application software

  • Lack of network file systems (NFS) write visibility across a cluster

Hang or slowdown

Hang or slowdown occurs when the database or the application is unable to process transactions because of a resource or lock contention. A perceived hang can be caused by lack of system resources.

  • Database or application deadlocks

  • Runaway processes that consume system resources

  • Log on storms or system faults

  • Combination of application peaks with lack of system or database resources

  • Archived redo log destination or fast recovery area destination becomes full

Table 1-2 describes planned outage types and provides examples of each type.

Table 1-2 Causes of Planned Downtime


System and database changes

Planned system changes occur when performing routine and periodic maintenance operations and new deployments.

Planned system changes include any scheduled changes to the operating environment that occur outside the organizational data structure in the database.

The service-level impact of a planned system change varies significantly depending on the nature and scope of the planned outage, the testing and validation efforts made before implementing the change, and the technologies and features in place to minimize the impact.

  • Adding or removing processors to or from an SMP server

  • Adding or removing nodes to or from a cluster

  • Adding or removing disks drives or storage arrays

  • Changing configuration parameters

  • Upgrading or patching system hardware and software

  • Upgrading or patching Oracle software

  • Upgrading or patching application software

  • System platform migration

  • Database relocation

  • Moving from 32 bits to 64 bits

  • Migrating to cluster architecture

  • Migrating to new storage

Data changes

Planned data changes occur when there are changes to the logical structure or physical organization of Oracle Database objects. The primary objective of these changes is to improve performance or manageability.

  • Table definition changes

  • Adding table partitioning

  • Creating and rebuilding indexes

Application changes

Planned application changes may include data changes and schema and programmatic changes. The primary objective of these changes is to improve performance, manageability, and functionality.

  • Application upgrades

Oracle offers high availability solutions to help avoid both unplanned and planned downtime, and recover from failures. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 discuss each of these high availability solutions in detail.

1.5 Roadmap to Implementing the Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)

Oracle high availability solutions and sound operational practices are key to the successful implementation of IT infrastructure. However, technology alone is not enough.

Choosing and implementing an architecture that best fits your availability requirements can be a daunting task. MAA simplifies the process of choosing and implementing a high availability architecture to fit your business requirements. The MAA architecture:

  • Encompasses redundancy across all components

  • Provides protection and tolerance from computer failures, storage failures, human errors, data corruption, lost writes, system hangs or slowdowns, and site disasters

  • Recovers from outages as quickly and transparently as possible

  • Provides solutions to eliminate or reduce planned downtime

  • Provides consistent high performance and robust security

  • Is straightforward to deploy, can be managed efficiently, and scales easily

  • Achieves SLAs at the lowest possible total cost of ownership

To build, implement and maintain such an architecture, you need to:

  1. Understand the key effects of the Oracle high availability features on businesses and applications, as described in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4.

  2. Analyze your specific high availability requirements, including both the technical and operational aspects of your IT systems and business processes, as described in Chapter 2, "Determining Your High Availability Requirements"

  3. Choose a high availability architecture, as described in Chapter 7, "High Availability Architectures and Solutions"

  4. Implement a high availability architecture using the following resources:

    • MAA and high availability best practices white papers and other information

      Oracle offers various best practices white papers, customer MAA papers with proof of concepts, customer case studies, recorded Web casts, demonstrations, and presentations. These resources provide technical details about the MAA various high availability technologies, along with best practice recommendations for configuring and using such technologies.

      You can download these MAA resources from the following Web site
    • Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices

      This book provides detailed best practice recommendations and information. It can help you to configure a new high availability environment, or migrate an existing configuration to create a redundant, reliable system without sacrificing simplicity and performance.

An enterprise with a well-articulated set of high availability best practices that encompass high availability analysis frameworks, business drivers, and system capabilities, enjoys an improved operational resilience and enhanced business agility.

PK 6llPK%j?OEBPS/architectures.htm High Availability Architectures and Solutions

The script content on this page is for navigation purposes only and does not alter the content in any way.

7 High Availability Architectures and Solutions

The Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) is Oracle's best practices blueprint. It is based on proven Oracle high availability technologies and recommendations. The goal of the MAA is to remove the complexity in designing the optimal high availability architecture by providing configuration recommendations and tuning tips to optimize your architecture and Oracle features.

This chapter describes the various high availability architectures in an Oracle environment and helps you to choose the correct architecture for your organization.

It includes the following sections:

7.1 Oracle Database High Availability Architectures

The following sections provide an overview of Oracle Database high availability architectures and implement the MAA best practices:

See Section 7.2 for a comparison of the different architectures and highlights of the benefits and considerations.

After you have chosen an architecture, then implement it using the operational and configuration best practices described in the MAA white papers and in Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices. These best practices are required to maximize the benefits of each architecture. See Section 1.5, "Roadmap to Implementing the Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)" for more information about the best practices documentation.

7.1.1 Oracle Database

Oracle Database is a single-instance, standalone (noncluster) database and it is the foundation for all high availability architectures. There are numerous high availability features that you can use in the Oracle Database single-instance database architecture.

Oracle recommends that you use the following Oracle features to make a standalone database on a single computer available for certain failures and planned maintenance activities:

Figure 7-1 shows a basic, single-node Oracle Database that includes an Oracle ASM instance.Foot 1  This architecture incorporates several high availability features, including Flashback Database, Online Redefinition, Recovery Manager, and Oracle Secure Backup.

7.1.2 Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware (Cold Cluster Failover)

In Oracle version 11.2 Oracle Clusterware (Cold Cluster Failover) has been replaced by Oracle RAC One Node. See Section 7.1.3, "Oracle Database with Oracle RAC One Node" for more information.

Section 3.4.1 describes how Oracle Clusterware is software that, when installed on servers running the same operating system, enables the servers to be bound together to operate as if they are one server, and manages the availability of user applications and Oracle databases. The servers on which you want to run Oracle Clusterware must be running the same operating system.

Many high availability architectures today use clusters alone to provide some rudimentary node redundancy and automatic node failover. However, when you use Oracle Clusterware, there is no need or advantage to using third-party clusterware.

Oracle Clusterware provides a number of benefits over third-party clusterware. Oracle Clusterware:

With Oracle Clusterware, you can provide a cold cluster failover to protect an Oracle Database instance from a system or server failure. The basic function of a cold cluster failover is to monitor a database instance running on a server, and if a failure is detected, to restart the instance on a spare server in the cluster. Network addresses are failed over to the backup node. Clients on the network experience a period of lockout while the failover occurs and are then served by the other database instance after the instance has started. Also, you can use the Oracle Clusterware ability to relocate applications and application resources (using the crsctl relocate resource command) as a way to move the workload to another node so that you can perform planned system maintenance on the production server.

The cold cluster failover solution with Oracle Clusterware provides these additional advantages over a basic database architecture:

  • Automatic recovery of node and instance failures in minutes

  • Automatic notification and reconnection of Oracle integrated clientsFoot 3 

  • Ability to customize the failure detection mechanism

    For example, you can use your favorite application query in the database check action. Providing application-specific failure detection means Oracle Clusterware can fail over not only during the obvious cases such as when the instance is down, but also in the cases when, for example, an application query is not meeting a particular service level.

  • High availability functionality to manage third-party applications

  • Rolling release upgrades of Oracle Clusterware

The operation of an Oracle Clusterware cold cluster failover is depicted in Figure 7-2 and Figure 7-3. These figures show how you can use the Oracle Clusterware framework to make both Oracle Database and your custom applications highly available.

Figure 7-2 shows a configuration that uses Oracle Clusterware to extend the basic Oracle Database architecture and provide cold cluster failover. In the figure, the configuration is operating in normal mode in which Node 1 is the active instance connected to Oracle Database that is servicing applications and users. Node 2 is connected to Node 1 and to Oracle Database, but it is currently standby mode.

Figure 7-3 shows the Oracle Clusterware configuration after a cold cluster failover has occurred. In the figure, Node 2 is now the active instance connected to the Oracle database and servicing applications and users. Node 1 is connected to Node 2 and to the Oracle database, but Node 1 is currently idle, in standby mode.

To provide this transparent failover capability, Oracle Clusterware requires a virtual IP (VIP) address for each node in the cluster. With Oracle Clusterware, you also define an application VIP so that users can access the application independently of the node in the cluster where the application is running. You can define multiple application VIPs, with generally one application VIP defined for each application running. The application VIP is tied to the application by making it dependent on the application resource defined by Cluster Ready Services (CRS).


Neither Oracle Enterprise Manager nor Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) provides configuration support for Oracle Clusterware. To configure an Oracle Clusterware environment, follow the step-by-step instructions in your platform-specific Oracle Clusterware installation guide.

7.1.3 Oracle Database with Oracle RAC One Node

Traditionally, Oracle RAC is used in a multinode architecture, with many separate database instances running on separate servers. Oracle RAC One Node allows you to run one instance of an Oracle RAC database on a single node in a cluster. Thus, this feature allows you to consolidate many databases into a single cluster for easier management, while still providing high availability by quickly relocating instances in the event of server failure.

If the node running your Oracle RAC One Node becomes overloaded, you can relocate the instance to another node in the cluster using the online database relocation utility (srvctl relocate database), with no downtime for application users.

You can allocate server resources to multiple instances using Oracle Database Resource Manager Instance Caging. Server scalability is unlimited, and if applications grow to require more resources than a single node can supply, you can perform an online upgrade to a traditional multinode Oracle RAC configuration.

The high availability benefits to using Oracle RAC One Node include the following:

  • Offers better database availability than traditional cold failover solutions

  • Provides better virtualization for databases than hypervisor-based solutions

  • Enables online migration of database instances and online patching and upgrading of operating system and database software (incurring no downtime)

  • Delivers a comprehensive, single-vendor solution, with no need to implement third-party products

  • Is ready to scale and upgrade to multinode Oracle RAC

  • Provides a standardized environment and a common toolset for both single-node and multinode Oracle database deployments

  • Is less expensive than cold fail over solutions or a full Oracle RAC deployment

  • Fully supports Oracle Data Guard. Any database in a Data Guard configuration, whether a primary or standby database, can be an Oracle One Node database.

For virtualization, Oracle RAC One Node with Oracle VM increases the benefit of Oracle VM with the high availability and scalability of Oracle RAC. If your VM is sized too small, you can migrate the Oracle RAC One instance to another larger Oracle VM node in the cluster (using the online database relocation utility) or move the Oracle RAC One instance to another Oracle VM node, and then resize the Oracle VM. When you move the Oracle RAC One Node instance to the newly resized Oracle VM node, you can dynamically increase any limits programmed with Resource Manager Instance Caging.

For more information, see the "Administering Oracle RAC One Node" section in the Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide.

7.1.4 Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)

An architecture that combines Oracle Database with Oracle RAC is inherently a highly available system. Unlike a traditional monolithic database server that is expensive and is not flexible to changing capacity and resource demands, Oracle RAC combines the processing power of multiple interconnected computers to provide system redundancy, scalability, and high availability.

The clusters that are typical of Oracle RAC environments can provide continuous service for both planned and unplanned outages. Oracle RAC builds higher levels of availability on top of the standard Oracle Database features. All single-instance high availability features, such as the Flashback technologies and online reorganization, also apply to Oracle RAC. Applications scale in an Oracle RAC environment to meet increasing data processing demands without changing the application code. In addition, allowing maintenance operations to occur on a subset of components in the cluster while the application continues to run on the rest of the cluster can reduce planned downtime.

Oracle RAC exploits the redundancy that is provided by clustering to deliver availability with n - 1 node failures in an n-node cluster. Unlike the cold cluster model where one node is completely idle, all instances and nodes can be active to scale your application. Communication among the nodes is optimized by means of Redundant Interconnect Usage (without requiring the use of bonding or other technologies) to provide stability, reliability, and scalability.

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC architecture provides the following benefits over a traditional monolithic database server and the cold cluster failover model:

  • Scalability across database instances

  • Flexibility to increase processing capacity using commodity hardware without downtime or changes to the application

  • Ability to tolerate and quickly recover from computer and instance failures (measured in seconds)

  • Optimized communication in the cluster over redundant network interfaces, without using bonding or other technologies

    Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC make use of Redundant Interconnect Usage that distributes network traffic and ensures optimal communication in the cluster. This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 ( In previous releases, technologies like bonding or trunking were used to make use of redundant networks for the interconnect.

  • Rolling upgrades for system and hardware changes

  • Rolling patch upgrades for some interim patches, security patches, CPUs, and cluster software

  • Fast, automatic, and intelligent connection and service relocation and failover

  • Comprehensive manageability integrating database and cluster features with Grid Plug and Play and policy-based cluster and capacity management

  • Load balancing advisory and run-time connection load balancing help redirect and balance work across the appropriate resources

  • Oracle Quality of Service (QoS) Management for policy-based run-time management of resource allocation to database workloads to ensure service levels are met in order of business need under dynamic conditions. This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (

  • Oracle Enterprise Management support for Oracle ASM and Oracle ACFS, Grid Plug and Play, Cluster Resource Management, Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC Provisioning and patching

Figure 7-4 shows Oracle Database with Oracle RAC architecture. This figure shows Oracle Database with Oracle RAC architecture for a partitioned three-node database. An Oracle RAC database is connected to three instances on different nodes. Each instance is associated with a service: HR, Sales, and Call Center. The instances monitor each other by checking "heartbeats." Oracle Net Services provide client access to the Application/Web server tier at the top of the figure Oracle Database with Oracle RAC on Extended Clusters

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC architecture is designed primarily as a scalability and availability solution that resides in a single data center. It is possible, under certain circumstances, to build and deploy an Oracle RAC system where the nodes in the cluster are separated by greater distances. This architecture is referred to as an extended cluster.

An Oracle RAC extended cluster is an architecture that provides extremely fast recovery from a site failure and allows for all nodes, at all sites, to actively process transactions as part of single database cluster. For example, for a business that has a corporate campus, the extended Oracle RAC configuration could consist of individual Oracle RAC nodes located in separate buildings. Oracle RAC on an extended cluster provides greater availability than a local Oracle RAC cluster, but an extended cluster may not completely fulfill the disaster recovery requirements of your organization.

When the two data centers are located relatively close to each other, extended clusters can provide great protection for some disasters, but not all. You should determine if both sites are likely to be affected by the same disaster. For example, if the extended cluster configuration is set up properly, it can protect against disasters such as a local power outage, an airplane crash, or a flooded server room. However, an extended cluster cannot protect against all data corruptions or specific data failures that impact the database, or against comprehensive disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and regional floods that affect a greater geographical area. (For complete disaster recovery and data protection, use the architecture shown in Figure 7-8.)

The advantages to using Oracle RAC on extended clusters include:

  • Ability to fully use all system resources without jeopardizing the overall failover times for instance and node failures

  • Extremely rapid recovery if one site fails

  • All of the Oracle RAC benefits listed in Section 7.1.4


Although an extended cluster architecture can be effective and has been successfully implemented, you should implement it only in the environments (involving the distance, latency, and degree of protection) recommended in this discussion.

Figure 7-5 shows an Oracle RAC extended cluster for a configuration that has multiple active instances on six nodes at two different locations: three nodes at Site A and three at Site B. The public and private interconnects, and the Storage Area Network (SAN) are all on separate dedicated channels, with each one configured redundantly. For availability reasons, the Oracle database is a single database that is mirrored at both of the sites. Also, to prevent a full cluster outage if either site fails, the configuration includes a third voting disk on an inexpensive, low-end standard network file system (NFS) mounted device.

See Also:

  • Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for information about configuring Oracle Database 11g with Oracle RAC on extended clusters

  • White papers about extended (stretch) clusters and about using standard NFS to support a third voting disk on an extended cluster configuration at

7.1.5 Oracle Database with Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Data Guard is a high availability and disaster-recovery solution that provides very fast automatic failover (referred to as fast-start failover) in database failures, node failures, corruption, and media failures. Furthermore, the standby databases can be used for read-only access and subsequently for reader farms, for reporting, and for testing and development.

Although traditional solutions (such as backup and recovery from tape, storage-based remote mirroring, and database log shipping) can deliver some level of high availability, Oracle Data Guard provides the most comprehensive high availability and disaster recovery solution for Oracle databases.

Oracle Data Guard Advantages Over Traditional Solutions

Oracle Data Guard provides a number of advantages over traditional solutions, including the following:

For data resident in Oracle databases, Oracle Data Guard, with its built-in zero-data-loss capability, is more efficient, less expensive, and better optimized for data protection and disaster recovery than traditional remote mirroring solutions. Oracle Data Guard provides a compelling set of technical and business reasons that justify its adoption as the disaster recovery and data protection technology of choice, over traditional remote mirroring solutions.

Oracle Data Guard Advantages Compared to Remote Mirroring Solutions

The following list summarizes the advantages of using Oracle Data Guard compared to using remote mirroring solutions:

The recommended high availability and disaster-recovery architectures that use Oracle Data Guard are described in the following sections: Overview of Single Standby Database Architectures

A single standby database architecture consists of the following key traits and recommendations:

Figure 7-6 shows the relationships between the primary database, target standby database, and the observer before, during, and after a fast-start failover. The figure shows the same Oracle Data Guard configuration in three different frames, as described in the following list:

  1. The leftmost frame shows the configuration before fast-start failover occurs. Oracle Data Guard is operating in a steady state, with the primary database transmitting redo data to the target standby database and the observer monitoring the state of the entire configuration.

  2. The center frame shows the configuration during fast-start failover. Disaster strikes the primary database, and its network connections to both the observer and the target standby database are lost. Upon detecting the break in communication, the observer attempts to reestablish a connection with the primary database for the amount of time defined by the FastStartFailoverThreshold property before initiating a fast-start failover. If the observer is unable to regain a connection to the primary database within the specified time, and the target standby database is ready for fast-start failover, then fast-start failover ensues.

  3. The rightmost frame shows the configuration after fast-start failover has occurred. The fast-start failover has completed and the target standby database is running in the primary database role. After the former primary database has been repaired, the observer reestablishes its connection to that database and reinstates it as a new standby database. The new primary database starts transmitting redo data to the new standby database.

The following list describes examples of Oracle Data Guard configurations using single standby databases:

  • A national energy company uses a standby database located in a separate facility 10 miles away from its primary data center. Outages or data loss that could affect customer service and safety are avoided by using Oracle Data Guard synchronous transport and automatic failover (fast-start failover).

  • An infrastructure services provider to the telecommunication industry uses a single standby database located over 400 miles away from the primary database configured for synchronous redo transport, enabling zero-data-loss failover for maximum data protection and high availability.

  • A telecommunications provider uses asynchronous redo transport to synchronize a primary database on the West Cost of the United States, with a standby database on the East Coast, over 3,000 miles away. This scenario enables the provider to use existing data centers that are geographically isolated, offering a unique level of high availability.

  • A global manufacturing company used Oracle Data Guard to replace storage-based remote mirroring and maintain a standby database at its recovery site 50 miles away from the primary site. Oracle Data Guard provides more comprehensive data protection and its more efficient network usage allows plenty of room to grow without the expense of upgrading its network. Overview of Multiple Standby Database Architectures

This architecture is identical to the single-standby database architecture that was described in Section, except that there are multiple standby databases in the same Oracle Data Guard configuration. The following list describes some implementations for a multiple standby database architecture:

  • Continuous and transparent disaster or high availability protection if an outage occurs at the primary database or the targeted standby database

  • Reader farms or lookup databases

  • Reporting databases

  • Regional reporting or reader databases for better response time

  • Synchronous redo transport that transmits to a more local standby database, and asynchronous redo transport that transmits to a more remote standby database for optimum levels of performance and data protection

  • Transient logical standby databases (described in Section 3.6.3) for minimal downtime rolling upgrades

  • Test and development clones using snapshot standby databases (described in Section 3.6.4)

  • Scaling the configuration by creating additional logical standby databases or snapshot standby databases

Figure 7-7 shows the production database at the primary site and multiple standby databases at secondary sites. The figure shows Oracle Database with Oracle Data Guard architecture.

The production database is connected over the network to the physical standby database site and the logical standby database site (the standby databases may be at the same or different sites). The Oracle Data Guard broker communicates with the production database, the physical standby database, and the logical standby database.

The production database transmits redo data (either synchronously or asynchronously) to redo log files at the physical standby database. Then, the redo data is applied from the logs to the physical standby database, which backs up the redo data to physical media.

At the logical standby database, the redo data is transformed into SQL statements, which are applied to the logical standby database. The logical standby database may contain additional indexes and materialized views. Clients are connected to the logical standby database and can work with its data.

At the snapshot standby database redo data is received, but it is not applied until the snapshot standby database is reconverted to a physical standby database. The figure shows users making local updates to the snapshot standby database. These updates are discarded when the snapshot database is reconverted to a physical standby database.

Also, see Figure 5-2 for another example of a multiple standby database environment.

See Also:

  • Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for more information about the various types of standby databases and to find out what data types are supported by logical standby databases

  • Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for configuration best practices

  • The "Managing Data Guard Configurations Having Multiple Standby Databases - Best Practices" white paper, and other Oracle Data Guard white papers at

The following list describes examples of Oracle Data Guard configurations using multiple standby databases:

  • A world-recognized financial institution uses two remote physical standby databases for continuous data protection after failover. If the primary system should fail, the first standby database becomes the new primary database. The second standby database automatically receives data from the new primary database, insuring that data is protected at all times.

  • A nationally recognized insurance provider in the U.S. maintains two standby databases in the same Oracle Data Guard configuration: one physical standby and one logical standby database. Their strategy further mitigates risk by maintaining multiple standby databases, each implemented using a different architectures—Redo Apply and SQL Apply.

  • A world-recognized e-commerce site uses multiple standby databases—a mix of both physical and logical databases—both for disaster recovery and to scale out read performance by provisioning multiple logical standby databases using SQL Apply.

  • A global provider of information services to legal and financial institutions uses multiple standby databases in the same Oracle Data Guard configuration to minimize downtime during major database upgrades and platform migrations.

Also, for large data centers with a need to support many applications with Oracle Data Guard requirements, you can build an Oracle Data Guard hub to reduce the total cost of ownership. Oracle Data Guard (Standby) Hub

With Database Server Grid and Database Storage Grid (described in Section 5.2 and Section 5.3), you can build standby database and testing hubs that use a pool of system resources. The system resources can be dynamically allocated and deallocated depending on various priorities. For example, if the primary database fails over to one of the standby databases in the Data Guard hub, the new primary database acquires more system and storage resources while the testing resources may be temporarily starved. With the Oracle Grid technologies, you can enable a high level of usage and low TCO without sacrificing business requirements.

An Oracle Data Guard hub can consist of:

  • Several standby databases in an Oracle RAC environment residing in a cluster of servers, called a grid server

  • Using the storage grid

The premise of the Data Guard hub is that it provides higher utilization with lower cost. The probability of failing over all databases at the same time is unlikely. Thus, when a failover occurs, you can prioritize the system resources to production activity and allocate new system resources in a grid for the standby database functions. At the time of role transition, more storage and system resources can be allocated toward that application.

For example, an Oracle Data Guard hub could include multiple databases and applications that are supported in a grid server and storage architecture. This configuration consists of a central resource supporting 10 applications and databases in the grid, rather than managing 10 separate system or storage units in a nongrid infrastructure.

Another possible configuration might be a testing hub consisting of snapshot standby databases. With the snapshot standby database hub, you can use the combined storage and server resources of a grid instead of building and managing individual servers for each application.

7.1.6 Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard

If your business does not require the scalability and additional high availability benefits provided by Oracle RAC, but you still need all the benefits of Oracle Data Guard and cold cluster failover, then Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard is a good compromise architecture. Oracle Clusterware cold cluster failover combined with Oracle Data Guard makes a tightly integrated solution in which failover to the secondary node in the cold cluster failover is transparent and does not require you to reconfigure the Oracle Data Guard environment or perform additional steps.

Figure 7-8 shows an Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard architecture that consists of a primary and a secondary site. Both the primary and secondary sites contain Oracle Application Servers, two database instances, and an Oracle database.

In Figure 7-8:

  • The application servers on the secondary site are connected to the WAN traffic manager by a dotted line to indicate that they are not actively processing client requests at this time. (The application server on the secondary site can be active and processing client requests such as queries if the standby database is a physical standby database with the Active Data Guard option enabled, or if it is a logical standby database.)

  • Oracle Data Guard transmits redo data from the primary database to the secondary site to keep the databases synchronized.

  • Oracle Clusterware manages the availability of both the user applications and Oracle databases.

  • Oracle Clusterware provides tolerance of node failures, whereas Oracle Data Guard provides additional protection against data corruptions, lost writes, and database and site failures. (See Section 7.1.5 for a complete description.)

  • Although cold cluster failover is not shown in Figure 7-8, you can configure it by adding a passive node on the secondary site.

7.1.9 Oracle Database with Oracle GoldenGate

Similar to using Oracle Data Guard in SQL Apply mode, Oracle GoldenGate can capture database changes, propagate them to destinations, and apply the changes at these destinations. Oracle GoldenGate is optimized for replicating data. Oracle GoldenGate can capture changes at a source database, and the captured changes can be propagated asynchronously to replica databases. A logical copy configured and maintained using Oracle GoldenGate is called a replica, not a logical standby database, because it provides many capabilities that are beyond the scope of the normal definition of a standby database.

You might choose to use Oracle GoldenGate to configure and maintain a logical copy of your production database. Although using Oracle GoldenGate might require additional work, it offers increased flexibility that might be necessary to meet specific business requirements.

Oracle Database with Oracle GoldenGate provides granularity and control over what is replicated and how it is replicated. It supports bidirectional replication, data transformations, subsetting, custom apply functions, and heterogeneous platforms. It also gives users complete control over the routing of change records from the primary database to a replica database. Oracle GoldenGate can capture data changes at the primary database or downstream at a replica database, thus enabling users to build hub-and-spoke network configurations that can support hundreds of replica databases.

Consider using Oracle Database with Oracle GoldenGate if one or more of the following conditions are true:

  • Updates are required on both sites or databases, and the changes must be propagated bidirectionally.

  • Site configurations are on heterogeneous platforms.

  • Different character sets are required between the primary database and its replicas.

  • Fine control of information and data sharing are required.

  • More investment and expertise to build and maintain an integrated high availability solution is available.

For more information about constructing multiple-source replication environments, see the Oracle GoldenGate documentation.

You can configure Oracle GoldenGate with Oracle Data Guard to provide protection for the individual databases in the configuration.

7.2 Choosing the Correct High Availability Architecture

This section summarizes the advantages of the different high availability architectures and provides guidelines for you to choose the correct high availability architecture for your business.

Chapter 2 describes how the high availability requirements for the business plus its allotted budget determine the appropriate architecture. The key factors include:

For example, Table 7-1 provides some insight into the probability of different outages during unplanned and planned activities. The data is derived from actual user experiences and from Oracle service requests.

Table 7-2 recommends architectures based on your business requirements for RTO, RPO, MO, scalability, and other factors.

Table 7-2 High Availability Architecture Recommendations

Consider Using ...Business or Application Impact ...

Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware (Cold Cluster Failover)

  • Maximum RTO for instance or node failure is in minutes.

  • MO is low.

  • ROI is low.

  • RPO is zero.

  • Rolling upgrade and patch capabilities for Oracle Clusterware with zero database downtime.

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC One Node

  • Maximum RTO for instance or node failure is in seconds.

  • MO is low.

  • ROI is medium.

  • RPO is zero.

  • Online relocation.

  • All Oracle RAC nodes can be active by implementing multiple Oracle RAC One Node configurations for different databases.

  • Zero downtime when using the provisioning capability in Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

  • Rolling upgrade for system, clusterware, operating system, CPUs, and some Oracle interim patches.

Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)

  • Maximum RTO for instance or node failure is zero for the databaseFootref 1.

  • MO is medium.

  • ROI is high.

  • RPO is zero.

  • Run-time performance level management with Oracle Database Quality of Service Management (This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (

  • Zero downtime when using the provisioning capability in Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

  • Rolling upgrade for system, clusterware, operating system, CPUs, and some Oracle interim patches.

  • Database scalability beyond one instance or node.

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC on Extended Clusters

  • All of the business benefits of Oracle RAC.

  • MO is highFoot 1 .

  • ROI is medium.

  • RPO is zero.

  • Additional protection from data center failure with special considerations that are documented in Section

  • Highest level of availability for server or computer room failure

  • High availability benefits and workload balancing outweigh performance concerns.

  • Willing to make additional provisions for remote data protection to protect against database, data, and cluster failures and corruptions

Oracle Database with Oracle Data Guard

  • Maximum RTO for instance or node failure is in seconds to minutes.

  • Maximum RTO for data corruptions, database, or site failures is in seconds to minutes.

  • Choice of RPO equal to zero (SYNC) or near-zero (ASYNC).

  • MO is low.

  • ROI is high.

  • Rolling upgrade for system, clusterware, database, and operating system

  • Off-load read-only, reporting, testing and backup activities to the standby database.

  • Limited support for mixed platforms. For more information, see "Data Guard Support for Heterogeneous Primary and Physical Standbys in Same Data Guard Configuration" in My Oracle Support Note at

For physical standby databases, this solution:

  • Supports very high primary database throughput.

  • Provides the simplicity of a physical replica.

  • Provides maximum protection from physical corruptions.

  • Provides read-only access to synchronized standby database and fast incremental backups to off-load production

For logical standby databases, this solution:

  • Provides the simplest form of one-way logical replication

  • Allows for structural changes to the standby database, such as changes to local tables, adding schemas, indexes, and materialized views

  • Off-loads production by providing read-only access to a synchronized standby database and allows read/write access to local tables that are not being modified by the primary database

Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard

  • All of the business benefits of Oracle Clusterware (cold cluster failover) and Oracle Data Guard

  • MO is low.

  • ROI is medium.

  • RPO is zero for cluster failover, choice of RPO equal to zero for database failover (Data Guard SYNC), or near-zero (Data Guard ASYNC).

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard

  • All of the business benefits of Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard

  • MO is medium.

  • ROI is high.

  • RPO is zero for cluster failover, choice of RPO equal to zero for database failover (Data Guard SYNC), or near-zero (Data Guard ASYNC).

Oracle Database with Oracle GoldenGate

  • Maximum RTO for instance or node failure is in seconds to minutes.

  • Maximum RTO for data corruption, cluster, database, or site failures is in seconds to minutes.

  • RPO is near-zero (asynchronous).

  • MO is highFootref 1.

  • ROI is high.

  • Rolling upgrade for system, clusterware, operating system, database, and application.

  • Support for bidirectional replication and updating anything and anywhere.

  • Support for heterogeneous platforms, versions, and character sets.

  • Support for fine-grained, n-way multimaster, hub-and-spoke, or many-to-one replication architectures.

  • Flexible propagation and management of data, transactions, and events.

  • With Oracle RAC integration, database scalability is possible.

Footnote 1 Architectures for which the MO is high might require additional time and expertise to build and maintain, but offer increased flexibility and capabilities required to meet specific business requirements.

Table 7-3 identifies the additional capabilities provided by the architectures that build on Oracle Database and attempts to label each architecture with its greatest strengths.

Table 7-3 Additional Capabilities of High Level Oracle High Availability Architectures

Oracle High Availability ArchitectureKey Characteristics and Additional Capabilities

Oracle Database (Base Architecture)

The foundation for all high availability architectures

Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware (Cold Cluster Failover)

  • All of the benefits of Oracle Database

  • Automatic and fast failover for computer failure

  • Minimum rolling upgrade capabilities for system, clusterware, and operating systemFootref 1

Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)

High availability, scalability, and foundation of server database grids

  • All of the benefits of Oracle Database

  • Scalability beyond a single system

  • Automatic recovery of failed nodes and instances

  • Fast application notification (FAN) with integrated Oracle client failover

  • FAN with integrated Oracle client failover for pooled resources and third-party vendor middle tiers

  • FAN with integrated Oracle client failover, including Java applications using UCP with Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard. Applications can easily mask failures to the end user.

  • Run-time performance level management with Oracle Database Quality of Service Management (This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (

  • Zero downtime with Grid Control provisioning

  • Rolling upgrade for system, clusterware, operating system, CPUs, and some Oracle interim patchesFoot 1 

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC on Extended Clusters

Database Grid with site failure protection

  • All of the benefits of Oracle Database

  • Protection from site failure

Oracle Database with Oracle Data Guard

Simplest high availability, data protection, and disaster-recovery solution

  • All of the benefits of Oracle Database

  • Automatic and fast failover for computer failure, storage failure, data corruption, for configured ORA- errors or conditions and database failures

  • Protection from site failure

  • Rolling upgrade for system, clusterware, database, and operating systemFoot 2 

  • Ability to off-load backups to the standby database

  • Ability to off-load read and reporting workload to the standby database

  • Only comprehensive lost write protection

Oracle Database with Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Data Guard

High availability solution with added data and disaster recovery protection.

  • The sum of benefits of Oracle Clusterware with Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Database with Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard

Best high availability, data protection, and disaster-recovery solution with scalability built in

  • The sum of benefits of Oracle RAC with Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Database with Oracle GoldenGateFoot 3 

Bidirectional replication and information management

  • Replica database (or databases) available for read/write use

  • Heterogeneous platform support

  • Fast failover for computer failure and storage failure

  • Protection from site failure

  • Minimum downtime for computer or site maintenance and database and application upgrades

Footnote 1 Rolling upgrades with Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC incur zero downtime.

Footnote 2 Rolling upgrades with Oracle Data Guard incur minimal downtime.

Footnote 3 The initial investment to build a robust solution is well worth the long-term flexibility and capabilities that Oracle GoldenGate delivers to meet specific business requirements.

Table 7-4 shows the recovery time (including detection and client failover time) of an integrated Oracle client, whenever relevant. You should adopt the MAA best practices to achieve the optimal recovery time and configuration. Oracle High Availability Best Practice recommendations can be found in Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices and in the white papers that can be downloaded from

Footnote 1 Recovery time indicated applies to database and existing connection failover. Network connection changes and other site-specific failover activities may lengthen overall recovery time.

Footnote 2 The portion of any application connected to the failed system is temporarily affected. You can configure the failed application connections to fail over to the replica.

Footnote 3 Recovery time consists largely of the time it takes to restore the failed system.

Footnote 4 Database is still available, but a portion of the application connected to the failed system is temporarily affected.

Footnote 5 Storage failures are prevented by using Oracle ASM with mirroring and its automatic rebalance capability.

Footnote 6 Recovery time for human errors depend primarily on detection time. If it takes seconds to detect a malicious DML or DLL transaction, it typically only requires seconds to flash back the appropriate transactions. Longer detection time usually leads to longer recovery time required to repair the appropriate transactions. An exception is undropping a table, which is literally instantaneous regardless of detection time.

Footnote 7 Recovery time depends on block media recovery and the time it takes to restore a consistent block from the flashback logs or database backups, and to recover the block by applying all the redo from archive logs and online redo logs.

Footnote 8 With automatic block repair, this should be the most common block corruption repair. There are some corruptions that cannot be addressed by automatic block repair, and for those we can rely on Data Guard failover that takes seconds to minutes.

Table 7-5 compares the attainable recovery times of each Oracle high availability architecture for all types of planned downtime.

Footnote 1 Applications (or a portion of an application) connected to the system that is being maintained may be temporarily affected.

Footnote 2 Oracle ASM automatically rebalances stored data when disks are added or removed while the database remains online. For storage migration, you are required to use both storage arrays by Oracle ASM temporarily.

Footnote 3 For qualified one-off patches only

Footnote 4 Tables can be reorganized online using the DBMS_REDEFINITION package. However, the online changes are not supported by SQL Apply or data capture, and therefore the effects of this subprogram are not visible on the logical standby database or replica database. For more information, see Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration or the Oracle Streams Replication Administrator's Guide.

7.3 Integrating Application Server High Availability

Flexible and automated high availability solutions ensure that applications you deploy on Oracle Application Server meet the required availability to achieve your business goals. The solutions introduced in this book are described in detail in the Oracle Fusion Middleware High Availability Guide.

This section contains the following topics:

7.3.1 Oracle Application Server High Availability Architectures

Oracle Application Server provides high availability and disaster recovery solutions for maximum protection against any kind of failure with flexible installation, deployment, and security options. These solutions are categorized into local high availability solutions that provide high availability in a single data center deployment, and disaster-recovery solutions, which are usually geographically distributed deployments that protect your applications from disasters such as floods or regional network outages.

At a high level, Oracle Application Server local high availability architectures include several active-active and active-passive architectures for the OracleAS middle-tier and the OracleAS Infrastructure. Although both types of solutions provide high availability, active-active solutions generally offer higher scalability and faster failover, although they tend to be more expensive. With either the active-active or the active-passive category, multiple solutions exist that differ in ease of installation, cost, scalability, and security.

Building on top of the local high availability solutions is the Oracle Application Server disaster recovery solution. This unique solution combines the proven Oracle Data Guard technology in Oracle Database with advanced disaster recovery technologies in the application realm to create a comprehensive disaster recovery solution for the entire application system. Disaster recovery solutions typically set up two homogeneous sites, one active and one passive. Each site is a self-contained system. The active site is generally called the production site, and the passive site is called the standby site. During normal operation, the production site services requests; in the event of a site failover or switchover, the standby site takes over the production role and all requests are routed to that site. To maintain the standby site for failover, not only must the standby site contain homogeneous installations and applications, data and configurations must also be synchronized constantly from the production site to the standby site. Oracle Application Server instances can be installed in either site as long as they do not interfere with the instances in the disaster recovery setup. Configurations and data must be synchronized regularly between the two sites to maintain homogeneity.

7.3.2 Redundant Architectures

Oracle Application Server provides redundancy by offering support for multiple instances supporting the same workload. These redundant configurations provide increased availability either through a distributed workload, through a failover setup, or both.

From the entry point to an Oracle Application Server system (content cache) to the back-end layer (data sources), all the tiers that are crossed by a request can be configured in a redundant manner with Oracle Application Server. The configuration can be an active-active configuration using Oracle Application Server Cluster or an active-passive configuration using Oracle Application Server Cold Cluster Failover.

7.3.3 High Availability Services in Oracle Application Server

The Oracle Application Server High Availability Guide describes the following high availability services in Oracle Application Server in detail:

  • Process death detection and automatic restart

  • Configuration management

  • State replication

  • Server load balancing and failover

  • Backup and recovery

  • Disaster recovery

Footnote Legend

Footnote 1: Single-instance databases can use clustered Oracle ASM (Storage GRID) or nonclustered Oracle ASM.
Footnote 2: Network splits, commonly referred to as split brains, occur when nodes on one side of the cluster cannot see the nodes on the other side of the cluster.
Footnote 3: Oracle Clusterware sends the service events and FAN-integrated clients automatically react to those events.
PKR>PK%j?OEBPS/grid.htm\I Optimizing Return on Investment (ROI)

The script content on this page is for navigation purposes only and does not alter the content in any way.

5 Optimizing Return on Investment (ROI)

Oracle Grid Computing, disaster-recovery solutions and advanced standby database usage, and virtualization all optimize return on investment (ROI) capabilities.

You can scale out your existing system infrastructure while achieving both high availability and disaster protection. Oracle Data Guard standby databases are an integral part of the Grid, providing data protection and availability regardless of the cause or scope of an outage. Outages can range anywhere from data corruption that can affect an individual database, to natural disasters that impact a large geographic area.

Advanced Data Guard capabilities deliver maximum ROI by enabling standby databases to be used for productive purposes—such as for read-only queries and reporting—while running in the standby role. Rather than allowing standby databases to remain idle, you can employ them to support activities that would otherwise require you to purchase additional capacity for other systems. Thus, you can defer or eliminate the need to purchase additional capacity for the primary database. This effectively reduces the cost of providing world-class disaster protection for mission critical Oracle Databases.

This chapter covers the following topics:

5.3 Database Storage Grid

The availability of low-cost Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) disk-based storage arrays and low-cost storage networks has made it possible to use a Database Storage Grid with Oracle Database at very low cost. One example solution is Oracle Exadata Storage Servers that offer excellent performance and availability characteristics. Each Exadata Cell can be viewed as a unit of I/O performance and capacity.

The Oracle Storage Grid is implemented using either Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) and Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software or ASM and third-party storage. The Oracle Storage Grid with Exadata seamlessly supports MAA-related technology, improves performance, provides unlimited I/O scalability, is easy to use and manage, and delivers mission-critical availability and reliability to your enterprise. See the Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for Oracle Storage Grid recommendations and using Exadata.

A database administrator can use the Oracle ASM interface to specify the disks in the Database Storage Grid that Oracle ASM should manage across all server and storage platforms. Oracle ASM partitions the disk space and evenly distributes the data storage throughout the entire storage array. Additionally, Oracle ASM automatically redistributes the data storage as storage arrays are added or removed from the Database Storage Grid.

Additionally, use the I/O Resource Management to manage and meet service-level requirements. The resource manager allows you manage the grid and prioritized applications within the database or in between databases.

5.4 Disaster Recovery Using Active Standby Databases

You can use standby databases for dynamic IT and application requirements in addition to providing disaster recovery. The Oracle Active Data Guard option in Oracle Data Guard enables you to use physical standby databases for other useful work during normal operations, in addition to providing a disaster-recovery solution.

The following sections describe the Oracle Data Guard features that help you use physical standby databases for additional business purposes:

5.4.1 Oracle Active Data Guard Option for Physical Standby Databases

Oracle Data Guard Redo Apply (physical standby database) is a popular solution for disaster recovery due to its relative simplicity, high performance, and superior level of data protection. The Oracle Active Data Guard optionFoot 1  (available with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and later releases) enables a physical standby database to be opened for read-only access while Redo Apply is active. This makes it possible to run queries and reports against an up-to-date physical standby database without compromising data protection or extending recovery time if a failover is required. You can offload the read-only workload from the primary database to the active standby database, improving performance and postponing the day when you need to purchase additional capacity.

To enable the Oracle Active Data Guard option, open the database in read-only mode and then issue the ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY statement. Note that the COMPATIBLE parameter must be set to 11.0.0 or later on both the primary and physical standby databases. Using this feature is completely transparent to any application requiring read-only access to the Oracle Database.

The Oracle Active Data Guard option provides an ultimate high availability solution because it:

  • Supports Oracle RAC on the primary and standby databases

    The Oracle Active Data Guard option works on both single-instance and Oracle RAC physical standby databases. Although Redo Apply can be running on only one Oracle RAC instance, any of the instances can run in read-only mode, including the apply instance.

  • Returns transactionally consistent results that are very close to being up-to-date with the primary database

    Depending on any delay settings or apply rates, the standby database can be current with the primary database or lag seconds behind. The queries will always be transactionally consistent and will represent a consistent view of the last committed transaction at that time.

  • Allows fast switchovers or failovers because the redo generated by the primary database while the standby database was open read-only has already been applied to the standby database, making it immediately available to assume the primary database role

  • Enables you to use fast-start failover for automatic failover if the primary database fails


Transactions that attempt to modify a physical standby database running with Oracle Active Data Guard enabled will fail with an error.

For more information about using Oracle Active Data Guard, see Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration.

5.4.2 Web Scale Using Standby Reader Farms

You can use multiple physical standby databases (using the Oracle Active Data Guard option) and logical standby databases to deploy a reader farm. An example of such a configuration is provided Figure 5-2, complete with the use of Oracle Data Guard fast-start failover to automatically fail over should the primary database fail. Note that all standby databases in the reader farm automatically recognize the new primary database after a failover occurs.

A reader farm enables you to boost read performance of the most demanding Web applications beyond what the underlying system and storage architecture can support. This provides a relatively low-cost method of scaling out using a Grid architecture where I/O is the driving factor.

The concept is straightforward—a single primary database that supports read/write transactions, and multiple standby databases that provide read-only access to Web users. Such an approach scales read performance linearly as additional standby databases are added. It is also an effective way to isolate faults, because problems that affect one standby database are isolated from the other standby databases in the configuration.

Creating a reader farm of physical standby databases provides the following benefits:

  • Fault isolation

  • High performance with physical standby databases and Redo Apply

  • Seamless support for all DDL and data types using Redo Apply

  • All reader databases are kept up-to-date with changes made to the primary database

  • Automatic, zero or minimal data loss failover capability

  • Management as a unified configuration through Grid Control

  • Scale-out using single writer database and n reader databases

  • Rolling upgrade capabilities

Figure 5-2 shows a good example of how you can use Oracle Data Guard, physical standby databases, and Oracle Active Data Guard option to provide the flexibility necessary to grow your business quickly, while still providing disaster recovery. In the configuration, the primary database transmits redo data to multiple standby databases, one of which is also enabled for fast-start failover for automatic, zero, or minimal data loss failover.

If a fast-start failover is triggered in the Oracle Data Guard configuration in Figure 5-2, then:

  • Automatic failover occurs to the designated standby database

  • All standby databases accept data from the new primary database

  • You can perform a switchover at a convenient time in the future to return all databases to their original roles

Footnote Legend

Footnote 1: Oracle Active Data Guard is referred to as real-time query in the Oracle Data Guard documentation.
PK㢷aI\IPK%j?OEBPS/hadesign.htm#Iܶ Determining Your High Availability Requirements

2 Determining Your High Availability Requirements

This chapter includes the following sections:

2.1 About Determining High Availability Requirements

Any enterprise that is designing and implementing a high availability strategy must begin by performing a thorough analysis of the business drivers that require high availability. Implementing high availability may involve critical tasks such as:

  • Retiring legacy systems

  • Investing in more capable and robust systems and facilities

  • Redesigning the overall IT architecture and operations to adapt to this high availability model

  • Redesigning business processes

  • Hiring and training personnel

This chapter provides a framework to effectively evaluate the high availability requirements of a business. By combining your business analysis with an understanding of the level of investment required to implement different high availability solutions, you can develop a high availability architecture that will achieve both business and technical objectives.

You can use the high availability analysis framework to:

  1. Complete a business impact analysis

  2. Identify and categorize the critical business processes that have the high availability requirements

  3. Formulate the cost of downtime

  4. Establish utilization, recovery time objective (RTO), and recovery point objective (RPO) goals for these various business processes

  5. Understand goals for manageability, total cost of ownership (TCO), and return on investment (ROI)

This framework enables the business to define service-level agreements (SLAs) in terms of high availability for critical aspects of its business. For example, it can categorize its business processes into several high availability tiers:

  • Tier 1 processes have maximum business impact. They have the most stringent high availability requirements, with RTO and RPO close to zero, and requiring continuously available supporting systems. For a business with a high-volume e-commerce presence, this may be the Web-based customer interaction system.

  • Tier 2 processes that have slightly relaxed high availability and RTO and RPO requirements. The second tier of an e-commerce business may be its supply chain and merchandising systems. For example, these systems do not need to maintain extremely high degrees of availability and may have nonzero RTO and RPO values. Thus, the high availability systems and technologies chosen to support the tier 2 processes are likely to be different from those of the tier 1 processes.

  • Tier 3 processes may be related to internal development and quality assurance processes. Systems supporting these processes need not have the rigorous high availability requirements of the other tiers.

As shown in Figure 2-1, the next step for the business is to evaluate the capabilities of the various high availability systems and technologies, and to choose the ones that meet its SLA requirements, within the guidelines dictated by business performance issues, budgetary constraints, and anticipated business growth.

2.2 Analysis Framework for Determining High Availability Requirements

The elements of this analysis framework are:

2.2.1 Business Impact Analysis

A rigorous business impact analysis:

  • Identifies the critical business processes in an organization

  • Calculates the quantifiable loss risk for unplanned and planned IT outages affecting each of these business processes

  • Outlines the effects of these outages

  • Considers essential business functions, people and system resources, government regulations, and internal and external business dependencies

  • Is based on objective and subjective data gathered from interviews with knowledgeable and experienced personnel

  • Reviews business practice histories, financial reports, IT systems logs, and so on

The business impact analysis categorizes the business processes based on the severity of the impact of IT-related outages. For example, consider a semiconductor manufacturer with chip fabrication plants located worldwide. Semiconductor manufacturing is an intensely competitive business requiring huge financial investment that is amortized over high production volumes. The human resource applications used by plant administration are unlikely to be considered as mission-critical as the applications that control the manufacturing process in the plant. Failure of the applications that support manufacturing will affect production levels and have a direct impact on the financial results of the company.

Similarly, an internal knowledge management system is likely to be considered mission-critical for a management consulting firm, because the business of a client-focused company is based on internal research accessibility for its consultants and knowledge workers. The cost of downtime of such a system is extremely high for this business. This leads us to the next element in the high availability requirements framework: cost of downtime.

2.2.3 Recovery Time Objective (RTO)

The business impact analysis will determine your recovery time objective (RTO). RTO is defined as the maximum amount of time that an IT-based business process can be down before the organization starts suffering unacceptable consequences (financial losses, customer dissatisfaction, reputation, and so on). RTO indicates the downtime tolerance of a business process or an organization in general.

The RTO requirements are driven by the mission-critical nature of the business. Thus, for a system running a stock exchange, the RTO is zero or very near to zero.

An organization is likely to have varying RTO requirements across its various business processes. Thus, for a high volume e-commerce Web site, for which there is an expectation of rapid response times and for which customer switching costs are very low, the Web-based customer interaction system that drives e-commerce sales is likely to have an RTO close to zero. However, the RTO of the systems that support back-end operations, such as shipping and billing, can be higher. If these back-end systems are down, then the business may resort to manual operations temporarily without a significant visible impact.

The ability to take orders via the e-commerce Web site immediately (the RTO) may be more important than the RPO, because lost data can be reloaded later.

2.2.6 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and Return on Investment (ROI)

Understanding total cost of ownership (TCO) and return on investment (ROI) is essential to selecting a high availability architecture that also achieves the business goals of your organization. TCO includes all costs (such as acquisition, implementation, systems, networks, facilities, staff, training, and support), over the useful life of the solution chosen. Likewise, the ROI calculation captures all of the financial benefits that accrue to a given high availability architecture.

For example, consider a high availability architecture in which IT systems and storage at a remote standby site remain idle with no other business use that can be served by the standby systems. The only return on investment for the standby site is the cost of downtime avoided by its use in a failover scenario. Contrast this with a different high availability architecture that enables IT systems and storage at the standby site to be used productively while in the standby role (for example, for reports or for off-loading the primary system of the overhead of end-user queries). The return on investment of such an architecture includes both the cost of downtime avoided and the financial benefits that accrue to its productive use while in the standby database role.

2.3 High Availability Architecture Requirements

The following sections provide further details about high availability system capabilities and business performance, budget and growth plans. Also, see "Choosing the Correct High Availability Architecture".

2.3.1 Business Performance, Budget, and Growth Plans

High availability solutions must ultimately address business requirements. For example, a business may use a zero-data-loss solution that synchronously mirrors every transaction on the primary database to a remote database. However, considering the speed-of-light limitations and the physical limitations associated with a network, there are round-trip delays in the network transmission. These delays increase with distance and vary based on network bandwidth, traffic congestion, router latencies, and so on. Thus, this synchronous mirroring, if performed over large wide area network (WAN) distances, will affect the primary site performance.

Online buyers may notice these system latencies and be frustrated with long system response times; consequently, they may go somewhere else for their purchases. This is an example where the business must make a trade-off between having a zero-data-loss solution and maximizing system performance. Conversely, if the business drivers justify the investment to avoid making this tradeoff, a multisite architecture can be implemented that places a synchronous zero-data-loss standby site in close proximity to the primary site and a second asynchronous standby site located up to thousands of miles away.

High availability solutions must also be based on financial considerations and future growth estimates. It is tempting to build redundancies throughout the IT infrastructure and claim that the infrastructure is completely failure-proof. Although you cannot always equate higher availability with higher cost, imprudent decisions may lead to budget overruns or an unmanageable and unscalable combination of solutions that is extremely complex and expensive to integrate and maintain.

A high availability solution that has impressive performance benchmark results may be enticing. However, investing in such a solution without careful analysis of how the technology capabilities match the business drivers would be unwise. The business could end up with a solution that:

  • Does not integrate well with the rest of the system infrastructure

  • Has annual integration and maintenance costs that easily exceed the implementation costs

Prudent and judicious decision-makers must invest only in solutions that are well-integrated, standards-based, straightforward to implement, maintain, and manage, and have a scalable architecture for accommodating future business growth.

PK(I#IPK%j?OEBPS/manageability.htm=w Optimizing Manageability

The script content on this page is for navigation purposes only and does not alter the content in any way.

6 Optimizing Manageability

Complex environments demand coordinated configuration changes, system upgrades, and new application rollouts. The topics in this section describe the tools that can be used to automate and simplify operations in high availability architectures, allowing you to step toward self-managing Oracle databases.

This section contains these topics:

6.1 Intelligent Infrastructure

Oracle Database has a sophisticated self-management infrastructure that allows the database to learn about itself and use this information to adapt to workload variations or to automatically remedy almost any potential problem. The self-management infrastructureFoot 1  includes the following:

6.3 Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control

By reducing the amount of human intervention required to execute routine and repetitive tasks, services become more stable, reliable, and available. This is particularly important when administrators must manage very large numbers of systems as efficiently as possible.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control is an HTML-based interface that provides the administrator with complete monitoring across the entire Oracle technology stack—business applications, application servers, databases, and the E-Business Suite—and non-Oracle components. If a component of fast application notification (FAN) becomes unavailable or experiences performance problems, then Grid Control displays the automatically generated alert so that the administrator can take the appropriate recovery action.

The components of Grid Control include:

Communication between Grid Control, the OMS, and Oracle Management Agents is done through HTTP. Also, you can enable Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to allow secure communications between tiers in firewall-protected environments. The Management Agent uploads collected monitoring data to the OMS, which in turn loads the data into the Management Repository. Changes in a target state (such as an availability state change) result in an alert being generated to Grid Control.

Using Grid Control, an administrator can:

  • Monitor architecture components and be alerted when a failure occurs

  • View overall system status, such as the number of nodes in the database cluster and their current status

  • View alerts aggregated across all instances

  • Set thresholds for alert generation for each database on a clusterwide basis

  • Monitor performance metrics across all instances

  • Perform database clusterwide operations such as backup and recovery

  • Interconnect monitoring of cluster databases

See Also:

Footnote Legend

Footnote 1: To use many of the self-management features described in this section, you must purchase licenses for Oracle Diagnostics Pack. See Oracle Database Licensing Information for complete licensing information about Oracle management packs.
PKA5==PK%j? OEBPS/toc.ncx Oracle® Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2) Cover Table of Contents Oracle Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2) Preface Overview of High Availability Determining Your High Availability Requirements Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Unplanned Downtime Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Planned Downtime Optimizing Return on Investment (ROI) Optimizing Manageability High Availability Architectures and Solutions Glossary Index Copyright PKw,$  PK%j?OEBPS/cover.htm Cover

Oracle Corporation

PKJPK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw022.gifGIF89ammmMMMbbbBBB&&&TTT(((DDDGGGHHHRRR  ###@@@ـ???<<>>rsr}}}:::888+++~Ƿsss===***wwwddduuu666zzz555444xxxtttɨqqqȾåhhh|||\\\!!!fffWWWUSTVVV[[[jjj111222NNNǹ^^^]]]kkknnnaaaeee~~~GEF{{{QQQAAA)))qpqstsUUU878zzypqpxxwppo|}|!, H*\ȰÇ#JH2flQƍ?VHG7PPȖ+a$L4c朙RgOkj9t'ΟGT ЌD-*ӤNfmTU^kר6\ ֊pʝKݻZD)ФF,)ٯ^&+,ÊJF<92˖33^1͕Ac3ϦCn;Zxc˞Mvl:\߽i{x..\9s;'|tԡ_}yȵǧ/Oxݛ;|?E~`wБr mF(fv $8&,0(#A(h8l +8 Rx!X[aO|Yh?:+CuGPzƁID# (83xIycĀ?TaqlvAVC W@" ! Op1MB 8( 8k<~ة 9 ؠ ;@w>] G`v2q^YDµ o с0,j%yR$i-0( VY?SͭnsYj+a Ii)^vaAxz5Z6[&WdHUҺ4Clum ]Tt蒟Q8!!\s^ֺDuᆂObVvܥX yp-mq\X4T̖_'ol-cəU`VqPO+Z9!:޷Bw1;n?-m@[XֵpB#rQğD2A!"Zw .MISMW{C9*{'2^7o ON`O]O=|"uﺱ =ֱ3;Y&8hK"XNȵv:#$B\ϓ2ƄX<;_|`z3=hA f*㖝p?+;}Hz`l,vyl`{6=}ɇyfhn zqk}#:R^~?soWsvݢC$w+p\Pz !2m<FR\ 'T>RJ*@WEXD`(dĄO9 +aV׷dŅ/0(Xv+# Gr4sV#_/BdiR6?vy_eOC_jSCo xh )};h3u'ҲRp`(uȗ0P`pz@ /XqH)0*xvP`$YЊo~&Q6]xXZX0Y9HKWL^^1Ȉ/$X !9CE[uڈET21ׄ 逎huhX0VHd0F$XY'ӑc9C(+]mu2#_Z]R]kOuCz"%{dzchaD.F86BCS~sư{C#0 RcbӕPP{P@%c1Xq3' Y\pQg9Ɏ?BY)&3%aXt P%#@$ 58-r)kB zMok#to^@1PAD`0N↘;6'H>3V}EsI6Nwb?mےtdp hʦnz$pj 0 +ɧX%g80z7yʨB*zVC~gB*CwzPf' /h ڦTtsec?50ǝ؄ `.:~ج0r) G9v >*:$ Gp u`'g炚/zJ0C0,`kj&K<D#[5AX$Jp `  xz@)*"z 0t`:1/z iڲ #I6G=T` `0qby4`7 BK{d+p2A!66Q@f?Z;(@e5,bK&Wp PpAYz!Hz; q1!g'Ƞ:ت @ڭ5*H r2]w2&@F`7pLۺ (kgP213 <_'0el`F9@EÈEX$5\fy @acLN;w2{p !xRn›x2p |ۨ2˿[LEPIB` &xHղq*4-;.Hc'` RX|Q'˚'v`p@B}jxɼ!<\<Y`]e@W 2`kAh`lL xLP30T9ذ]WZ1(` !FmؠҞi )>U !S`}&.4޽>%{:^B`ݴ݊ Fu= -M[` B1K@b0,&PM0 R =)B"6<~KDKKKLDLƄLLxLєu}&GL|R`HMNx| H^< /;ulU?^CprE=),, &oZ?=7:s>csO>sڠZkGl08f;4pSN;'8/`XB+4SEDQFP5`6pm!D# 0a6N"'*S@cH"ҠAg"X*3,7DCxw^zx0<:_>7 иPQutHECSO3x USj5',¨zU P\wG_֠j("B'* a0o蝾H;qC& jzkkyv@ V?l `T` h \0?.>|r5#Qg lHJxcQQy@N'axP[lQF\sԵ^-U;.I)XB2LҔl}w}Z"dó VBbdxt*hh"n $3lT9 fPFb(%j59m0<.u+FTAVe@Q@f,P (?jЪ ΰLV.f$Ly6cޏrTJ \r> [`E/Ll0VA\_xG,(G˵ $p[fmRrl),,? J8bEWy`sg@ZЃ&CPbD'z?-܋($MwxO,%"m@j9$3KhCTMMU3_$ R3"Yj3'w=Z& *Z\]Q< P!K|d&^jz%6 gpn~[.?b,cYuu9:8&x}$ W4= c`PCU @ p55=_p`09|hnFa+_6@\X(k:~t?#\+ gx-ptQ_VoG]F =h5 |NDT9X #ֳN@ Lꢶ@λcd> xw'>Wk;a1tBEGz t0鸞g7V/A?a*\Tv0, &\A(hqrJ;);{11Ꝑc˱9:ɖg͂~ x9Z󠗡g_X(yhs;2PuV@&8:vx3[ ''Ǫȁ%0%8Vq:&eJx`7w 8>ۉ3@0~l> &۵4B(+B,B-B.Be4 ?4 0#!?8lS`*: I xch٣ @p/>: h(0%(P;`0C9<0T9920`R#B8B\::ps[XflFg|FhFiFIA$ICnTC2^(C:Cruy (xxtȰ,Ha0EdD EX!64 ^l_ RBŜ83;/ŝmc7oI_+bd `f5II Jʟ\FfK%:n|JZÜ,Lx:8:A(QDBX%`_" ~E@ aȀD! ,H@>t;;YA05zK'pQ<SI|IEC%,XF ٜMڬMۼM܃G XJ$ M?2(GF9GJ)!05@ 4˻GQ衜@Z:Lj=̈S>V96X 32M 4ۢpP\;LD4t``F =-Q=QMQ]QefT XX.HLNU'uhJtJR*,hO4OKG=x0 L %UK Iѭ9ز% 98Z,мEi6}#p&x:0~ ]1 LTE]TFI0V2Ԋ>F9P!8 8TRM Om(pUUO)uU EЂ %ؽ<+ Vo34Ak>pVȕ[5Le>[&)!'# A%Fq,Y=#!xN Mtd%M(KZ /w- b*cUSA|56 ,X'Є)H M3.YPVD34\E$`ER d(x"# HՃqZąN ,e26=:=>^,' 2jj<۪SkS@M>Ušh?i办^ Jg 8*`A`+81  0)@\ +80Mڍشe]j]VVdk}I'QX$nˈ8Y>!<Ӊa^^Px gVҁ-P_#@FO_cKC0UX.fxIb%v%`5LEVF 50Ќ`K[2+ E=i=a6f\~ _QP~Ǿ O6QKK!Z@SH6m557(<S`l1E4 8f 8Neccћ\vc Ndldc#[H;-hd0gXwk_ekB:046-5W֏%ڜsFaX WeG(hVA@W' ؽe<]<`,m&PaqUv@ȥ}j)*iW~gMρ ؆by=hÈ  ]E]b=Mv Rtx>~ ddSњ/Y ֈ"!nʎ -qlՈ6VVWk8r ?me8 `LPVRQVv8S1r6Un&bK~ض^"M6<.Y-hϺ[Fo92guo`BXsxA?5fqFa Xfu&t꜁C'@(pĈ?(>%gٳIrJw0fo&yf90/324PYT?sRnuup%@ >@p vaOC6 b8fxGg(`q>KK@ hX3y: quk ^]ܦMuDs{gZ,g:c#/5^X ]QxWr)y\0ympOxwXU효!(z zW7Y.gA?mgnr=br:pN`0sn\z_s{-2GtzoX wpBno23z vwe8&!/A~06al}LreξxjUnN8.GAP=xP D!d 4t8PH "G,i$ʔ*GZ D#H`S?v a2OAɳϠ:i3QdJ~)D:I6ll! 6r"ZBVҭk.޼z/ws 4dp8 sp,2 '58b9%9C/HN2̠Ő;΁-*T F,3=8"I1#6ڲ`AϺ'Vq2n?2i$nTiIfiYIF_V<UVa5 eXLZlu\%x")[ "p?5T<XPa5<$?J(%X`?P"ƣhͰ*?sSSq%\s3pCl`E[A2hF+Kx(@DYFDTb_-L5 REwcO$B? 68*VC0<рI+pYi!\2" ;,i8. =Z?5B)&vύNhPҕ[:?5`Kh^YMW44Aq)ǜso9gw0AJޡTtQ½uI]ZV"EA8J%,Tը'E _NAx놺UojDM;4iYFf5f@k?r-ҕYRض(Xa=Z٦OԃcF ]&n)'v'w,/4?Q=}UZN ԫ K5Lf!j SW1<1 c%HH ӛ<ɧH5:!oaPoemR<^Z <KTiu+ٕfӉl<8(g(20qI ]:1KDO)(HvS t;$5?VuHޅ=ڢ4⭯ol(8kk!W=kA\#ַWaC,%XRz/QXƵ \r*'`A?B9Jp *a@p d4P|p)DBYDZDA+!͐:2hU|%,c)KXJBE8)'%-J."s#(HDR/=+MRadojP-HExYH#\'8E6 E7f@Ss7)Qq"0HR@!]%+# N\Rp)u&=)JSR9h16O[/j lpۄ$Lkhzm=f\(XM6-n1"Qmr2zoI"MoTtl$*Q Np>hBa<hA( y8I.DIFTt ~)!"Qd d+q:V*ђ6<-aC%iW2L{8F&X @CTЄ&RX D5Ġ @B^aϾ҅6 {A\94 \NX^g(I<ɏܽ *_]Ѥ >aJV&Jjk%յ5L{vt:B C `"\> p~pb 0@u'yU5NU{4󢷓e XA}ux2$eCq5V h'lDm^b)"ű[Cw&:D cɎdL9xBI 0=U eR4R'S,$ 榵GBS%=LE]kW4W n7`6غ y)ΰ^ p~*+Ā'mX7T: \ X%MLQQ*-nF=>7J hIiDP;uLmeY2Gce |2{۶5UKںV# /$0d\x ;Iދ֊,\4r@k- (A ]3 4ꪭ]TƣG|N:ԛnYRt:+3od#E!Ym`2[3{4(Y],nhKaz.'׊ 9:泏yM sx Ci"Yi2ǶkE%,BrPv(b1Pv ctQ0{/7:eM&0a$ݪ=I@FrMeLRٶfh1ߣ֨%eF.oZՍʝ3&X [Ƹi^PTˑR̡ l?,AD, }tIXUQHߔ !( kM Qj8A7YMu\ϵ x T J Rc9de }|찊́4A(Yv^HN^\1)K] !Ԭ< F4Qfe8O / !u jR!E? QyY˜ "t,Y f}R%HZiak(m @6Y , H,F`] "9"j* } IA-I%F&n x|b4 ] @^:ڐ @ǙWiaTh MbLAT$# 3^D #T@"LKp?hȞ!C8#!:@ 憔={ Y)Xޕ!]m>f_H@؍ ARO$F)S+RD՟.+f?ōJJ`aĢ5Z6O\4hDZTƕXԀ aԅYgV|&hh&]4eZ Hm@‰9aO6jfYDl:EUOj0cdB]YjBMDAT%z\T!́T #IEH %&mDJl&Rj.gM?`]XQ)BJ(}6yByaASL=Fee.y&'I  %P%}cF; t ^lZIerB\ZBhu~,bMHd_)_ hñ(ITڊQ(.hV1^d!WPQH%T_z΍=Aw#ͤ$V&h)؛i .HdZ)Df*ȩ>ȜUp'\`vJTgA)OCDM2TJfrA*++ SIꨨy*Ŧrj /W0ةBE*@Vh$T jR8eVUŴޅߝؾȵzݎ*mEҀFgwب Y:22ʽ6ټhDBtʺRhHK,hl) i]Ƣ' ]lGZdY ?e!|#FN-VN-UQ1NJ,lm yq' m ̸ͩnE jAY0.?ʦ%ht/Aр}0גVؚm-> ږ+XRFC|a+4u!fC\Ǯ~CɨR Ҁ-J"/NJbP#?-~g ր""LT ® .hI%Ư?X&mE/*oC' @2 X1A%w't'ץ2L2)16Gm>{'+ |k9knAZ0W/, PDE313`2ې%{PR4V5vi6)Ck7-DmHyqmw T(;13(@G>?2$_1\,4sAJ%tDC?t5JQ1 ]c憮Kjv6c.(!H1DDDhX0t$*NI5QQ3%^+^D?Q< ]n12N2f$|A+\d5L04?[J!\Ks]u_G^z5T Q5GH2<{ @!@{>1sA!X\iuj]6uSv;{um MAD5A0B \ApgYtq3h#7`R#Oi4tG7IMu+uxndQ4uw 5"u( pӷZw[4ws8L5x2-?hmCN4vDCtCda~lu"k0!0s@/W,Bl꣼{<ܫ7xBTAX? 4xaB \")R_*vJ ?DaL3iִygN5""Р3 T5ziR2b /&}HG$I0oFZWEteK2T^"-`Ĉf AM&:(q"F,DȐ!,Xx "@ eeRHwn5B6$sƁ8V_A%˙7w'DϩW~}`mXEZ~*"2Ed͢UV$n`ݼ{ <["2۬BRSg46\ D:Ip8-!Rn]|m1 ̸F* uT$3='9PUWar14MLM Jʂt[ ҖW_,W]'H yA{W-~[}KY?0 LB% +<'uA{d0h2֙=Sߠ肑5a_acub,\.z9/歏qGI7zUE8E*}i:ۉ\VZ_8 TXA^yB=mz(9j{ AXd~`Cpeji ֛`A 8J!<`(8!6!r>7 3>8p;a&gUT.' ICdl| 0d LXɑkL.1C S!^.`#aB)b8"Bj.VH `T*YJW4C6 TQ N|HPҒ~"PqG| ^R>9̀rdG]jXPvo2 `*x]vDHCsU  | &8#!H&-p.AI@BQׇJ.`{ ` @Va Lo=~V)Z3 11j #-I!p(@Bwb`s[ԥ?,\2NXB-.nճl<*IiG>u9wy79s;G<:Jhns - V@hȪ#X $XP'lW ]hA _8m]?P $ JA% eq :ܣ7)f-P_yId' JTxJn`[%|w% O'A?A,$"b;ߙ m?p`v #ݵ@w DX 8?xզ9iO{frmm.(| T X2e98nvWRuO,_'paX5lvTK3L4=393 o9Rf6E 93(( GsܔR(*3577[ qC6k:PZ*3^5qW!lܪ 7!9@dc4ݩ:S-7 O SA(m` P0)PtF @[, |OFg4턲sz."ҝlñ\H@FTINa2BRKZ|@Td KA'4LôTCscQPK۴eOɖӨo;9ClJ MIM=dHQ]zOl 3_4?5ܮOBF<J?WtPݩP]T5"ؑrs o RQQ+ V@2)PCW,SI%:5 | zt?ى)U/\Ց( 5R.t"SYY)Zm` h T;7B-39;<1+[+b @܀谵3[O dA_Q4""f Vr8;n> Mn09h(4\XO  Z9^6TCMfǶFr:`g4rS9 4B3cvLmDnPd@n`kA5`tFF;l#9R T:{ u ]-tŕ[ up@nKRp9rTr{:(%PwT3{n`*1i1 #c7Xdu d:hvwQF ^RwӀ @4|lW6p׫F} :*6N~7L]"Tjw6T ؃ ׁn" (/Bcs:BG<@-АaOx^`Z@B`؂vSkyW)x;  B~nXRC5b؉"Jf؊X'*<.xO ^" N"+8'tRXfAR Nmb7"@ @XӸ1ׯ 'gq&I6*>Swy @NVY/^Ykٚm^HE=clB@+"+-*80FM#b!挡Yaau‘ٟM.s9oyoFae̡ژmca*A,x9W'O'z^t^8=g`odzjZ6 Jw ><qFA9bAZm:!ToYIЧgb}?\+1'ABA?jCzaن;Xڥz}`EC$@ 8~GA+nbvڴBT;UZw)Lte `/3g` Ā4?{(C&FY(X)ԥO "Y}Vf[~A, ,B'j λḣ9UƖ2kB;"O Z B;$ |B@ &ћھ@%bs z|K&5_ܯ[{WY;K[C0 X‹-2BHƀȋ\C<՘ķčhvub3ab v\{\ EŸ [2Xa ,]ZE` '"@8DxnR s2\a*p"m"]vB 7'WŀZƌZq:|l(a@KNGakk wr]ͭBu '?z+vazr5ƿ 1kr YF քE<0dQrVz뮳tN{cdwRVRk\sV} F3OFЕC;赐*Ad T:ES>H*[JDOܹ?Jq99+&C¸KxXH"J ˞@0==JH\eБ $} @%5N sh4_n~A D"-;VK'X8_ißdtt mT2 6F|qBBBX`#ܚf"0F 38*aV[_y a<_tؽq15|H1$A4j#TnsH!aYav1Dq!AH]=Ԣ|X6G <&5%Ds?4?V p$t',Dl i!Jl,_ "w HyPEA  bؒte 5-SMћ㬨E-ZNw.pWOcA4*8-xN]&ŽS*i."{B ,Dd5m~nQ*njޑ!rjԁࠩSv5AM-J f?.D 1$p ! 46D4l7Y\6 f@\_MlL~ǰMR]׻J !bd +y|&K.6r)~,2{EB?R+4^b#mdc-D<dž}nXz=AV,6}^FF:, { ¨x ?#D2~?-d9^4aq=jr%s5@$ QJxJh<+: яt c>Sqq56Ҁ\b#9L%LS ?0j}Q黬r>gc_rL}˥xw+0P ,Tm wjpg$7Ww8_w4tww1q RqK qmp42Fn.׆Kx~sHk7vq($uw"&Yi}#69X ;xy=v^|SixQu@x7nL(Ug$'!c}"@W(bH\~[4'Rp8Nlzij׆eKb!4yY rT '$( Z{0%G&=%'x2OP8=|[i0o39Uw\78@>x~EfEG*ԆS2)+qR}ʸY3@b[(⊯uFnGmjᨐ3Gv}dKr4@r8_Fo42f((PB ]yyaظ57 HXKx44"`Gj<$IS&sc?{,H _0`Q:YE^f-.wx| c0,XXqpɚY76$ĘQ:m^*!CcY/eٓHᐃWɨ}Vr Y WI/2 j,Bbr3h(g-:X8b6Q ZiuuWW>l$f"C>O:;Ii1qr) $ -A&ПK Hc!PeiuK+.R(jE;a$ag0`!Jqkg!+#",un'S '0="b:< C P堶pRa ` PVr G*_uOk KRJIRk= a&QaѰ p@l;m  m˶`K1ۓ j?TGX,fy8: ˼h{ @l[ 0k\x('%*8(׫͙48+$ͫ0˽ ۻCܝ3QܾVД&pz9KTŔQ(0`)è+ `a l;曾aJ:0_ylWȄ5b3-,}09 m yLs >L0\ȼv۲$@a'[tD;cʦa@tϛ  kB˻L1v #5k}+ &j+;8: o< ` M4 cb",Ɨlh9J'0@6[-I }mѯѓܻxψeL*)L!~;, .7-7qrˬ\?'UԖ|'Ҝ"S.L/eSm.ЩՀ1WOPb݆u0х"0pݾ, }r ru-hv؆ NP0C0]hT^Һߵ=G<-Eݵ£}!gp ` B~Ә5!ݨG!8Xl 1nL09m"&pFp7B qCGFEHݳ;XsN4yV mmx D`bN=nhKknqpJC!f<}ο8uRIq89‹b#/RPD= hO>f. 듞JQMT.SFLszpRU =?%_-ӈ2J9oze\AJ(+[-Y[`໲bO_ơ'}"D(protn LI5V_ ?// /1=/ğ ?П/O߯?֏?_A 8U,pÅ (XĈ$HxBELq &c"'SBd擙PRA1֬A"?РiDU/\ BĈ7|2/@АC)=bQܹ`ÛWo^<֠X`…^8q W`б'/q̛+t hŤ9Wl3ЬG. Aͭi킵_7g q8ʓ.<ЏSWLpg_̸ǐ#kY0O\O(U=@@ 0:*hꩨʇڪkJKz+.k/OWdZ𬲂.dFMxT-܄4G~\H#"q$|(TK*2ܺ+;8$H:ɾ Ԡ! )L" "0 /7ۘ ~bN`G~ТQDJ)J*J+K,BK-$\Dp B/Qւ` vvׅ~a "6Xf(veőfv!i[knݶZ6\mr re\wӍwyhW|_}W`"h^L[M 1ƈ)6*6ӌ)2[h dhTGt+S 70O95:qT[R8( X‚g}kpk&lF;mfm44͗b Ij8ew *s9AIK%̴BN1tP=@٢z.2@Rl[lcvo=ww? N<]h$ PnȂ>oWB2`q=g'u'N5õ^& F4W8@ЀD`APdA<1B QHLp#T$D`l|:+|V9 }3  a[HшGDbh?2Z(BRorx?bF2G ]B Wƹr1v9ih_Z*4 .@H8dDd"HT5[y$x-b .(B&Ey@(|+jdaG>Hr >i Imf09Lb&fUЅ ah`\IMnY4#l)ӨT,}G(d @rm,f>O~&kh@:P.ᗋA MG8BziR3"8d! &)M95p0D aIv2fz dmg?uSSkגp@ 08ЈN('=8z)*hNV/4eYK0"Ɂ.=%LXW5k2?u(h2E$\26B$(E M^sGCSsn N}^@~vo?8WJ/6mns[Nll;D H[a k"^g!$L-4UlF٫TZ5 #WΑ  X ,UԿp RB:\Yjt@ T1!@^Sr\#Eɐ? NRf٬z6J[Z B)~+#.Jo`8XUp< iuY^g.nyk"X@QTXx!qaT"pqT-jߵ* GW6x~z0##1EŀBLԧ l#ZbPFuA[8֋o{ƪwf bx@7!hlIcі#D|b/"?\N р_l];? j6ky \ulX` Q8w>H&܈^ cb-tw9Kr9B _P/D(PJ a lw] q8xҧ<р8ZWwfaPjqd%LB.рE S!^:-?xMQh?V ~~Ġp@@u#Y~? +/|; x;' .{^܃~acB@F;@Z؃HaB#L:L 7hC7C{7h8Wҋ}ӿ++HFD8DəAȋ; ө45d<=(FȂAպAQdS>L/0BS6纝^EM(0DZCȀVD5>^8ŝrzUtlWVׁ 83D?+G}JFZF(Cm/XL~f< - hGsA,tD$ C^J!z5TFT1.a}74IT+?YX?[dHD*,YwȂ@t I~G:80:)8~X/@:\J8(/>7OcR MxH,;3L"cup|ʹ͎#k8 ځ85T[Lc@|j/ہ*ɨ*<CA[˛'])LZ >76L(8R N*0˃HTKhX[ %`Z+(BTSܔ(L0!gp PBU"/*E~OQ*M0 P=S[COò(̒tU; μ<S4=U`U|=ZSYd5%?B\bC;SܩIPY֝M,⠿= ؁JX@| OO KQ„=T$NP/2بX̀;=XGO3퇨l\XzLؒ2\FU ]7ŋ]bֽ0<%p%Sٜ>ִAU5KETi"W("4P TQ`b*\N2URʨT]Cc/(lCʶ}[MO6~UKSUPSTf0{͕Ջ傁% gM@YVm ףŤ-RZjZb9`{Z}Tx& S3bA!%҃`KUR%*~h=[2O͜CLb0;0:ZqYQܼpS0=FXPZ5W(%]se3B]]ݩu|}5Zh&͵~N(][8\-IN4Jm:d8hX2`8̅J;zXT: Zq YVm_DZ6` XXWܵ]$`ߧU֭Z%ZX~'9Pӯ`Փ,\SpZټŋ^8-;*]TZΝZC}Ih W*ւfbh]EȀ`LPbҚ3<20/c4a͵sՋpXcY=ق\]Y!8P$d1Tq'ބ E(Bp80( 8(-&`.NdbҚ58XSF\LSS Z)F̓S.{|gXc$jgc,JEn:;H+h( 0Lhք:e(+)[)+u>I8ShZ)Uee\%f`X0~KbT1CF轨x iP 0XHѭ0 (Y%*9Pe+*DT+56փZ9ͼ@.:N}.{g1@VlP}ƀV&8b.L+ddFdXf(4 j-75^: ! d$*bϴOb0P)nTH =<EU%HH^.2XV' c~fnbe(` ɥy-8XiSSA*m`޵2\ͯ^|+ޥ6̷&vyc% j% a<NfnoL(D8?#&΃5w^^{S=We*W)o[ˀK\ؤSiEfDqo7 ~^nU5z&8؀TPlDE!b@0?8%rXz{8=*ot:0 Ƌ+?Xm=`Gs[ Xv37 s:U rߥ(>,N Fays\8'Oߥ]m+8q/w(OCP1WTɖ°\/9 v"n4Rrvhi7~k5v;80KO>pxt&6e Ұ  QHxGֽV e[OJ8wَȁor]ZɃt/2 zki܂KUc/PV`:lƫ#HG8LF@q6G!(Y%j%y8_qaa'f_aTipfn!+JOgS0hP X{[9Hd#K1{[a:a"qqх|Џ1Ё"X }}[V_~;|\}&uww]A`-=||@vm1y'p "L%JA*T9ŏo$ɒ&OLr% pxg΢!CXxO :tH,= @ xqGlRUx4 ?E4QEf"ȲG^HqELpcFq N=PEյDvae`?x 3J܍娜* 䄫QٱEjOxT>I+?$2~lϚ-j`?hRt\6@%? 2dnQb6CYmT o}s]|'{D?M 0ß#5crC"@ 7%+tA'L7S Kss Y`FA_HECYKaIgaNPKzcu閶.z.?6FhVXE[lQFT2Ƞ`C k~GN kXFE#S5bG].ɜ?dW W :LЃyR]40=]cf$b:6,(KMpAVe{_^غWD|3>*~?h? pS7TY iUu0?2~D*H2 n wD-^Ti?FbTa4y@*x8qZ GԄ0rGA Z Uew %x B'[OPnL?3[ʗ>0D]ԈBFQs>5H76f)b2R22XT S9NUDUs:X0TBHdJ% Xqْǫ멭p F Z=o}ak68ZtCU;sP +̓*b'^?axeۛٝƱt)h(*$yBvA^ ;q+[܊x9[ 38Jm0 &b&Lmkr\>xn-%^j՚/L+~/[xY vxd _, 0VAl͠. 2$?*Ai!`BfX$լ"-:Jܢ\fLZ;FD?@[[?¹,1ʼ8Ɵ1+RDxWJAL24)?b01 !@r&,&{U>1QXJ(iv3c2,bajb&PPB@`K8V zG2:!awƽ$,Xbe 7&[~! 4P՛}O?@<s@ , .H!APMAa'U/ҥwɍ'=yf̓(%fH' G D!'UD *D=3f4_Y()ΕAW:@#U2Zׅe @|qDIAeŀZY%dux*堢v8RSX V ?dҝd$IQvb@DX LZ)b)[i%(-ZSa!<&FtDV}h?iD8߆}F'W.PbVwY'x.S5NF幢?@ߗUiMf& ?HniĪ2(6\ V1,fW kA+?r0Ma?D^Y>kZbZ,(^~_uLwrk yɲ칚Akݽ+fFcH˼,l?8T0\ڝt?@Æp M@hsu ,v`u^춎GDƭg\LhAhL?—[>C,-\/Aיn@\ee-C򱀩Z%gA-?pdJm**TkwA޿@oX+T@,A\fB >.+@"7A:LSA,F#? _ Y ?n@V@ǪV,4]jzm2rDB**>1";O$@4B$끯ъ踣@0 $’ÚVA/X.J'#m(BI;B| GqvZD~!Zp"W%Ciށ?Bߴ *xCpީP.©\vTl )CFk+~KdV1B?lsVGD**"]q`#\@A$A4Jn֒2ACY1?e' n?"'4'9xo$c_A6)^?X4/@)1T?܁L22a//Ȁ.`AA򰪁i@!  !?32PL3^f@Vzs]\ ~4.AL9lB3$HBT2<$ \=4׳4 >@Vton- WYL4WrCa'c~%gqUm3Ah%_] *[+@!<?c(?\dQ0AukC ԁ2;łW`LSۭ>(ſ>2ŰS}7@?@(%JA{(+LL30R&NsMDfҀ|F1DGO>.\ ː?1Rbܜ"4t"VfCkW__Yb0,Z(0(0n]KrȰo_{9"'MtFkҕPt`#ˬP7]r]'N0ZmW`v!0ᇍb=8&1@Z~cB2jMOL6ra>)+慁Pޝy絮٬g+}0!VjݠᲮɼA"5i 9< !D9Svaa[QFgvT]JLNi}kWʒUs.@T8plIfaM,TcEW1 lͨ-AP lN@Ҝ*!M q9Rg)6[)WVv0a&dw,Ge[TN29Agz%ud3x.|oHNqE)5v, qgC>%8AVT®84i|B%:"BQ5ZL6L`a}"1aI]!Q곪{+TMe˜UK<̨Ƴ(a<9(vvw.!NiZP:lhiSCHnR)F=6&`2̆S^TQ5P1+\mwb\)-Mi`U^&=R!#~Z*g?oSr7XdV""mHskvK"@蚯Ꭸ_yR\A2^ [9P%:&e X70# x < y7TϢOdh u.:c"**p< n]az׮gۓ8е."G=Qt :LTYTs l:qr;^C+P AR&3ms{[1h'e%_ M&:aQX e%U"Nt0be_CM;|'*`r bzhvnBSB `fA5Xnib ;9dVKZ]lၠ#MviH!r@> _! 5l퉴!Q8q;6җlժޘAnrov!EK[mb sԣ f{@ZAOe 87)w#6[6W}cf9-3awE+wV ܁YafV40N-uEHPdՒ &CrNABAu*#>Aխj0w e׊ vY+i;[K=w̦TYE֠s!VrDI]I/jqUwyrNv D1:% 4._ҢĠLB@66[6/ ~. 9@~94@~VV ;3;".S00(r-;%rt3YEXEP&39#l2$뎱) C2+j s?R1ϧ=2;N7պ`&4RC@qk/–s%932's A+thTBH=沢n# zAC?=3n y- vR"KYp `Tpf!T?~M<ЎHNza{,1 (@;DE HK @Df42ڀ `qLXC$)4]TNHխ2NU5KhBOuDhPcٔL;.a?iCX)B TcTK$ԟ̂ GIC=)0iLdUd&L@,N9.arY2)Zov9Vp6n-3>L8,U/>Ak|0$opmvnVfH7PqeV26CJlEa*s#) _y3sbƲ\l+L z4 ))wXwD:f 3d(ml"@Ox@z3#N/SA'#b5RIm j-h|w }n&6w`CLjC&)nN )/'SD\Yڠ\2x2ծOMUlz8=gD lwԷ̠(d?~͆LCO)fe#1&) R w-649zj3i#\ ”7yq Ä68C4\, * q Ty~HA}0&x@=9Y)ZDŀ8${l+R% 9Yc 9LZ a ,r&2P ؕq޲  tMHmW?[18}δ`vEՀCc֢L@&*`ZA@ 7o F\uIC T vbÂRzX6lD`_@98Dd'\*ozJl_A *`ZX^ l +ڌG#g`@/-B 4q2@WY),Ϭ`FHB= [;E]ѰY]5>Nc_+0cTR9\"+!`-{>!h3[D[Tc:1ڻ"o[ pJ"|oC%YS"0wC"e)ZE[C~5E` 8Vn@`> Z9ɃyH4/ {2@%?F &qc<^N:iL, U ǭr ` l$ 3@[+4U+3 lc1 #=4_mOyVOY[WzC4-5@7No%ꋱ@C|ĹϿ`t菓m_N1J2x@V˩:OT6%dő˱~`zVo V&meA9c-Ea\R=>E >n? [f<A^ (ڳ}ϹĿ]p݈qc_΀<ŋ )>:+>64;6R)>Bꑾ2GH$sO1~Ai{O)t,PVDOqs6^)X"W&a@M]B7!u'`^浝ϻݻO\pA}m#A %/@T:Ӛ/)I꯾] MV( /PP#` zby回EWv&E`Y6|Iު~۠Z;z^!8 (. =k?]"1 E 0$.,Bxf ,PAB0PpB,jÒbĸ!IaQKp@PJpzBH*]ʴӧPJjUSj5i Vڵ,ҙVi0֬K1 xUǯo_i#o )iE0/& 4_)O$K1F? TD&Mt"DA[!CXxo :tHߣ~Lf '4?1ָ89XGKp C<d-KPTHeQx7?7C2iP 'SEօfhi Ua=CZ(P5\uݕ^} E |1U\R EHYf)f0?ikVmo W'Y8%m (`'$TR'p⠃n&GVդPXStHhYߥm?re^ŗdf1 <Tt8)REَ} +lTp(CD]~j:lvmƛo '\ # Pm0q+iPrj U<{Qh2eq8ꍧ c$qA?3tk:J2ktB%ZKfgv&Dž[" A /CT/L7#ӄ RUꏣrTG HIb46 ]3dŞIЇh{hD k,ejm߲)' .6B9Z7TLCEa}gT^O숎V3AZC^˃Y8lc89?EV`J T0D_sw"{Xb5#hF s.~ۢIUta/j\يER)ICd! G*Jh<rdAT3ի,Z9EHBG=]dٓXh$@ZW8!nf֘žǽgXa& J H$Hj` 5P&bӁL XXA;b9"GpAHB(#lt'ɖŁLT"DY2-RNV bXDф1fÏM3(h!\A2X>#LZaR"p>E.\V`~H9t26|@PB`D! b]LWI{J!فO_%FBx}TLjȘ;lO8=[)0 @ |X0 ȎPxNp T@b"x ͕]PANaN PĶt4QU.;e[c ԑpHYpk?_ l p6@ @ie8=@dj4NAQd XUXH:aԨAi1\rH0803S8#LLt'xHI@N  OMaEb!c&`-@``uu9ƈAOaK WJasPs!80f|yh6'UO,AO5Qei!6 fUF#r7 t@NQ) BIA }iQ ٞx"R $b@QXٟ+UDGY0 ]TP/7 }dG$>_ #$xt ]1NAd FpQQHZ6ڟdʆFӁe5qG|Ü7POG O4wFsPV:*y%hj/|5RZvb5Fr s}%W|Pfd:D95qaM/=@ыI2"Pʱ \{կLL,_Mafgijn s-Lwm`{m]ש,<#bO0 ܝ ,؊ؤf}ـH٘Ğ{آ]ڂZŦƢZ^|yc43pV N4İ26֮ M6y=My6hyFBP(WvPZ^`tqz=]vt`<yiaR8{6v=^ 1\<ǐZUtv,?6` ($dU@@@@;Pj{ݾfy*.T^qx'In(9J+Rnf~Fnq[G7v~Mn|U;0x^;)wt^閎‘ 9gun^'n3S+_;0npBX65>\=?^^(HN!#"ߞܡ6oz`^t1]VppPtqmpP@PPZ>yz=/v@ń$_#<RN/o0qPPEZ^PEU @P^`NfOU?1>`@; Uf_*.'"h`#_N >2Upteߡ^;y ?^pfOB`@_/ oP9 $XA-caB:X5nG!E$YrB(LFlQ†1eΤ_?9qߛ~vڏC/7mOPsfQ7ęNAƁ/) K dլ8󒇎iE}Z$|Qaĉ/fEC%OQIt|UhUm` T7ͦ]wZzV;lZ_X:Pk5 +9\غȕoQ'^ 'X;gß]t~twkU8j( (vAj" (Aʠ:X@12:²+oE[kjA a:ʆl`<8;8*N0<*>L;2C3?PRnΩA" ׃¿FW+ :ʎ[}C(8$##QĤ 48>P(!5:ܟ*z:(ǞŪ)hrsC \fO*+; ?R͟Y~"?dсg *(yyG}Oؓb '|0XVs8fc/)Pԁ'IJ>@D0P$MkH9ַ`,fQB0FXؖ Z !P ⓵؇~sxƩ0bD@zdE0#^!Y&-2qLD3$@ 5&Ue1B2'cHV$! n7atۑS?CR"'`DF( :h,psE" Sdg:3xJxbydof@-~xHY&S'$#+KmC|Uk\Zfgmo'ڀЅ.la e(~+@Za (::@^5vpWw8bqbSUɥv /q^':>z.'}Mzԧ^g}ֈ?04hb}UN)\x03 ##iѵ\;P H'aoy62[ >j;4 :㼣S?k?3c(4E?3;"%H/`"ԃ5\lI L>В 1%Ĉ0AIAA@پ4zA?9C<=+kh1BF#BDٻ(CXD!|DH 4d /eB | %c3'@ \`'XE-'ZȁM7C[>ȓ**7\9(Bi;4<9mC< ѓ:!H9G,LPGGz*,*h$`KHƂX <T98iiEiiq$n&M* EQ9@a xl $o6p ?q$>A@tA5pG|0HMGK1h|ĿN<8Șx5sSԻ0ǑI 31%v14 ''a) IB ۓ¬X¤ڲ-hɚA <CtZ Gd19 L`)BFc0,ͱ,;K Bn2JDS{Kˁx2 EA5;  0<&h Ҽ->C\JsL?A$fPDFtD~3G pDF1 H lB θ@1Z$/0%ܩ2+Rp2σ EKP aRdRPC(Pȑbä 4iSM4? I |#IՂՁxIQ1v13R՜3&5]`_VpPo<֔ArdSzB09XpM;2(LN,8@*r]@uȀ|@xGNzWA'h) ŋE_LL"HF`.Y1ƈ#/܈= `خ]HC39c-=|MˀD1Qp55m B=Xe4j Zq%A=ˣ=ve8@գR`G褪RPF6hl?m \2>;4JC  ~Ӛ%S(2}]MPH$?d'$j) 0Z`N-51ٍ҇`%2[tyC \]VLx*UX$ ^P` EpDVG)=NPNa2lYau6hmZ.5_$F\v{R\0`ec}R HhƲcP8,2U`=SlmIQeQQѝ'TQ~\U_iU6'haF a1h]"~XMVb݇4]BQ#+U)qh<-T<4聀[Ź}+t2>[DE)؊AY-cK=u4LqK .rud:dĥ!M>Gk~maDf4H_Ndp}1—ӜwFy~Kg CLQd0 U LY4=ώBZ$뚄M#(BCƐ2iF;`PusB(X@`(5+2"fjxei=Hn\~ۖa~j~:DfgdxNt뎨x5k@Qk,T(9E(L"տ&|Yg] M̅no&o݁>1i5zߊEoۼ[:B,ۺ|7ò6mcFmuY ΖENd;BC,hl668@Nmnxn\ NN{8F6K'!dq!We~UZRrb # Ǧp+kѫ}m /pdafnf |Hmf=0gt6gWnYNU _Nmgn⻕)WPslu-W&nu0?hu0WE3Z/9ls 'm.7Cp Ȇ=e|Yd Gt5->u^u*U'%`Ku*vوYDI&09%>NokcBd5žo4W0hزI,v18zs tu7!8xG,GmܞS?zF&&燇Tф7mqśavb$cleF `R\0|̷&|ȇQ&s2'l®07REA9Ɏu"WbsO[Fz`zrBtAd0> 3d5qN6`/t],:%]58_G"Ƌg\a2H2`9Yx+Hf[ū [xy+[(Pg '9 C Ԁ 7r츑?8h8ac 6xl钣J AőH\I 8H?DN\ |ϒ D2 :7˴jײ)s&͚6=xOD ~zLjs zwB`1Bpb':L )_H/MHc0g^!vl)qԖm%9(Q#oKZp_9.<9ҧSn: Nw\Qx x%?Kz̙5oC@AcJ*sP@I$R8ČO2 3,)‰?nTB\$U?C^ `"`Fqe!E ,Q& ZG4CZA-Zkulawi!iTxi!Nm{j9'uVB-aqqtnrGM8ēOg:Ӂ?l?\O/`O#Va#8`X9<s@rf,()Y9+ GWӢ+$x*.kN[` hfLWIԵN &lY4/~|XP{!aԲL A"BEE/f8͌фgShО)Ѳh3ΉwnJ0erp@ u~W/ю#Lzʞඇdf3FV0M=得l. mF?&C6UD #vd95Z>sf&fULda\&De 2^'$*JYJ@3EqT;yԹҦ>iK_#1 6(TBA]`}0T@Ěu}G n{?~= 2P )ONe{ZjpJݣ?vʍ؃uUiHfl_6yϒG _ڠ$&V9w { {`[4*ړB }1)` h<$9XEҬ#B6|nPd[WnVR/%m3FܴlMkpC],V,#Ѝj&TwD#1t8Cw]FsFsނHQf g`t|ےj̯drdn`/3#T01.4gpd 5qļ/ULH뀅ȽLX-qݍq2qR9 v  @?Pr 's\L+^Ԧ &d[/ Kei1*_f;w$ O9ϙԮ1犝 m# =;"2HtmUkˏ4ҦU|F^Mtل]Oٶi^ R7E!r# u׳f8aޠ+1v*6]̡ NX䚵!o%Ar*vi  yZ~5codd7qy5$ e@zp=c;xX:No\CVU52-1V'gõt!J~4X'X@ 6f>q*ؗǼsbh!Rq;c:'̀@_ iD? G'pTB/]m^A_I<ޞV-X c :E Q2$=NA½jouPp^ U e|eupLP9 61LB%jVH݄3z0oyYrU]FPh\ d F qDNE!`u`_upz|@&(c^R BH؀ $.(h}Y )`\ `񃘭f^tS(]rA- A?KZxIa! @Ę "B ZPA5^[XAlAPȀA  A$nEW8(ĀUr?Gl(-* [u\ #JL띝Wa??ܡPNI@} Kb"~c[,up $_ S&nb'~b(b)b**!b,*Z-$GAXX}5I p \,W%56 a|i]E`J$Kd#LJ8bGB (( Vc]b?#'z"(")"*b>)]-?N  - AkM LI`did F,AE5@$`FLXPb%d &<"#/#SS_-X dh]EjAx>`|y8 BGvI]GpQA%z&tj <7B.dcdRP&<<*?gg"ThR咕&W&Y|fe7E&Y&j}oBpHUqIT8PEJ̀vO(Q @'A#4AD8\BS'B'P{&|fA^ mDBzc`~F`D, b4Zx2Z lĂ=h~MJЅ6O@~ ?Ђ?D'h!D4?\Bz!\i[@2נ΁AdX)?7 X[]Im+ihKEԀ  D!*D}jLO3C30?$"@Y?C!Sƨ#j Aflg-&.nX^ F H,ܓf$A_r㨪E$֫ykԪ،!¾C-܁?"yBZ?0q+PA&}`\'v1ɵ1RP%R:.|HZn`4N *cbhE?#Hk±&6!r@UEU@Ƣ:y,jAg/hݯ8a\?`Y[K'.@Dqʼk9.ޚn"` O.?r4Bi'))6+h@֊qmx=?Lb"Vn0 U0C&L{ hN \@KP A yA(ms]nhul<|b/l.hfhhjlD׊ioAԧCW)I]ư^ʞx>rF#,WpNXq`oI;Vf<%=*=bڟ&@/別(z˗n&lSGp]~?q !IDZp ڜ^px^ cjXoA fA d[)ńg_nڌ*1wD%?2`%o ’SokI ӑPe cR16+&kmp1?Ɖ@QEkr$$F@!;)"CpD#N35W5_36aXr$0'w~r `" 'RR &9*,?^ԑL0S*xع2g&0N_@C*H`88kq93JK#^Q; Ȭ?A0B;J=)st>",AtATT'׈?t#.{{C/ /|[T}} 4xaB 6tbD)VxcF'g$LG~tRZX"4Mt(D %Z0D#HpUE%K> ߗ44>()9SE )cpEkY~w8! mN!r5Qe 5h!E .0aZQCltlٳi׶}wB1K!*Y)M?:hn\2CENJjֶLÿg<јl ۞'`3'+驂Sl2*,:ӎBDG^{ȴBEM(BClJ*ᄓGO>HZc ?B+XDj +K=)M#=c/b0+ àKZl Nh#1~2( 3,!`cÅW&6A"?l>INBWNVR?nyb,IVr.C壳 B V XvA͜>-nXm@lo\r,\+DgPb`V-vzM~7BwzGD^u{ScyC{Eؕ(3^%(CMK]_Wwۧ<`u!K0Cw,JP,IiYcWmC@@zpfBA`-;5Ό?8 oѭ`Ij,RTh!V+}n tyl]Tgn uMEMN: @SιV(?5Y+.0z<P!&x2tRy_|L{E+Ud{[s*V& p;5 0BV?ž:G.X4 )lHn&H4m^r(Q"Pgk>Ѕ+&|  O/oO"0ް.pX`# / "O}0na!]FOba/O L(%=>B>S?e?@T@@ @A bAc A/BtB)4B/B . C/D=tDE BtBK4EODYD9EaEETEmEWTFuFcGgjantHsGwHGGHCHtJ4ItI < K gAA_*LL4MMtM bTaN4B4OAOTN4Pu 4MP4QuQ UPPQ%5R LR5SuS!Q)S-uLBk4NVMmuWuuUK5UR5TSAXUSQuXX5YYZZZ[X#UU5VuVBB4C'tC UC]4J4^JJ^t^^U^`U`u`u_``6a _Ia K/K+A;PKn PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw021.giffeGIF89aPPP)))NGGG===```͖000,,,zzzBgggjjjrrrUUUooo...snjėYXXXttthhhxxx444}xtb\Y[[[yrmzwcO888JJJbbbXUSga^HHHSSSCCC|||~cSLLLNNNSNKJFC222ddd]]]|yOJG'''_XT}{y/++¾:65xtqlkkFBASPN<99@@@migLJJlll3..Џ666___vvv ܰאppp;;;皚쨨www777:::###qqq^^^mmmʡECDĽIC>;°jce}]˷AAA>:8KHGutsnmm~TRPf,((%""mll|wvuuuu634^ZX{yxsrqrqpssskyfMMMpkhgdaq533vhc`S!, H*\ȰÇ#JH3jȱǏ 9ީHɓ(S\ɲ˗0[I͛8sg@ JѣH+ôӧPJJj~&ʵׯ`æɯٳhӪ]˶[yKݻь$H"wUο;iШ9\@{9Ko3kެ9VlYǥ$^(yŽxs=Q.;3Ȣiȕ? <8k߾ݳJ5JL4\yr5c{ ͿE7 d\{Ys wvȖw)EXr 4}]pi!?]8_#] s!\(Azb뱄Xz"J"^"{wrV Wpsh_{ft6`!5U diWJWf)v[ԥ@mbYf*)}h&{GH8@MХjQ85SyYy ?2ǵݵJҥtctPx` \xZ!ੱgk/DJ)W\hýz \m>Rڤ?і $jY,?q\SmEoVѠ\?"kmii{@OdЉab$k"zga33F#LuF1?q]?h$e -` zsIr mjƮ!tg2w-q[$u I\BLXк?']GK2ǵ"6;nFXFXD}JEY*^CN1,~R|,,ϔ%M$a(nG@Č&Dà %fzH2s;46~hPC x>я$duNr9NJV jV l ۃ"աp0O:(t?aukڞl%_~mV= {ҽ׮C+QTVZr<(5n  _>u3fKrByLro@:˜ZnۊSaBn0zLn[dT rxnjV  sxe&51kS'n_"w}S- E6Nk$CYyk_纜wXypve-|%t%';ؑʚC +p2 <8 È_ZYr|$@twnkݭo_W,;kFU ;;G~g—~?*~-~&1٧1`?nz `T{ezW{!2q~890Xdieoma? H1`xvkP7wUţd.5x 8r'qߑ[KqĔV^02@Å&q\g:ad8)fXjx/lXnh)pVz@VctMFCu1|7t66Y 2[/1ч{gWg11S[C <`anQ[r1>1(GFr$ou'ZhWcx$/ .2n(`ht$,6UcVce:<Jh6y䨀zw2QaW[fA8~0:hB @jLB,Z/FKj=YQDڢM )Hj]1$ʝO +YjZ_ ?W֥hjl:s-szDP c{ZGf*GHoʧBQu~n*:Kyz٩x b:yz*Q̹ڎj8WzZ髿:z' z^J:ZЊC$R63-jc$bzR{`Sâj"ڮC#%j(PpQRuPrA!Ԧ&4JѯZj"\#Rc.B ] C6SRSBD3®A%;(3[0h2t$~T IX!MrQ : N!EWKE? d+64W҅@+`K'ZW 崀7{O0"MlOy>&ѷur#.Yh+!.!EK*pk+a]] ;ZI˪b/;ī.!Rڽ!Z^V ~+A髾hj Hj 6ӼB10چAǾo|QT4scڵSWLjBETKO. v"<̿J"q3 E.]G*6l =HYYDNDF|D[¶~.3QS LDZl9I\;$+t+k(t k8̡ Hճ;nI "qCp 7 ؞>4TN^~^|Yn peʖBBcQN*_ZuX qo$8_A ` q(Q"jKcE$YĊ'AؐdD1j4Rd1\ 3OA%@%}pG1gndQYFT`ӑOMNI'PjeۯGՊHwdڞcy$+#ɫpK[r-^vGwٟx\2BɊjYԌTW\ Wzl9Uz6]6[/Ѯ emIտ/quf^۵rCO{&Bԁ;a`f' 95X%UX]M,mYb"^g]vu]x}B-%\w_~e/_u::\H~YW:З`WPbR  6y]BH\ 5yfkؕGyWnzh4XY_8rR@ߘZyz rz및FJAazlՍjXn{o%m)Q 7nXF:%;Ԇp6~jadQK#:׉0&)-xt HrEN5=9T=q8;`]{_c‹? /y˟ǻwyN6x4+?oƜTͥnax1((|GW1}@/y tNkG@} 8ؼb'NXaY;Ű"! x"u.! ch&ܡ C2? UDW 6|OM;*j/+x?./S_a B2^ c~F۸1~Sqx?,j0yDd"/|dH4nщ4"M:rHEY.>TUC0hvu?ZV vNU_Buzr[XjVω5\k[ָ~t#BzHV6b` 84W\gE,@c 4 tu%HoCcqzγDKZ8 0>.Bselik}V q~Cڴ[7 231˻nł083af087v[Y#GX-9}&x#G .kYb][F އ=`2q«3 wpHɢn\x"VlW \%O6vm% %-B>>TLfYV~r䢜)qr zL&"cHH }hD'ZщNU=t4bJ9V@@cJ,A-K#%+A;! 3b?Vp!2 \8ky*ˮK(x@$N@ܺ E#Ec;jC沩SҮ'E5bȁt⦃HWH6;CR! ȇȒLiIIIIIs٦lEHHeI\I &ʻ;AFuJJJJJJ$tJB:)\J[KzJܥZKKKK˜iʷ,K)HlHf&T'A$K̹\ń><*tE4ɴ| ˌTT+ʳWb'MMK{zq1CH\͏lM|ѹ3NNNlLa:4L,ͥ SJk4.I#OK#[SE58IOO>xR+4T4U3̉Id4d?,PE ]OLq6vaPet6 Mr6a6P 6 M =Q`P\ b۷nQ }7}6ژ Ie_6 6P]mtaI R;aQ%5<@qdiq3%;Q)Rݮ R894B'4d%4bQ_BD5@wjp9֡pSVuUO mU UEm!R\-QMm Z]T{EU^'B؃=8_ʼn:J:=XX>(y|ՐT{lU=ٽ$|%YIJ4:X](Dh ELMyK}MmYYUگ\yJW~ }YuJhXXeY]Zy ۋ4y݃*>ZM%(T9hXgMܞ]ەHɕ~%Xm p>X\:\U\mX9_݃m z[U-ؚMX4yZ][ETܵW^XPVP_ %e]y.5_S[s x_S_ǽ_XSHeZ_#y.`X`[YImiZ`F `>`>_Ynu dU`oM:ab} Q &~ %`^؆hWX/X8b/Uav8{(V)*D` x=x[ٙ%J 3޷$8a64fae ziD=@.ۉ*c6`)VQ^d њLۮT֚ie!SK%aV>ތ=@*eGe5dS97fDfuEr>asajNg*^gvnd|~g}slDfb~~eQ=HUM&}_{fXӄAy7h_{6n_;O&izDž&iNnh肀]I`A Ri)Rhh]iM[N>=[ٿknSffRNh22kx~j(=@eȨDף]ًڃ;.gEctvjgfcݖFUΞ]^؉m5볶߆cfe잙.<7^%&VXX5]Bh!b\Jo`ShlbFho|.o h'ٞ퉯~]4l mh&sgp(d|;dp*ji~8j3jnGij9qq@"3rG Gi!.'o@#77o߷('7'˞urxs|L)sx;?ocvss/szpȶfm@nmG8=oQݾssu6txtJ'~~<{ZSFs"vs0s1tWZQsRoV[W7\s]s^riFϳ,ghO)wieߵ$j&'+?阮4vv;v5"uw+>xb?cdn4y7_`WavTl>WXYZO 5HgtHwtxJ"ϺyOswxdyq(_Ϻ׆YP"sȘW 0{}iz Y"hCYWP!Bn] ԕp!G' ']h{O `q_6U15q*y)ˏ6 { |Ώq |ryx(3yOu$&G|̖/ 7dA~G @_cIG_~NLji}jt| k{ [tI.2IO_IT>h,8„ 2l!Ĉ'Rh"Bi0rt#Hj i$ʔSȒ/+~i&Μk|ȳ˜@ eфB&)ԡNN4*֧G^eZ5+ذJش6%ڸr3 7'ڹz9eݽ}MŒsFYɓͬ'A$ҳhi:5lf6vVow(l \nm?ypy;Wݒ+uҫsw˻kVfo%]D/h?N]Q%$ ^QمIX!Shrۂ8#䡆Ѧz%t"f6ݍ*#_ecO?Y`5yKecQRs)& %E9hk]֖ ЗgF$f.j&nk.dHd Bɜ{bgSvԦ W4)Zj?^)6Q:*z*i~F )xz+++ ;,{,*,>J+kjH;-Z{-j-z-^{.骻h-uO.ա L5`j6Rɡ! <1hƼ7qH$'y|#kJ`P o )NW$DL IC>i`3l 4) 0-,7AczQ2#"O=xA,;A8qBN錝Ձ!Z $oshI6(BÒnykGBM"*@3%ǝs(H"= C~wIS:4x@'(hSB$t 9M6;hThjG`=<"f||*ZJg4PTT` %B|U) b,YXᰶ*F!IXhZy5$E8Z m*NUښj7"m? Cm'`ݎt^r'[ƅ9GӉvb(  9`y[6~ B`!ְ8" hy+ _d54%B8H°vxp'\ 0Clc8' iDz&[V&@! W ENIhZ^lSaJ!@H2$\)yN0^ty A`yxL`h:Ё1_\_y9*&ԭ" >%^iN`A /U]^BD: a ^^`q:!@]Ba9 0̂<`&@ @|\HS T."V2aDB@A=Z o1vk#$!%ԁ^B\d,/`B$&l@9r3Z@ $fLU=*Bࣼɂ?t@+8?~fh&$mB>fՂf]_Yʇ 1?$ p݄BPBܠ4cH.?d͂?-_sF'A@i8u'*%Xf=[Ζ5|\xcBARR怮 Ǽ˾4?Ё[< RALhLX= *dF)y@cr":<κtJ)[2>K= S4Ȝ79XF%z RH@3D$*GQK4A[q=9S2ѫ; `XbDAҏ!,::s՟^-t=V0g@FTGEL#Rj$\ /U}{< mi&T6+MxhA uEYX5ZAx >S=9qB˟JVvc>5$HD8%`5)RTKʔbJ7TvV_2O# NX辋^Ҩ>1N Dݹf o\iJ"P1߆{Ճ'rȻ~FuF`QR n8zt>D=41M%Xf=lk柏`zȻݧwJYwkjYBl8 j1DD:R?+n84D^D fx [hA Vèx!R׿U9r 4O!c\1$H@*:A'A D`rrAyV X-F% KLS 4@ ۖ@!XI>.AьOHF%o(>He0lARJ/HD"0@h&VG"ZJ@JQ +!B[1;|Db6@("-˕K=0 c#,3Mit8  l1Fc`<:T"rOBd0 Q[ ԰F0!acӅ1L-Ma!0jvHa0Ғt*eQÉPB9# aQc EA :X!čyCdURq|} fǬ@Z*u+BW~"8b$ ^TCz4-jSn@E@ȊܮNiClH,KF\!yIn&H%wH"VK'r.fGM+3un{ W*]/{'P[qX@ Hv9ٳBO J3W㙂U: Q$BC;ih|O؂@U1DҠ'Nq~U}}@@! >|!?X3Ia2 Ճbj!&=dydxfG i|◾8zp@}m1y4s\ "{|^rP^-mݎ/}Hlf$ybD;|oU6xyԔ` 5f $v~ g_'ܮ ` Ed/qpH,|-_ GN{U#(CSx3fdYj?Ґ Z#;Ak_[>L}ؽv!Br`me"5BG:҈Aonݲ&LA]哟p&i<9{&ূTo9 :Os`C/z‘-?:!>/w9khc"D Zt B$@ Bd \!@;<ߌ H|t-~7:]n4+AbN37HP@h `T>A^\4pWy=m=N< ozya\,E#ܤx@ȟ#C!um`hw!@" Bk.iI>w@r@Zdo}nbr& "MDY(b!M ~#&A@xϯG `AC;"GO7e"xkrred!!&et!Yn$D!N!\`b=bpla? Ԑ +XN`@b!!/l2!RA`!2"뜰0C 0p$b@ F~b1g2G GrtBDvX !#e$ xՅDJ  ,` VP@1Ɋ3m`{Eh1z!j-bq! !,} "LrЫ %\Ԯ2``ƫl&ӧP6R! ˲,fЫ GX" N81[^[.&" VH&)ab$b۱$b0V0g1gX@b< u1"A@*1+*bj`2g+,A,,1-B- -5,}vgL)('| } "~c$SMIѼ&F2YC#G%yK?LC qMnq']~ 2v3 ήi(6L 8'n }.+cD^*~)d,x0ɱT-R. S$%+^S2lC ll3LqIgԀL Jn*mԨl> +vX#${`5|0!>>E;aG<ӂ#=a>SI>?],&@-0 TK4!FMMHL &?^ zRDeLLt5#Q}J f$noф{˼,"Euf )TÐLl#LsrhVR> I2JWbJAM#Ju"@NK4LWLL4?49&HT@NJ[tEpI< ] Hl F$]t3H:nZO{* eo@66 V{ÿ>cCISXXXuMSYt@ŕ-5ND1Zp`V* a;Mu&?[g hb@vjtΏ> ae4^8 DEk;뢥[Hn߶hQieiUXugYnakB obfυ6Xff [U~jkWh'oǴLϔgUggUqxtbrubw%I}3f3ikio6jsvjwj1Ǖqo7w{>UZYuvqtӲYcP\aw!hu/zb/ 0ZgV{V[C\4No|w}'{i[~=×y+$7}-"XsWy{071#8L-x97y={g$`B!2}Wu8~WwWNe_I{i7r9pe>oλbR@^ F!' }v)Z8~! s!IQ~v^yi;?^%|=,aEUP 1@^>0^מ^~2YE~X>g@[뿼]kejXvp"tcU!cw]G]i6$'?}W5!k<???pO&ޠ= 8@r8 9?p ?\O곽%f"L"1(hRԯ(C0$R#D*D<$4[K 3̙4kڼ3I4. fߟ?6  OP!K1_VyUGaX`… BXbF=IR޽| 8̠CMӨS^$+JP)RtjQ" ʕR BH"FDԨC=۾&ϖ}$L(RLBJժ)Ȓ)[ƬsUEn;mj~|;˗nxxb㌓?<̏6w^uF\}C#v}d^ƴ?Сz!Vb9|}7ijtuD>c2ga5e:^# ~%e۩8]NtPЌV!{ը^q9*2s )"יbݱ$WIg4qaS4&1,@E( ! Izݱꅆm)Tp6gK}$ :Vi"_vk1@*饶 7g( ,N,?tЁ-ЁE H4@$bdHRN oJrPȗS'[ֲ)8 ?V{mr[JƋqv^ (?(kp?@0$A?|:!q1[ܞ%22B,,D;wwnz,;( XJ'PVD҃?otCxϷ3 -( wӅح@ zwKx,ayim91?l`肾Lur`8:,1-vĀ)^ ?6?"O-7_j½ P0:dBp7#Y,!;[@aOxe) NnF !sK$^i|i#g.{"Ee Q R%-!H0RPlD  b'kh,Zv,vfa*F%Cl)Č5q؅v8b s\ lF%Z`y|(8*X"DE29de0Qpғ%)cJT5d+aL8|ϏUQR*7JFɌ#?!fȖЬt&U6 O,=cy#ʚfTE,P n "|J3rIL t7qA4&E=IA%41ъjQQtRs#-bIOR4n,7Ҏs&;Ih"J{ I4\UQi$&uMuWݘ$q8`h}fh,)ȁZZ)}("&!58A/xthXYȋ~V)V%/G~H/a腎8I0yjP)L)]xPIKHoy&Q` ;hIw ؖR8i@/w/ ~}oZjZȉu 9d8.Y]xX]9H%-AI8}XɘșR)u@i2  Vُm瘅ZŽrg@ԃHWxY(8ɔV逾)Кi?3XFI8/"ȎiuX+E}+Q{Ifj}P(dZ 8!'QV.ioꌃ} {ɛroh/ Vx'A)`ZC[SA؁}t(zt0j X(!Rrr@74SS"3[Xy;PKEkefePK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw010.gif{wGIF89a666yyyvvvwww```<<<˒|||@@@999 (((Ljqtqttt>>>jjjrrrooodZ%%%PPP000---NNNSSSJJJeee[[[]]]WWW,,,FFFXXXd[LLLtnjbbb:::WDDD bUTT333hhhBBB|yvHHH111{x~z{uq###wida[VTIFDusrf`]uuuQMJzvD@?^XUB=hu*Z'0J"6(I,>@@H{TA")O'K?~AS!* DG?1j B-eQ|e9#tX!*~_8 R#z"-AO,"QH?'!pa?X" F9h 젾 4d*t?hQ@z0"ls+yJRҧF@ +PzsxjkXۏ4mˊz'n⃹o(,l.fDڪ1SG, j'cBG;r*|tӞ:މx2 |]Ll!s–kw bt7'80{z6 !^jykޕt['?xfj?dяy>^^$A.;ZWwwbH+m#-->ugۃyԀ?m" 甆t" r3([SpKtkEzA)d2ZrP+?$AZ%_GOc@f配>cCepJ-nJ@-(mV8wqCpKa*JmXb'/d]up4>#D@bEMr2! 'M!nr!"'! dD ِHZ/SA@Y?NYANXZ" IdʓtBDG!<' H"fH{JE̅;lCiZ Ͳnz38RUeIr539vbFuq99@Mh@OKH hDSpL@Ih 3X3 j)I|4!AENѥ/ r68ͩNwӛ^Y@OJԞz T"Jա")Vu*JdتX t@?@LOR%.u]PղZD|*T79Ra׊uE\d iLq I(l*Tj@el p`.p `@m d aic)Xg@b[ֶ|xnyߪ,@Bq{J"e".]Rܸ@-j[vwK, a`!"U|[@_n7n㌛""VΖůo ^w$PW#w|{o ,ٰUՐjtAaDƓ:N #! [$ @8Ah *fI˙ rI4b~8E \Ѕ =4bv4"=J'?v%N 抔qL8l"BUr/ye>s7ǹҗWoLY|3MhC#Zьv4%ž(< jQԨV5] kYָu ndZve7ўvmw; {cxϻ'}y,7Dq/PguyAnppNywrŸNZ5,3B*_Z沗,f2jft!m?zЅ>tG^ z!^ӡuOUձ6kvk@wuyGlƆllmFmֆmmޖxaLxnn&ofoo}lt,tp pqwgq'~ p5#!~$W)*!(]B%OD|V}<7}?g}B}E}}ufSg'uWuuu6uIuiGvwvvvwhw{~GwmgS6y'WybX0Xz3z6z=u3U|;'}>W}A}D}G-}~NgQg~T~W~ZWtxehkn7q& w wx8xhxl17g+ȋ.z(Wqw;."p"Vsst7tgt؋ceu7uguuXwiloGlPw 1ww(xXxx戎Gwǂ~hz4z7ǃ@(Y87L7rIST mJW8h_yk%'^hfǒҸ0iH6JȀ:y蓋HBցGiJ鎚 ~1hZ]_cJs& 0R'38aZ萲Zh酺SL(l&ɊH*9Ѩ/Y~8X8阆=hǎȔȉP)\ IQKqJbd_!@|4Wl YXمRY 7 Hnu )И.I}(X ؍;XꙎ쉔︉O9u ։WYx胭C2`SròV&)i3N IV8\ C\˹8m# v%؉ȇ1y99<xdIَؔ؉j94uDT.C|ť`iỉٗ":pʑy-Yٝ-ʛ Zzʑڣɨ)hEGIdrrI""QGfKS!|pYJJpdɗ! u(Z۹x/JV1 6JYx>ڙ:JjIJڟLRm)ryki{ nsψjɢy* A2 7Z{۞?Ꙏk;ir8&[s( J:tYKwhzm:8i:ٙvު٘:iKMˣYڱY˭#^d+sIyl*~Ir&ʳwID˰*9C٬XO{Ҫ[HKꕤ[e/۸w4붢{]K)xקJJˬ문 ٻ0kIʟʵ8 Ja{9T2˶[ )yɽw A I˴ ;k+"K Y|';ܲ:/8mٻl  +~{ R k[는` b3ܪU[Kz_ C?{;kD F)ŊJKjY d+˪z ly+ķE۰:k;$,&(|̿|̗,f 칞\o;¼|=[ L<:Z ̻΋|::bWPjɜΝ]>L ^ H 1lѻ).q/pPȌ\iyS. ^ 4 0{z^ Jl=-Έ,7:ŷVabwf;^hp|0[5u I! r\X\7@0_[A\õ )6iD g<1}iPe p0-P/0u\m&' !m\qDžp "ŵ i ި w@ ]@۵ٸ-hMx'@g+5 -mݺ-EPުӻ§ YD X*S}=k4S\-<a,9 H9etPN]mXn1b>d^f~b ng~p~wxh~AS'^~cєTva<n(.Ӏ Ȑ  `P 3=A70  ac鎲$5" @ /2 @(`w n&!. ' 6dP+@\" N| AH0 p -,50-@%p?NRQ  0C+Ph#  .(p6|EȠRp 0 $:.0  lP0qE p 7 0p  pp p|qp `  `- #P p V1P  / E/'U P#@-3 6`  ` p Ґ }[ 7w p 0$#6m9`>B8 39I R@D>RH>| DC%N(aA9a@`;*,81eJsFBN|a@dI!b~Tb ITD R|t}ddYJ5ؑH&K0,Aaĉ/N,hߙOxd*o|E/@D:GfDͬW{~]6D~wAo'^]90s\ du{ʽ74H$@TD pB 3̐ C BKBRh;/-cOFFsCe cQ"MQYE=`L#iqJ D,t.?r"äʈ4SB-ɉ[sB4!*sNGM<! LpL+M·4/|N/D*RL34P$+fSRKTTTQMu\RmT@|VM$4;W`+?DܱVUFu6RMp@>ZlB >@LK0j[tJtY6SP^u0wM1a| V0ԁɽ5xj\qӜSNpSxe0Z^}<dfkfi`} BXXꄞ~NeYrviy~ 0:0: acicb!)3}hǖfYxvA>`g{}hIk&g:mU|1ksC}tC#CگKwA؎hɁs׽ P/:xywIEԞNxA' r%׾p) =sOsx>p'Npw<bXm A$IHai`]HAL=5Pp_,fӠ>7=Q-\<1jk XD>Pʁ$ 2( &`"EJ &6 v ZchL}=s7a YDT.$x`FF`,BfUg_> wd)>S|48 C,!XӀbyxl1\3Abq0QY Mj? #4~`@4iUGYB@t-*hq-Ja@)}g t7-fķ[B .^sY7E0rߙ<\11 3s8JvP :4.!ZZcpE 0 3',; `7Dp;56Ï%ۋ߭Yaٷ=u4.3Tcһ̽~&L bA.4{VWfymk<ZpLnM^- `D]Ye:Em F݋R_|sLȏ(%!u &!,D(꭛!+D45BsiC WdL$a2(L$!ug3ZKz@9^(?o )8A,^m-H4_qpt T"ER3 Yh"6_hjr3/,G:wW3 t'JYzu^a=7{D^}O[WU=e'{m'Aw{/ݻ0:#.}񙻳t ~峎k~Ϻv?xϺ魎ѫ~R!_a^_jg^Es궟:.}W?~?s>|[o:j{LOSw_g? ;<ًC@<@?l?  tۋ DḒ`r>ZAj KjA|At d.C<;\AK[j;BBB*&9;K?+@, <Ш"\ $!L6T;*|0d1k ǨYbL @%oƫ/@AôW0tEp7:Ѐ:(@I%@'ܫ+C9<8V<  `"\HhƢJ b|<0EED|Abx W? " %BGjTpD|FbFQGsdz9HЀE}")oE| }>~F$&%,#dȁ IQ2*I:mJ?9P IɋJ,JhN|NNn8B$NNۘ8xNt$'8 n8I`4OX8˥;O:qK(@X(* NpP P P Pg8 Z|8Y~!5$5:88OBFV|I@) :882 e6ROx[\`p nXx0A#%9QO]ڈgQ8O>mQ!mB"=Tl,x 9p䉅3Pg-R/S1%S3ES5eS7S9S ;m>EQI T EɌ"#EeT}]TI5R`?@ X|@ )˸W<~H% _8.0S@(3M5m7ӟ`LG5Q^}1Th%8VdueHg%hup--WUEWuuvUxZ{勆?R%QaTcфmW }XgQab͜%T=WV]WuWYWZWY8-Yg!X5@QXGрYGYYW5UMVeWX}YW݋jZyZMݑZgZX&ZڙZZ7ۂ5ֱXT5[Mۡض ٤u SZ=\٬YeٮmVؽJܲؠص-ZEZ{S<~\ ֜-Q[eX\A%M؟=ۍU[أ}[\Sl՝mݫϭڗ]Ԙ]XG]%\&1\uI7ץ^ƍ]\u^}H+0^)x-th}X#؇)uCt}H%,[pMTt]҅]@7 ]Ia'#X_`>4 AŅ]ڎe%vh%_X}X:&f6^0b utha.V^`0lb"v#Ra~(&ϻb,b.\UZIх_~`bOa`nHŅ߅^U]b&c^0 DPpPPm\/]1HN~ gygzxc zg~6BN8~hyc>X8@$~p_7~0&h<͊h>ep7J0I(abaHYHch m^]M\?uD> LL\Hlj4LfKL ⇢jPVi6iViviii.$@]Ng]_l4ljTlϫVOnQQHl&P6c8.Nn闎陮i,VU^bڽuQ]>mNv\(b ݅iagAXE~lH~G}؅"l0xn`f60k6Nmf~eetcYj]<ȃu'vH7e0((\g 3xx5o`|&GwlzYng @pNoNfk~֖kmteܹڀ nX10n&n42 \@ HWbS]nІ vbHvf,,txqqN|6sW!.rF^mvրrߺmuoU>+r-GY1/3OsN^ Hs9ґnGA=?aAG-COtquv0Ht9:L_o$oP'[k'0o<3#Z0p/GpeQx{ȆjXp5g"5X2& vf9*x-g3.#qqO GxypKvPv$Ogr>gtiv m[y zt\`@o^z[eYVWz=v0ܧzn#woO_r.&yn]^޵w$fc[q9xʶqz^v<{#oNWyWйoϝTߨ]E֭Z E}LyMy|P|s|[/7z=O]}f-yuy"|qW 6^D@q0 eB(`͟_>,h !~ 1l!Ĉ͉C ƌ|NQ"8p2,'*?ӧ$LBq欬)q0In\q XYdhR!atlV x9Bl" +ذb"z;z |3H:6:)-Ƅ>έ| ɔm=lP&5quOOCMӨS^ͪ4ԪW>1ڇ-+y2^@̽?/pq@#ƅw*QJ:*U)ƒ/o^p=0G8>7pD- G@ QHq` bO Qp̤!D8]Pi]gہhVRDpG(|F;OAqYjJ HCOey&h}$>?9g.tY-?'ddJ#r>Z*Yfy]hߑB*P'84\" $ $PP / r"s?a,6 R&y,A fEي;f'4 :nn6ʮvKfd^Kܞ+M/rg݉^ =6CCad =D '0d/LYe>ĢĈ,C,MfL@ަ̞ 覻nϊ^.>bJoc!PGi1j  = FM@6,IgQDLvK/ O[u{߭h >`@<)9衋>:颧?Sx4Cxߒ77kH{ъ)7_֠B%K?=[=3Zls{ϸ߳$"uu1O @=_v̷/?[? ͯh V#H -&=!6/Fa!%0 ph!Ұ72LaÞ0?: ÛQ+:dJ@cv_&0|ήH,nf]|eeR`\@ '$&3MrRRp@LeR (>V6 !5C&'ZsɯGF5q]C<&2e" ե{;%SG 2]a,Hr\L.Dm,py3.N@gC^;TNde Vަ/go)s'좡H%, b^f SJU Rҕ.}iJe1'X  P6 P*ԡ$&QJԷ1t1!R T(BR*F NդR#~X8I8j0@)+^ Ϟ:D:j9o1zШ<ʍTI1HA xBh=F6b h?$bXl!VśBA6ud%CYq.h'rTWx䟱e?.1LjHGaSMLE,]49!xфJi=S&>N5Uw%4:=dPmD * 2tP5z1^bP] N8^!w|10?{? !8 !A B¿}mPov{#Ai1L=?d'?[k wE a}.6Fvb6}%o!f,h.78Oه$xA @@e&ըq%8=T&TcS5VY TR5],h-!^F!zx0 #(O> ,N=|3]ø~84 O}@0! 4}xneGPisg(swަ %"9$#I` uV(>,,  C#uQPL5SݛUՓ:y>\$[D~n<<#K?}B:ݩD͂~zaǾzC>b FG:ܑI^/t)u0y3kfm]C!!X#rdm:gHb´@"c3%Cz 3YyCAwĄRgbXNKU")j?ҨW=_zX>=c79IjfH KxƯ6/EUW?Hj N]ZY]^U \M$\<s%s5D?^mu]E 0#=Y]dA`o-FbVTyZܩ`Z)1aDXHFNal@l`9Is. X`` nJ E^M`@@1@Ǚbbh 9m  ~!]D0@4,t4,B !!r҅ʋ ,rbCڗͅ?@(@ $C(ށ/UD,b5B%%$v5N D&PS B3<8V5 ڴ 2 XC,9|W9Τ@|t@ .ܘS,!t0 22atd܈@A"MK :@"? ]MTEKLf!%eMdi` HXWfL%XeMtJluEeX`S̽&a_RPdJ@)@9`:@aVT b6fbf.gbgBfi d"C ZeVƑj ?ie\ԡ]mCMIFVi5Xq#fv&D@Gp6aӅ'a'y҅ &yzYj &hg.5wz|Jg{{~g?gxg%}VԂBewxN(q䧅NDzfhG(NDMNֈ J`:(H2ĆU(6DL؎2_F荦iRĐhZK~ۓ(~Jhhhhz6<)``Zijr)|rg?Rg’Ҩި(2&XbgG(&jiiRi|)Z*6&8BJjdZjZŦhzꄊꊒjdD鉞J**⪋j*lj 1~ *k+"v(V+)fr(2p+y+?k*)F,ꧽN(Z2,y&.]6J\d*Vlz"r쁪첶JB,]klb,yjll,8+Kɺ l)'ƩBJ[~,$kӞӞg^"Z,.-ilN^s` ^,h׮'ުfkokeI:,-i H<^ǵM-@HBsNJe,rJ`,4 ́+pjnPf Ԏ*BݚP,W- ҁ>L>@/HB庨,aoR/N/\@0u"s$<@/@@?@JF Bo!NNJ/-HԂ6],H-G xo80-B p o BhF0S/0 qr"@?@-A'1ׄ$ L cԂhL,]A, -1/1;̶^o+\N-1!L 4]nv4!Bq0CA$1-G\!'#q!@ h M$A*cq"[r:iծ$+hr-O&xr1! @,,cb?3O@#{D0!k3 -W'34@5Gm/83@y8>'q4k)CD h d@'4,s>74^Er-h7Gq!@DgJ0-4A7DBOL۲Kc ̀@t th6 pjd6-@.d¡f6iC?jCb6ւ B6/X6TM0_A- p(sA BQh3wm[Hs 1DCTԭqĪ:\B?@1DwZT'TG|}CH?TbB%hr7gg_Rf?L5ikuwtn@<~n'/@7hVU'1,xysl{8wELȷRt yk@-N 1~ yuC?wCB3aӁoGĐg7a 0Ӹֳ%A6U#y-BD뼰C䥨?2Rsd.yu%l@|@-\9ZBOPB-˜9D?~xOŝWGIC%.\N3S97 B!Gy+rKFy;z \: *cNB!Dz1PW@[@ A{?çky xNs?;/Cl)t{ |NA (躎P&B*pBO?3r@1P#;_ـ" h@-krB| Tȗ|-%A4˗{ X hU'6'; Bw:s)(r(@ }[ p4B_, t(΀sq'#DBn Ś7{<'(>ѧ1-d/@}߄'>(|3ۇp`=Ak 0@.C1;DZB0AhQ2p? $"H?˽ꏽ7qKfo|ߧ? [oNA 6$x0CwDs\2!PDebeL 1`Z3i΄9~!!kR(E"-!#~-~.#Ǣ\I}՜9 H&!pq@C.obkГSA=ZHW _.؇6ȒB}p,[+N+,QBj׺AoZuLțAC@B\l&/˛OSqcٷ~;z.f^ib zmv8!XOTӒ;L)~aÃv䄝b>l; /(Ze EB -,r1^Tk2l$;qG H!(2$'=ԁQ+iD} U٤7 iN$34Cf#f#h㏨Fh5]{Xa t L(r[dV\u5`-VPNc-[` O_ru_un^84zex\}5X=V uVI5TU&E|˅d5%C!nSK\m~ܜ9M;y^)e.8ݥwn~~1MeyVqzݭA[ {YgcFdyM9hoyF6n'y5h (hiZ$zn7bĘ$J{߳MY`8ocX_>OoU&JSZQjU\(:_R27uȬ@غV+Њ?&TbHL dV[Շr(`zQRg}UwNSIe{1Ŋہ !GG[ Bݭh3B]@$VKvtT- F̶4OC݆v"[82tq{&7m/: offZexDwG2`ibey[]1<y+_?MoՊbsN(_8KFՠI@z̡FV? +~ئp84o%^#CbOf~|\sC3#|Q c@º$ >]`Y0js1gG"u!k # ,A/s:+~$ǜ+Y=voGVt';džP%DA0lY"A7n 7Y-Ǫiv1#W )1: M;  C=`w6{et`O?\Ph pI `Zxa0 (B C V@X=턀6D(4AdC>ԂM#Asx  A zqaR8v?яbT߭fzH;@+" 4rX!p0Nqd ЋƷTb$(@gs@Z9heX;>`-wէ1g:9D}%o4#Xa ~/C(A~x-GܫIl`Ύ!%a `N@VV`8kئ@*ܘŕp4z@/)/ҌUPoXrX`'`ARl@DR/.,@/ta26 yR 6 mK> 8r-.2C`b 0r`'p'Ao Xa]b{cV@4p'j "\` N2A K `6@έ ќfV?@yQqbuqpzMPjC/`RР oD nA 4@% g@#J~mnߢotf`  !?o!!Qd& %5f@ O2 X" a1hv+)II.+O4Afa/`!Ae`p.<Ϡ pBb Gdd@`S'rh !=P?Afj \AbAbF`v^j!^u05"<x'=d DSLjpRZ8T֚jHGزIVL `kij6 ",I,rʬgJT(A;PaB*HFפ  m. D(_4gH=G}4 elE"HeŠ@=glTʦtA~ԩt"IY G TXIJM4MSԐ NM@ttt ڔp4kAKIcIBOG4OHM=ES9?GM>U*fUL#'ʎRl4+NS& Ij>fNK^5N![-Z&YSE͵#Wc UU|YB3MZqLNOǀtImUOCCJgP]Q ,ٕX%LA5rv$Ů5G,Sa9:aLH!k`!H]AD[S6PbUdkЕ L}c~304IT5d_mM< 6IeamapvaDyVjTz*ԩ66\HՄ1 ǰVO5 kpj66J6_om%E1^r#F4l SyH4jWk0ABOuve 6>!gvgb_wb߶sKGEnItkW)lZ u?LuIu,peNukwx{f+AxϖqaawstyBQpW3W 6io!!ė o!D@pȵZc6~S\ w-vo V LIeu@n keLAU Z r!\AzXeVT4vW;!r*!"Xom+V`8yQE]e5z*?e4~XMlat!X+`~V! @8u)qU !*Ԕ` /Veߘg2@bvn6a0!AT^ 6 G}X{c Ne͗9a6pYHr5lˬrb@A+ixTS!٘95(L5}9!*p~VUx&Zf˩I9 WP4|, !}^`=v@ b|Y"x7uW#~n@խD` WWƥs V fa斆Lp' VLញ))`* ,~> F`6kDU:\|A^  BY=bC^`j~ 2V1y CxAjZ!@Jw4 yjƻ.e`B|ZT@" Zoan % RTRSj H@;J X$wT*;[d{[>zTxQ jSĵH6`baZWN[ FNf@zv$|nbA>DeRap;f~ˑBgAvcUxjݐ`&$†C8q8Dj [˽\TCͼ"ɇ|g<[s )6At@ ˕)q On]`v}|!2 J @ه#@VD!ѯم.ىr=zSm\@ٗs'`VB]D+;@܇ԻNݣIv{T~}]L,aF"!xBaNTx*aAd <;`V AU 6~RHy&A>WۅR$D`yCAy > D$AA9hh>~ꯞf?jE5"6c Bl>z'|~?rc!w;_ _{>F=J=gU>9;,i{_#L:b)?m+b !b :|1ĉ+:\oō1j2ȑ$!.qpaɕ dd S+D)2P,5@ 4oI7:-iŨ0 B$5+94Ժ%ؑtNpL}A _le5aEEXx-jKOۍeAdrH)U]bd'a6b->" Iх]y袌B9d$^i;UY9E hucAYXۏ|] dIes|Q覛j4(Dlfx*Bi ȹё)'5 v|("w`9ꔆIu:tiץ`z&&Rdi?ګZġZƄj?$b:TQR *sF7}ujJ֏vꊴjuq:n,g!  {;\p K03\1+< P/,4&CLr=&@l_("u q Cpr#J'4*;=RG= sHCmGPol5tGc3dfdvp=yw|3|.~ ?xwt?Dx~pTMx+Rcߨzw:뱻Nv p^eC?# !+ O/G_=k} O6l?>ٗK:~@e<4;!]&{qi |?:0@ ~`n0?AN/_SAFtm$1zE؂,]>ӃXDK$C "nծ_D)WBÞEU~JN,c,ZBE%k^ε(< W X}q bGHG3e! <Ȇyld(;:RG]#E萗1"%Z[Y,eD$EHC4QH0yH %!MQ4%*^FHQcB g" D εk¬D~ٗ`Z=dEdH1\ApEzmӚ؜H;ש$*xt"{6q~JU>cnجg=RTB)P~"SAYTd*$s&%-)&4SzC4%.gWSP;icT'8•4Jk:D:Xҧ EzJ렏QqY9/G#^C TrVA(mzRV}$Gfi'DpHbRt~AX ;*]J&Yk90c]@Sڬ6ܚMe| ܽ+mAn\k`я*C I([;ЁsXkJ[nHykf;oy۫^l]{_{UI9}ҏB:F, :WM kx? ZJ5g]!upH+x<ELb.|lHxLn2,Q$Ue&Cr D>~Bp>eoy]E!P?"(D!B|&.8]`X@ތFB|hD!DS?6W<@>@6`0"8ż ?kKkZ|Gt >X z*icz @ar/| QckI4&$fy(鴳'mNC:i- Pݝ3Flr*,P0X okL[ኴY0sP#i4Pig }.ȻyLp79y5 y_=Ro9c9Z}2:?ǎcYg;E=t$s9}q*;W2Ovx]on.OzsNnD_{LxL vo{좤JELݷVք>+o~pv&ίao.~á#~ÏW$\@?'CxA.ppfr}2w t׀ (p`Yfq!(| p +aȂ5$*h5x3Ѓ6q`M(iEȂ/XFy2 HNG!AL+hMx_ZxqЄfPaSH2lxHjHm'eHh^Kq8's8ZxkHaR질yLx8nh+ahvȅhRlXKvȆ}]_~hca8fh؇(>FXVȌŸ%EԈi_hA(THv(︌[xxgӸ `x( ِ6: IYH 4Y*  ` 0=5$y7;ٓ?Y8x8EyI 1׋ )` Ȋ^h  LُrxgjlYn(ti1KH+h)I5p9p @ٙ,y^{)陧Y򨙜 aOiiiy^ ljY]vca~Ȁp'"`xQxĹ XYةхiwKiȃtɎ,q0wxlJ2p G Ѓch mUp XZ`"ɟ袈 )ʡ8j`U [ր9rapTW@ V9_!*W4j8*و` ?CZ0ʇ2zs_ ;u `j xNYA^ZFʂXYxHoz`iؤ5z9*iU BJp Hk*اO Rjxҹae% @@ݰcp%1Ȩ J;:ڪȥȣa\2Z{kznDzZȆɡlxJm @;90s <0lfqyI.jdd^f~h>fgnxqxfM E`kx}oNv^慎'j.u[ru.B, S,e0Ko?pK;S_W/EN3`b^1c]kb yy0dOmo"a|P `^o[&?e^/ [velO ) 0N le﾿0yEoP 0N1ן?d/mƠÌ?O5O~4OB >Ѐ~f0iFݹOH%MDRJ-]S˂Fę3Ċ3TБ ==ZRh BXL#RD~V,XLFEqjիY=Qu)5G gF!%(šBݣr?y%^|N+aYGI ..JP ԊC:?X4CREchōśzuױgӶ[7oT8A}UL @h0@=0 )o(;ĮC oKoދoo@ S#̄W4yD8aѼb`E`l~NB%AڰH#G,Wl1EcsܱG~(CÎeIM`F,GRPYő:V?01dOTёG/RH3QEa"L4dM8N TK =1 W_G*uGSUWatMݒЋr5F THUW5SZ9mSft2h#]:PcݒHWhvHWuD[deմNcyVzQ7cM_poLF~=a5 ]׃-6߅/[f!NL⁍+ÓW_[^V.O@fb1+G9D~b~2ćIJW|XDjZI$ѠEYYD 48{ޛ6v[_cjpnlo}9cEРo5E\ ~8`rpE.WSney=;Q7=畻y-8cWg94q[uAIxFᗗ>xɆH~w6uh4\+?U`b}N$Eᇢd蠁J[DL(T0lǿP9 z!bPo@'ve_K$t\ - t8X@baѦ(0ݑXAOKD=<](,!x4%1! B:·-E%j"0B[qcuND82ێHh+JK,.y @HXB=@,сSAA?lAx`w,$ Хc`)YgtVъQ2Fg>O~ӟh@:P$1/@A\1 @? Ѐ[P)PfЃ(ggtei )$= :SԦ7iN 2U˜DD?zAG4\Q~@ AGt)$Jj;CH`Fb3P'1XI0 1vEϮwk^Wկl`;XNQu*A7/+Rpw-CC?`ln7=8~pD.yf!j EGNb'#%Gl`@85}u2+Z'V~ou7=21$\6$ 1Z(fMr@~8@l.%jf_p-leK[Vo;7= fäv?|Q c@D$1&\t~n0 ^" C$`;nWme'*b8N !PK].*r;3\D>d&Rr?\,oN9Y2r'wp$Prg.hBkЉ^ iIS:hJ,2q3 EaYYָ5}m{>vN sȫ$YC9˕p 쪛~{!oZ܂Ʒo G|&k8C.S!ӫOM={.}IZO̲}" }>}{?_$D⋯!*,|;23Voc4hN< f~x{xƃ*C=Lѿ[;L0s?>G)$6Ks?ȿ D@FпK3 `V`AV`F? = 7`A<;[AB7>؀C>{ ȁM0#F[tQ?* @=p=KC AxMp=0@D_ ID%'MDGЇKx?„)TD+ ؄U NQt$?E\D]T_ aԿ YP~0D-\<@~`FK b4FGkmTE#@pGr\sL@j_pPXAX@ 0 ?DWt%f~Gt,ȃLHG@V8?: Cȁ~8@ixGP06PbJ=ȄPlH%Lɑ,ɓL6[ɖ|ɘɚYHԭi UMTRRQMUTUOV}SUQ N%xIA J}w8bY-O% `-O$8d`5e-VTVP=Z99Uqk'Rj5׸2+a'Z3bu|a8 - "9ׁuH{2#9Ijў9EQeR#LuDSBD.tXU W؏KWkBe͜9E8)zԌј  @SZZ=]٫ ; ?e@ X]uёhT1Ա*G?Vۻu )۽m0;PKXύ{{PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw002.gifQHGIF89a=;;Ȳ~}~Ƚ@@@۹lklURSؼYD5n_nfT^[\־0-,100޿mR1*񵻻>;3i{}աԙd㫟}TxYӜsOxvwihia__KJL}{|~dab{zǯȫ@ξjhe# !, Hj!PB:!-Xq"E9JHqƒ $PCI]l̘5q(M:9t& УDR jʵׯ* #Anjg;EVImMDӦRRwjUwW߫ .L0Ŏ'f od3k\6t?.K=m:5ݺZomڶsޭvoݿy=xqዉ'˹o=CNسkνwOӫ_~˟Oyo-'h`}@ 6j  Fhf߄j "'&(,b'%v4c5ΑXbWxP>e%H&L6$b**8iNA`b͙QA7}a)ti*hr矀ل !G""eGPRu A\&ĩ&*무~ꫬrR ZAڝα9E0afֆz+E|ZM j2D:I,lL@OZ;G,L.h,/DEjL2ᮔ,s^a01=L(1 cZ)<=7B{G#20s=,vU+Y{t?1m0m7isu۽r ވOlΝ.O8KkS(@AY[0oa;ff9\ɱ2눻!왃~sr޾ _H\-ow{Nofͽg~N~Yga4Qab.1%=baLth Jh %ĐV ]$W:"]UxXh7&kPI@$l^dNEWj&,҂@z@ъZ(E8}"4JҒZ[n`?4 Bq~EZGnf*)IS+8}Uz+έJeR5KK]LjvEZԢX-p͍\+ծJ^R+p/r5+^势ָIrxX*Rj ]׭.:d's*$@YPelӏ[ {&r 7zc CULov#,A[X2N xf`pQX[F7u- +,B"Ё^PA` PB,i}sW|цSm%x"88(ΰ>{4V1H0`:qqjE>cK;Yw dgiw, -u0bB30qAζͭ{; 7`.q\tK]bW-nN!s:Loyϛ78 k_ꗿ[M<8 np Z8Uaw1/\dٹKYld%+dkb0me68aHgS87 (~vbmMaUλr`MhYۍ%6Bp4]v󵁀laU266Oez;1ܕ՚ڱAj2;݌ wFv 7mpph8~6gSxVnL,> M ḩAc_~ب~gO!N=%ӣDzz+9<)aQ[ԅ01F@_yJWOKw猻>ϾNߵOUNr Ggzu1 }~38~xwmd 耐sx{k!rJF~WwWvo(4@'{'G{p6-~ '(~ǃ!烳DŽ%,8JxX( (XT\(G+$}eHSgjl؀acxqKs_nzpX[! iWqK8XCNt1H&hQX%U+RYw8U,w*cro'rlwu 0}H8a]8NǓGa7(2؀؄osHx87GyŢ Hxhg&rs3+m.2r ȍG{tx|&&DՆ 8Xw8I8yg阅Ljy׏*鐴bTF)+ 1 ьWbHhWq'@'Ahj!2铻(1wzv:.=oh$/D —9&yHyO釉D&ie(ɀ 4 (#zȕ옙*yIP嗸i1ٛ`[H)+f5IL9Wyђ(ؑAly)zt7Qy^9)mśPI])H + XyДP#K 'I8fI~9B,yY>!#Z؎v~+k @ڛԹDs,*  "xƙM{Zu !b0x(O!}["0b!;{@ a9*8 8}7{* rrХHx$aJd#Tzx? _rR{8M 8Ш'ꈌWu ^j %žJZy'zɪ&:*ZYs7Qw*y 80'jB :[; k>d ;հ{! ;\%${Kd('FB z <2< bybE⭨_5+ *;yz*VL !]*-**<-#pЦm=;K b=0G+]J 2L] 0rzm* 8%;`8#;LPp b* v)H+z3{v[*m ppcyLp>;=P` =ж*&` R {k2y= #|̦Z(Л!7^1G-*>:A4xpLN^\+DRNGX]>_~1Nޥdfni.ixk^qh>jlr>y{}N:NnetnuX>>'J kn>+KꫮB Kk볎뵮~d?,I ^> .p0^T~W W  Npqq+NA`.N.? ^aN.?o,I19/*WW~+_@;?^A?EIUn̞8+.+POO3@JW0~ "/^/_ewR p'N(/OO+P^~n^uN?/?O~Oş_-/O~o K+h  'k/I?"WРA.dC%NX_&2)?~X$YI dǐ#SΤYS"F qg6%jFVY`E+WN:t2u UjUaUhEDAQdHX0hA +݃d bقdFE+@AxSuo߂ Gąo6/9 8leb+pMTo Gc^Ep'𶵕l0ܑ"~S)8)/~ѳN Ks_OFkފ)޾—+2 $>dZ0/L*/ $i-VH  ڮC+8CrV TPo/$ʷfqbUtC3# Zs^!'@=p䴴KhЂkCs~Uv۴>4M$TPRMW C(4(Š&EfXAd{Z>] bzUUj6fR¾ ܢf$ vaef4cƙw޴g;9h&fΙ%Ωhzv4iє:kΪ溪V.ll۰F{fצlk";榻(Fnno$OiA)*ARe8c?bv=DQT·ɠE$W%mb!L4ɲU-zSNIǤ !:@~ʄ P% 6GfId\R σXAs !C+0(!YiyΠKĒ6/s0OVԔJ@2PlbFhEF4,X&TǚM;6?Y(HDSW&5-L8W(eIrt6#)6UcdFRh5Ă F}A?PyťPл  X}'koIBgs+^e:bQѪzֱJRa],)>wC L=L&wΑ2zܣN`k"2q:(˂shv.]nF11BES8Zdqmvk~7"o^V}B!zûޛ&i/z;߇oy߱x;`x20+#p=aS% &qM|bX+fq] c3qm|c3!#qcYC&r|d$'YKfrd(GYSr|e,gYp`0";e1Y!5d | 8Y󥳝e/Yg!؁I ytE Tt$PI:L@ ;ht*R1IkZ΅MT %DpS{!D9VA{i|9.38w#34Rrȧ31imcǧIZ4)2 )`v; 90lA F ϭȲIwܚbo uA:A{>y pzMڮm;3mLǮu'PtֈȤ/u̾RbɞCKA:zƺqctj{gdFQi_;ck[v&`b8t,&čj#;TWV=kd脎kn;َx>윗&3qp!Awv`oÇ!jR([X>"ߝɣ-<[^o/+Z[ +LY#L(S{s=];0㴻˼;S4?H{f|tN(67sy?9U;;2=;@?0l64!<;@ĴȶZ@`K;BK$A2sӻ"܈` 40A6M7-$3=Pc e,nnkm>kݶݮ\an^f߸iX>&ބe~(]ŭlVoV6#kklpk&_ԍ_ߊtn@^\וp8f#F篱ٵ%:"R ƂdRies0%zd|6i} q)oȞf쒎86vao >`>N#'0/m.竮 +&uLw&1=fPskA䶘`+],  ʥar\Q^"}`6LN='viía7. wqe.i~P`d9 Visup5> \ej^[^5[r[g'b6t:2xf6`}sk_bo/p?Ζ9G_nX\eDs5_mgwIp}wo/xxK\xoxxxxxOxx'y? +yywG?Cψy7W`_̒zzzzz Gx{G {{{{{{ |GW0ڄ HH|ˏ{ͷΧϿ|/}7*0|wo|o}G}G'~{~O~~{`sh~~~~w1O_o xG,h „ &"㡫'RHQ-G7r#Ȑ"G,icIWl%̗c$Di&Μ:w'Р9c-2 2m)Ԃ[ZAh"ƓZrJb>),ڴj%v%RQҭkêW/]HQp0Ċ3nM'SV̚#Hz3mp߽~nZ#Բg[U67c]qڐ*ʗM8uSnxsᄡxə/?wӭo}z۽ӯ?|̟鈐D:!FhČ!1^AGF$GOI'[K @h4@ y1 xix*(2IfAdal)L1*W&W*,:ǃVďgޡ g3>l/v.gͺYP21}#ķZsK#ȀF:O0GFR;2(SSEDիbYWw} xqQ,WwhSrQ@vR >rS&(jd$(3/>>([En:^)DXF#Nd}vb3: L#H XUG:>uU_up]S\?xhzҰ[,>@q]w"9 Dm򇌆0pߐUs9"]몠3-{zD/EfX !s? Sn"6}gvres8(BЅ2}(D#PJ"ifNэr(HCQCeO (ҕ.hvb+Wy)NsS !:8R`F=*Rԥ2N}*SWRiJD9QխrNuZOpX ^=+Z!ˎ ҕ"RI)€TD Az͵u+OWN qXd°uA[4*N  &-Uvٱ&fYthA=`_8DZa-tZw mPU@_X ]H .EB#Ь`E 5 T[Ad vÂቧbB7q+15hxKs`7 cF.bj8iu%9"O:hv?~pbA`FF!eerZOװPɵ-_!Wɧ@ŸZ^76E{co&#h L"ȵ%i'bȩʧM@etrn'RAiE(/V" 8E2Il &8]LdysALrw6UpAƳt_AХM%OB`q&@kg0l`ة$7N<:QaE.La>Ðͽg\D׳+X Iqg9שD*\i9@HS1Lo"; 8670Z6,->94ҝ`?4L#/!R(难D>Wa1 ,Գ)#b~|&%BLJɃ~WsEX S]dǾ?[#*PL ǞH~*(3oA#[|З{ݘIDT}|'\?$8gWڭ{.!|.?/ G _!\ԥF  x& )֕t) @'M5ZE\hU5@e(\yەB ZE=mtn,6 @`'? ʠ ^1ACF>F>\?L?.y ๞5  iaJ `щ D b&bEm}]NTTBEءDX %ZrW&nb}"EQ"^fOǶx"y U cQ,R7;ѕvSAbIY'~^e7"]bNV A;\#=D>b06gڥ[F>}ƜA#I`ɢ!7Vv` b,&"H,bٜ#_D";DtC֣ LLJDUބ@bAr ۯ:F$!eAC*g^e!\FG~1ЏE/X!H!J%9!ETG0DWv^d^~`t\g]^VE^DLM\dR?@NU]V"rg%$i__v^Ea2\FHFYIDvE]Q-Y9i'Qߡx""I,^DZxX#xnvVСx']zRE?UȧDF{ M&&\]ub᧬ hTV['-\ttFu$Gi0Vfo'fh|fMt9mF Ą譥@l881+]yY lkV6 S@nyΥƒnq)t!p3HutC@P_ޤϧhDsn((X*eG3dYvjz"`(.lDFN'|.DFݥF]ؤjt8FmaP@mFGvk! Má٪NDIDFN DkQ\HUakE|&ĞE:bB͉B*ܾ:,jjl]R,A*+6&s v#VDN먍lv)diφ"FUZEFN-VJzc2c&F#<զڮ-۲bE̦׊mz$lM`-.cx4P&KmP Re6Fv$VAnn ]>SHj9V5]&餮n@jRFMN"n5A .x]nn®@ȮDi>SF4Y0Z"ohB# P0Yov/Ap/z:/o.21U.//^Hꯨlz6o E|S?])2/Hp2QpZpE`*"0x0pׄ g # / S  Q Rp G Rpd '1t$--65D0&AJĔZ­r6nvn3q.5Ve1+ + 2 !2GA"+F0r"@!{D#AG\r&'2&sD#龂(D))(D)r*),*-r.X5/20720r111s2!8s3s22W@\4 <|h838397:;@<3;@>3?>83?.8B#4sB+4C7BsC@D PC'tE4DoCKGX3-IW>WJJ4-tKt< 3Kϴ:4JtO4LtPlQOQwjRSRWS?5FT38uUUg5n5W;W5]XUYV5U5[[[uwŵ\' ]\5^k]u_[`v+ 6aavabVb7o<6dcdOTefge36g/Z6lh7i6t6j6jGklg6lmUܶe6noDvc 7pSqqvrrvssvttuuusvvvvwOwuxgx+vyWyCvzz/u{{u|'|u}}Sl~~uusjKuguWi?lu;X#g_66ZxnLJwC58b8FWӸ xjx4PA U(V#y_@<.yyyDNP\k9lٹa]1-1? :z1.<'98K!@&:&@¤֫ §:纨& º1Awu p뺲/{UKvG 3o;?., \ym{[Se#ܵg;;{ -x;r˻b_@DžsÒAW}϶gW-9l>ؾ? A~k: ";?K?S}=ccK-B91EQF RvoH,(VxcF9vT@4yeJE\f̘"1 C ,9DPE&5ziRKNAGgbw=:{1W/[kA _zA\8Yi~0 $° $ިm~ o Fȼ惏J7U^ҎcGR:k/?|b8_y-*MBU`4@'?> x>VdB # A ꗼ_7?vą^>@& >И+\a1(!6?Ba32ЀB=K``:,(!^G<?v­tB7Gю-<uj >c 6Fє%;)\6Mo~>L;v -xFeCwL @ ͱTS&-)BЅuYb%9+WP~B *)UJYR1LaڃY*nmQWEF7maM\LXX@NI~ezD+HvA@B:taq!R@>( zTh(E^r_'?,x hpq`v`KK 0 Cb)hEՍ2tu3)ux<6hZH@DC.%P t!G Q ߷ I2|R !7GNZ4^;eDOxjeB @?` ]A(6X(@y (/ (@`  !!@(0O@Gڥp<~<<< 2Noh a b@O oo/b° (`( t! 0 Ѱ`0 @`a>.xp, t POJD b   pJ@  p0  )ob &p&pp 0d#vb/1>T >q (4A>(1>(>(FUdja'.bn8` b (D i`qA`o#a@a> ( Q P)|''B&(>( L)&m< H j` ߤ ~AAڀxC   #(B#ua &S2VR^2&9[r)֎ 33!4a4s52▎5Cp5]qb*&MXML@#piD&yH1%)`/>5Ʊ.7Bz~*N8YN`@ 9 P#P%#)@0 c9c`>2t! u䆲/=3&@De3( >-EL`QbFaͱ$ǐpGb`taOpB(@tA .H= =%vS F4Dfͦ~TD`MKaHK L!LMQ"Ncq"ʪTtOmO`P 5QC5&0HK&:37uP@`DWߔTg/pVU8O-+fVm5WMw5&. $t"X-Uo0fUY\KZeBZBf"8RXD|!Z`VVU` .]]+uR^-"@ZaPπ\e"`d`v AD[u5G cg:`9ghVhhhiViihG,dA 6>6(bq% l3MrV_me` VS K~o(J *h$m[\mr%ja,@@ʡf >s8(t㈰ P/.@>5rk`F01$b?, Xw@.2v7lNDnEjdWz# ;PKN|@ƼQQPK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw005.gifGIF89aW;;;VUU؜///888gggooodMfuaXXX<<< hhhzzzjjj>,,,000eZxxx[[[JJJ333dddNNNEEEttt\\\P LLLbbbCCCRRR***(((BBB222&&&HHH[dVrpqiii@@@lllHFG===><=666___???Π```PPPppprrr|||vvv˸̶^^^777ȼwwwāɥ¤ʾQQQ>>>mmmͩsss###aaaqqqBAA}}}AAAxwwYYY~^QPP~|}TDz`^_JIJQPQIIIı}|}MMM]]]999tsi…ttsȤmklۛLyyy111GGGOOOSSSbaa!, H*\ȰÇ#J8(jȱǏ Csȓ(S\ɲ˗0cQ͛8s $iѤΟ@ JF*]:LJJTVj֯`Ê;bRhvM˶۷/t-ݻx({ LÈ+^̸ǐ#KL˘3k̹ϠV[%Q>lw8Uz(e[{u{#G[|ya!С+Q(GC?JgJ$!DXoϝrg~}A=~tPG8{B $?z4(Rv}K'PuHP)yGy-QW0ύ8xDBx xx?~ddCAxOgݔDJ_+M)PDEQ鏃ě"gI$@~mfdz" Kv|2"x|[G$ d8et'!ىɦstOoSb=D #A4wj+3AZo=]3z䣇q&ܙz:.n*J+{MW<68v:܌"?BrCݓ=oAZ77mKS +Hգ_=);{ %&%*mmZf´zD]8%'-^H=Ip‰}k Ru(!5Ek38LIaF8qhs✼80:=J#!ᒩ&s` O# $k8+%Q>0JV7= K4Ȝ&=ZAyUX%,iJfJ@%hO" u4%OG3֒MM,ĥMdƪ_d8S~F:9i?I<ӐrI/A%hJ:WJhA&̆Dnأ,tO&]|o@7͹&K'[[BH捶yzZtJ w|Q,Y*JC6$Zl4J.y~&&/z,:%9I b6! Qyַ*Q zZM>xt[]R `JЩ碔7ǔ|-&66*ODcTI"SyJ7F HbԒVQ2&QԄԓ}d;O\u;@\+e(aBz),h=X^,s~)Kg_IkJWO/~hп9/qཅ"~q}~Y!@gg Hd!VAaU(]7 SǁTDS,t#h%h'}W8:S7UQu.(0=8?I'TA7{MTAehFXR3-Nw-/᪵Xr&g5PJLPL1_nD7xɉI'b(L1C_ߩѽ!΃-4J/S.Qx茑б* &} !ҁi!/ެ/1`Naʮ륆-iߑG F+,r(|}xKخ"!#ܡ+z`1  -24 b܇"S)?>#v&FfS:b%'b&~x>tz1$'tV8[=d=*(Sqsg4<ܓ /v%`?6+"ab0U}8_bli~ Amjoli,N1,mf |OlO_n5(~O$IAT7)BC4ӑ_I2Va,P>W׶C2]~U "ݽ)5M.b,įTS>M;++-9'?7|: OO E5n#G!C 1-l2L$,5E& #}5R\2iĩ@sr[@C)DHZVI$DGDFn$< PguA >.Zn٩b`]VHs1 ! 7}oػM$c8G$࣡$N2T<0̴ˍ? /?c&D< H ꜂E"N"K<ʊq i/./Lۯ)i,Fuŋ[< dM =l%>P Dl `:.9,̵lC)zq79=,ȶ RIP:2TRbIO$VtKM19d[uUU>b7NYs' < ,^vGš 1uy򗃐'GPh }Y$>15K[@8C΁*E6DK֗ZRTS~xk'.rOBqRG͙ QsBmSB}X'|:SvW5&o"lFEjk_qzAOڬ\{SxGu]/v.QG)!-Ij]')AnݏY=鳬#cBD2q;) ɥot;KԠ G0| YΫn5sW^ < iF 8NeyF3sŀ0Aɔêp~]I,ؾLncgbGԕH7RoYZ4)!AʢWi]1dLfƈ!V6i9cy_2,d( ㆚xbہoh`tvq}Pj+ǩl츺ܞ#Qp: AEG\d"rXm<2txQ³G>A'G5D1 -IN+ʟ~fT5ꎭNKS./wKr7ԩ"FDxTy`t?KL]R -k2% Lx|zd~E7d c(\6=q{E~[^y3ᝓT7a=j ZT 4sSʬ )a@63[;>*?I<{k,r-(|ۤ 8,qA =l\ٍ*Sca(gQ%G"ZH]@b5ʪe:-1B-ڀny4.|9/9; 0$5*9CX6 k9U#1lHDWR$`璎sB/YbQjazU <ۏ$ BT0]zɓKI=e[,CZ܊ƭ?ш0IFGlDg <űEtlFb;"pLQ3?QBkF%:He?LZlvRA.HyH!HHDHȾ%8͹LL ~$06 ɪK DθTf Ǵ ؔMDKM-ʠlN$$9\OlO|Oć&LZtlyO< ͮM)m,УL=TtO P%PA ȅP|,eN؃}QQQ QhT-Eߜ ]R&@џĹ & PP1PR1y<$S6݇'[ѱhS1#l<= R9=6ߴ@R@P!P]&]F&?uW%T#IR=K : T]QKPP?MV8VPTeQ^N,VV>@}"Ch}VߑTu-.uVIVqeVyhie8lWnUpUWrUUɐWuWqWqWLGWmvMWqeص1ح~hUm UUsVDXm`}WGX/U5VؘMUXmQ͎o א5';WՕYqYaV- U֛mXW0ݩ-Xف-Ypڭ@X٥EզuXmpZraZ0ILڬUV,دV2r=ڠ[}ۭE')Mڗ}5}1a]E-U`b`uRa]0aNY^m^r ߪX-`[̈́GQE6އ;ӂeRGE=Q6nS)LCއ71b-9cCnS/>އ?@fA:fULT6N4&^ՆCx66U}P؇LP}peB΄a}phPhc`d,u{ ЁW؇YxF0c1Ya&fcFfeffgf!VA;=F8ExchAW>[؇Ah}8 8F_^_Emx@fsgxQ63-x ؇Bk(}0 hnhS 6}hhsip_`Sz&\%inAhӘ<2ގE}x xHhf & P>A>_gWifEUPg6AhGVҰ~VUek6g&,_g@}y`-NþlΆRӯkyvQ0m;~TqU3gqu"g}]NH QnFmq؜kChooo&HM&;ҴoOpxި~\Pp pLupof=?qGo">\Hhqqq O"'F ?r$ w^ 6$#_rr+'+rhQ/o-M<lc\tNW _ M9'Ko =K:B7t lAQO7_3?[$QNsC(-:/cЎdKPXynD EQuyd@F!=TXSn[-Oz SpzOxkt0みep b{.&n؁qp(*؆o{]i-"f0aXJPevxH `ept(y(xqmi0d0oPuhF{,x_}J٧m_ǁn}P (twNbl~f,h „1fDp&R "ƌ1D"G 0*a#̌M<,i3IH~0>jG̘cz)ԃ bhtŤ0;~#^K "㏫iݸǬ=l޼z 5jm&bɆ!6ڻׁ_\k"eUz3EIrȜ;A#zzu).Xu!ȭM}=OnH[>< CB&6m-#Wh7`gP1BDlu'SBE ԕy95iC1V@  * k7m^0c|֛y [qvO Ћ2{CN1׈EgF41 7;@Pw̙%yeD<0c0PX$ 0;ʸN1n REQ# @*ȇHZKXZh%vecI=iaW#8t>*\P@:@M5 Y،i9XuUViOnk_ QQ.')S""VuDKUD&ٲ Y6+[:g^u^ \.b>-fum:۶ k5)h6keKھ;'uk +,'oD0aC.o 6cDe~- LcGgD&;rkI%3o:3:k˳?KD#Z&MI}4Z 0mw\4'\6 !s]Yۖ qSYr]s}e%Q}.6GUE4$E摏.䢏ruyz2TBB|SZEךhQ "~tl$Z'!-_5}|TzRZgG{ M>7+[h,izCA'qg~kˠGCL-F_[a Bm} ÞP'xB F D$ID'`w:D[<0>e>)aW/~v 6Q< gc Q,aNU^qx"b?24)aG"%Bs- #KZY*y3z@T"Qg@Xh"<)yҳ{D."+'@*P<ЅSe4؏D (=9 0(gh 8:Ӥb=i<05Kg+}խ|0!@ձXjG嬙m(+\V\g >g~h"~} ݎf_zV"ݪHӐ5HM*r]*bjSղ}kYÂ򳶽aE)[nDi5c U-:ؠ!t[!Ah-x+^6$Y+ЊVMt&Ԑ1c(DQmjlmPùX6G/xl gRUl 3?Ys5"I~5{b6a1 jGp<9 aı-andAB`~yL> ^?  OqN7;d |{5I ,sR%96 s`L:gQ^ {8 85i&B+mDE&fι~ {ع>-j +KucTBKR^?`Xo u7;wgvo ɾx : w7pG h@Not1^O,GA\ xU^ayc.sqx!Ĕ\y.+F:rsz>taO\ꄄ:^q;qzuGgݗN;=*/]]v;bo~EϻM 7^!dgAeF$8 xv3hw4K"vWxj^<7}T}g``U:a0DS5a\[Q!\e raY= \qlUt! {ơn1Dvѡa{AS`!MFP!6"z#NbPaR"">͠  `Q`IT8A}ݩ !`)YMB,H-$B0``O*(V`U.f./"/bY*N#IcD19MH`y bu\aU"C$="6KTYݕA+_%"TA M#DF?ƣYE:qi Zbn B[O :FIU"4!D#J$um!OҡJ\qdP> ʕ6AHM"#<"4 "("bb;c-Vc]cec$BW8"JS1"8X> % _(Mh`9e[֥\(]6 ХY"HW__R$\`aDtUG>U>>&TMVr% ABcU^șjV;i&Gm no~RdR!Iq!MRTP6h=gHkV&RZsZ'txR'>L[<ʩc׹u}fI!rg~b%L*?me %o(Ihmu#THV@W.hd1&g|ha(iHofno$Ndlvl"9o$Yhp̈́qgrgu'v*eC6+"$'SiAi;[Z%SipZ.r fM$Kʨz@Nn^؝DCw*!Hpyhmd#2@"xEfJ>)Ilj)fh *j,W.櫊VjA@uWceNtN`d&Ay!kɘX&N]ڴNo&@ƧO8do@'榓^f fa~qԎjpDG'IUZp'iɫO$*)ZUGQe0Vitgs~꘲O8Q,ζ`" `rV:SUze WGij3j5mpui ~^ֆ@▕қ\*<ҧ}6ޥ"XjP& ?um u7-n6Y ֖9(W.[MY?n.zS kâjG&ɭbT+MҺ޿fhvddm^(â' ǞXt,z)M8j`Cԩly֩fVɑ: Ug%.a+ -4ne@#)*Aj^תjFĵv& E|MnB2( ߲Ν.X&`AIWjJ:R%6+A(!W*Dtd@0[q=OLj'G1[)gqObfxg1 (E*E'"XvMi\,01p~pvpu1BӵMбM hAa+ BzI0BP0ԁ- @?xp.¥p"#C\ ['4&TB()BpWrr(w\o["0X#X*V-8 *C WC:\XW\5_e6{^A\V@+G S9{ s[<ʡBp8 0%D\AFB[!Nt@i&ߖ&C669$\B؂ "_>!ۖ"` QKK0(q֑64HB-C7K A-u"75Qkf5M4 8")8 '2!i5ݦWPcoqOg%uu‡iA%@8u55AЯݵzTV6+ 7*X?,sg|ֶgmh?ж2xo[h@o\(mõfph0#qGpG7a-S\Z/w?t/PusuwvvWx7!S\k)|Ezzю7067}ב}?ŭAmoI M8ŷvx<8#7b4,hɅq8|{xus)¸wyI x8Đ7$gȮ0&9/986ˬHĪ]yyd.yGc0ʩęK9߹y$9/y+`XL99﹢h'˷ȃ?:Sy~H~ yoy-z4X@#X/YEF+k76?`KyGѬ9_G}T/C ѱU/gGk v>zS7 7L_{7;xW(c3:,u˻sWw{T{6W;c;xKyv?< |͝||gé @*<_̟k͇f@{<<A} #3};}=K{}(>7pLBo}ȏ/9?7/*y_;Ƕ#Fݧxܿw8Ț:ïs}w ν|~}<<˅O ;k?jC<5xswG@(;KyߛGEwGS/x4|WO~t?Tll9g>>W\?wd@)~X$%aD)VxcF dH#7 1(dJ+YF4eL/eִyI(qlYC *>6GScISYnUc.jĢ%KJl܋Pʵ;P]eo`yt ŵ@p\\e5Gy%*.%"Y'˭vW\mܕOM4΅ U6vwlN:{7ٺEٱ!7Zpm>';S~}!,2/&ƂO>CЧB?H $bHĊZ\ P&)!.è`įPz6$IƩh鐤dpGrɍjH&%ALt 6ʋdžÊll(ˤh;':S`Z>+⳹(Ί6lh(A%Q47H ҄&@;/J"'z3ӧ<*u/Q SZ-ua=8(JǦHc]WRb:X%( cà>BÈXc=0d1!Ot^͹$!b[+$h8hH@CA[Ffk `lVi!6DHxd@fId6fo_=yK#:`#'{ @>O:cq7ÞoCp_FtkOfJ @Ⱥ9?BoX7>@9>Bqо܏[*\$&'?; 1gYn4sB9'PGt)%AO378 x`ݺwjRY@wM1d XF$BI)!-.1DCi} q]`·> h1  &FN!i|$(ك &  L$@/$e-P :yA[BRLSFF B7 R37Bḁ5%9^22g[Gr ^T!$HӖ X;Js!r/G(zOPvÃaRDrT[ 2,vuny>"ޜ@ :-"T =FvtfTdI>Ȍ)(`aYQ1Ρn 飌 01<7A%qI 2}ՅGAP"K! WFSՋ&5smJ+,: =<": 0v"iZ a?fG.{f$L}e قnYN 2,q}؅! Ip5>cVj"I%c[GWW='0O`˖=P3k~|{h{b,~O> Ek9)4:"6^$!ޠ{`%XXᅩ^* <"ޕ -0lZNG&qi `ot&*dLܲ rmЏ)@.h+BH+!!x!+D! aR ǎuL"XHEPHpLLJ  0P|!: `F`$ABxP@L )0Appl,@!NS0 gP{$!fMA @ Kl 0 aD&LAV0wk.(6 ;@ LgQp$o1l{1 ` ȺyF\Q QǜKm+πD0oF`!Q% liƑq AB` K& ,rCi!ҭP R""[NL+H r )*&CdA @"+'ey*gJmFr()".A *;l'̟p.Ų Y` ~ `ʖx2*'%E2 Ԓ-ҥ0Rr%1S)-@&Ӝ .3*%R `qp4 g 5_, R A)vk,8 0'2V3% 3 3 !h $]J^ 9N\*ӳ g !375;s vf -!>S::/;Yk; ;3ןWWg7{{y5ۮX{9/{C۩[ܢ﹙X;Ax[ͻ1ܰݺm?<{oӸi[ťWG:a5MXp 8%[ٺaȿ;yw)<9;gyŗ{=%ͫ |Z'2ɗ :-ۨWo@G|}'Sܶ?ŷ1}[{ ]ɛ}|Գ\]7Qa%EzyŻ\[<}C}[37ȫڇ;C"eρI;׿9_ћͳݰSӓĭ!K=O۷U[};ϝڛϱݽy=L%`Kzص ! ]]߱']}[1R$ʝ1՝]?ٷI>wYڇռ\)P+};Ó#L.ϗ~~[݇<΍ݸOĵ~}>{lq>3ů;F%/~^ȃ^]䭞ﺐ^}=c7x~o{o!u%ZQm6#|۾gXL%2q>5#>>q ͙3aH1ʜ5kDF&L$I~KiƋ+dЈ% Q"ŋ߰u W.],][fN=%\pOa>%]{x0†#Nx1ƎC,y2J0eҴS'O@5T)SPRݵog0qk;z)IǜZvPERMf?!^Z}CIVrqtsq4KES_m'w"5SI%W%U%-QW)_q!rәuiXwx N`z^9YYH]#vӉMVlKc\Eٖcuifqt[#Vy䀮 &oXmW8\|ytdw`W?C?#qɧ}>iHZ'NtV)HmTq^ex'uh|$wآř?cGcVuZjiezEz؍PllrYz]ݢW)f1XW ۻg}m-~zZ K,y mERk~ :Q?"EtulhN%nyo;D۫b+)OlR/VV˺U{Y#tGc:,6],l]>wғk +Aix>J^ǩ9rK 0{X:eۙR1'%wp Y <9ٽv)hn~ }5c3px\*(/_\= m[)\+i{JbEj5orJPe.j(M+ZNnc4p T`VH%l,#V7ъpM楇ٮӡRȦddx!jetG3wlnJAۚ"!H2B|Tc+j/X" W1>z&٢beAIC,'E2p}())B{^'y%AaR{ZNo&Ipmc+\g)Jh}.T'UlAO`UZ 1ܝ5ӈ5j W.9ҎV?ҦAɡj'r.xә$0փLJPс)b3!ύRDDO60%{P?1iHGڸFa\:z̗"\LnM^cc6Li^!>AB3Tb!зBuSlt1YJ NQ ZҖzBL)VV9hS͉=Ps@LSЕk5K]qeP-oߖ/b},q#RR7DްQ晉dqr&!I9-t:K5b2.oUV::tNl-X녟v7 62(S3&5jy`Ա~o] XkF++@s,]zA($/ճ/1Ya+'Y&`/Y7],v2l,[>+s`1IE|g/]"cuY=;>&)Ƴl]uGx\s-d^Nԕ֯#ESGݪ>6&]K6Ghw3!Ndzeκkbe0%>g{?ڜv[Qxuw |{GT&8! O3a8cijMvX{s(9iꏄbYQIrm'6'E·;l\P{ E u'@%PEpD@xim(J n H`8`iP : `#` DpOy\E.LpPІ8d00PTmZ00  0`~fx z ePpP`,8P`hX%x )Kip L Wn@Lh @2 N |0w @dx(hHȋ(hȨȏ8xHܨ~Ӣpu`o iys8$@#YH0Q3ه@<<@0 ht*Y7@   Y w7XۨȊY` $p he/H)0 I R{@UL'i HP8))ڠIpYI D!P=p$`TP 20I  )}Z!Oٷiᝲ)i)ن)Ɖٜ9Y׉q[f$  J`shP .Y` -,ʗ{ WPK@|@ $ T  @Ȝ` Y03P30D dƚiq TWKIh01y T ` 0 @ <(+{I Ѝڹ' * **Dz )2zJΚh: Pe b ]WyjDPu્NPbY8[:` HjȪ7jSZjP  ;@%gKK P 1BбzH{ȯ@ІȨ LY Hm8YІ sjY Tx-;x|m bp p Nmwڬ> ][zMF˷:Ks {  [KMTpA 7X];p/ u(u  y72:븐;D;.iź[psAMd0uI&IMP%@ R&xXPo`Z^u먐 \ ЩEwZKAԺVpȸH IjI ^0T[ J:K̺YҺ7nb w+Z moLrLv_f!  KJȋ ˰JpHģy+ 0 ۣyKagZ^̲*d \iƘ ɔz=zRiq!P"ŠS[Y˲<«*_k E ­Wwj h<zu+;@ 0 ( (ylŊ.oP`-j 9jɈ ,#@]ϲ8-10突)4m'9=A8 LJHp#-jp)$&݆(-*e2mշM=?MܼEJa֩hʹrMN #0rJw9+zw!p  *@( Px&&p  #AP~S s]^pMzE!) 9 [P)p8*В0=[ H?SÍ" ( }$@@* N,wP|e` W0p ב$`Ҭ ;Yw9.[o ==P->h. 4>wI MC^G~ g$`PNQ^ H) [^%&E1rP'W/(H Ғk6diU9o3A c:et΀dQ3wykN8廥}egoRF뺾Rlggtm"` l|Jޅo Ѹm0fnqV; `PT'~t{w|NGqTWVG>X|q26u`f'm"Squs`@pz b `Oo>H_$H%C?$jRVN f<@qP#7vQz޳C_QZg>:nuxb-_/TrLh*D0Gnps ToIS~af'e? kN(ξI["@$zn|e=k>wqvWw^c4/AOv[{zsRX@Dt`]}_XpB5Oq&L)f@3gM(qԨyI*I7nxb 'OaS&M.JLqΗ/wd׏;Xl"F -Zt钧D*XCF APYaĉ/fcH%O\ɥtfޱsgϟAEr4X,X`… "TR ZUCXq 65yJ/aʤi'X|R hޤB/3_ͺU"5s hk۾سc'n XJve`9z)I*YB(:+E\m;6x|-tL=97 TL,3kʎ5ʴއ=$_&0fMA-l*DZ3 Z>[AW&UidavŚaŹjH[~f⺘]p&8>Z$R:ti\`' 1 ?7뢽=]V7 ZSnSeєkxc! 6h\_I6b~ٌ bg00ہ0w3Zf&;^?>!aW4!XH:VW&(`>74}:RW U|nA PSfL fǼKZk\;&z "v?=΂[h/mAf'S~/Kp1*x0h,4r*NasJȴ\k#^^gRr?<~z?$W(S|k:LJQoV* |) SH2N;aЈAG0k+@9~$/C+2YlbjyKe3M/i$;ͥl T2>˓'jƗ/8$7qCVw^,9KNeS^.0G:ʣɄCاQEEhG.n!ʙssiLJKPt`%G%F4AUsp uO4)0ZMYfkHvòmT$)FLnQ%]A՚D8VF:qjZ2ѢUT7Wv l}HMў,)a"c% E7χX')(at3+:NvN-*+XPHEluS:fP`;SVd,'qٞճ͝Qɿ'(}kL*a8jl{y֯wrlB׻ &&/8^,֭S z.OEpо׋si,15ҽi43H| j@[*$qqlzX۸9f\,[aM!%͚kpB]&p! Oj7qbnfgrpgLesǁv,І'ΐ ~/49{zUGdM 5j^?2m]v9_w[9Q)s k:-[ k+Cf(&L:[;?#ɟ`=ࣿ# F?#8 d{7>7CS3,0#F`?+p?Ã< .q,t +C;$ho3>c,ˋR |s >=k,P`?/}+lCSVZ9B! C2XÅ#{8fI?1JQ0lCY )D%H9sAY-A4E'4AJ<:$7۸3S=]=D$F\Fq3}ԢJ^l_ÃDHIzC. 90^t4HrlG =kǻ 6 1I<@I{TdIrI3Hʉ%@:x{$, J6 CȂ:.9L.`]K7ɤDrD/@9+F "C!*Ǵ;8ܻӞOK ǬAJ?HK{Ju$2k#pɬ|̲d̬͵8rMH1Apn , (T"4? LϽ\\$N,7mlI9ɽ/M_hDCn8ʵ<(C`7ˌRdeפ!O-II<]LLе>hhNѻN΄BPhQ, =~H5I{n86@1nOmPOM؃ 7G:1nR|S LxMMMZtK<џZȬ/:US6*T-:S2T!/ŴJm;HIQ$ÐB ^?\O MGߔ½b-8I= LNUrqkm$ Se=m fFTeAC-InX?VP??q-QKq?L <H/Ge2'no Ws|-9tuw$ UX҄\^rQV=E"ȀK0hc;Fj%!H& ؂5 %oLh"hS|K hH~y؃uldZZ=U8Q ۲]Q\=\QPu|ݴ,DPQ,Yέ%paV XO%E83 HE)˪}]ÀPP`MPVi#qxM(Z8h[@CvaE`Je5F@*0=0 q%VԚ#0WH؅-)\5܏ ѫ4_U_U}&e`+_)Z<xX1x^RtحʃNM^e((El߫OY$FЈ5@Wo9b7Pd=,ah?+v`tvn "NJj:8v~vj_w2a/$2vxOdy'7GWgwWo7Gy OOg_yy/xx'Gxg2]gxz;PK\RPK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw004.gif~GIF89aRoy]KN;KJJ^^^lll???RRR´ņvvvCCCXXXѸ-.#666fefqqq999jiiyyy100dWˉĪҶŵШŽڷ}i///:::ֺu$$$ɻ |||aaa~}t(((irfķvuedNmmmۿG,,,ؼ깠ė444Ňwͷ>ИXͿعͷ^dSoooZZZ??/333_ظ7<.ߧϛ⸟wk__GӣSZFooS⺳aiQmkleob;;;||yHHHGGG\[[VVV҈Tquogggtst___777ttr7;0570QOOOA@@<<5ccc{|k[]V!,R`A~&$hB:C AF~LR#ŒGAO%KO8dM7W|)SdO4}jShQ8*NR ҆MbUUʕׂ`l۳&:Wڷl:E$qo_|m0ӿpP48Ǝ!2FX2Lq\μƘ=wVqhң>|Zuj?:lۜA6uoٿo"d[N'o8创CT<:R:'ܮ;wÃxџNd_cL&bɁ%X *qC2Wf݆b!b"ሙމ&*Ȣ1850YI6LBS6ؓFeR^IV\n fb~fG&cf2e Zt*8A矀*蠄j衈&袌6裐F*餔Vj饘fic|a䦠*ꨤjꩨꪬ"駭*무j뭸jh0+k?$F+&lfv 踹TK""˟$bnc~i&h?*Cp?l' Xv 2so/.|n.$raЋˇl3b&2a2|. Rуls@-ucO..P'к!c0)?a#D.t4sXCTqʉO(O/u#Ov[ .$3, 6M bnʇw/%?̋ c" bcQsJ &+>byk/ۺB [<0 !y#FwBk^| #3Xcz σ ,Yzc`Vba; ۇ@ 觼Ph@ ͅ<yy}ӕa(dΦCe^4G@ ~Rk]c¸7ub<H:&@zMtLLXsAUzd!P9M{ U΍/b #btn?|%kHR-?(F~Qos`,IW\g/.f],5&ZW.A&m?g@Og~y-vGYIъmdͨF7 2r )<*Ғ*Pw&MiHҏ Pl7[jQT/_/S3m@g Nyzuy 1%JoJnE_*2tJQFsP"7ODAx}׺JbA/aZ-,KQj^ 0H."ltq$fJq꽦7= BXV-VKv5$QkZ= krkz.b,t!Dži[a%o3u*.&4Ñs/hCm#%}n%901ӕ0Gá)k!1٣ukS1l*cƁ1KSU>iR yC>Id&!je! 0-sT^eÜQ0َc>3Eͬ9|93߬92cd㮠MBЈNF;ѐ/J[Ҙδ7c_.|GMRԨNWVհgMZָFumg<lN`MbNe O ~Mj[ζn{w &rNmm5׾v'w`ލ7$p߱8pߗ^S]5< /ƍ{ 9wo"Wy/^ ?9us?8&W>{޽{Ǎp9ωt?ҭNowA½g{lT~/nv;c-)v8_qe>-ع^vƒ | vÝ0ՁE[.&nr6Fm)>~y %\@gO>.G+ 0=sf=ЇO[_~{G@|诀uZ%菿O\A@vG~.P ؀ p eP(Xh||@w,0284X0hGPXc(o`@1` LHpGBGЄX81S%:}ӧ 2 qP9bd3L4uO-YӲbHW"K.3S5CT322 2k|["0CHVcO3QP3tT"߷0)} @xKG C=No8LNb<1e@CHyb'z:RR@ D`Ck>HS]M,"8;Ap px][[c8 s2ʹ:W}S2ԓ`L1K,HKx :* Ce1{=cmDϓ0JpH'(p6ٿ+0k.$Jj1(\/ MC D ԉy;~[43Fǣ1Nl/6d;$H1cCquJ)\?,\Al6C8:2o}WD\lFe<:O\D5Đ2UCb0] Ơ(aTl:@jD 8+/ۜ|˼&,#H\Ȁ3͂0DE y1|?œz|B \C=͡m3?":bd0ТyK@ :ˀ#jM/ [ד^ۤNJ4ۊz^B,LHl0=<3(Z* Ppz 'Β!:"0g8#CQ@zF8Œ0aS&d͗" #p'zj):TS|3S C CJW]G P@XfJ{%ό?`>H2 t}M>h(9M*; @IݠYpJ͈LN3/3;4ZM5Tdc$>.>dF3zLMI΀_,40v=_}3]Ab9#:8_a2[-<Fb;0:YR>sL^-)} HdHC7Y:c:@BK/s u+ti撮 Baa :3^ϛ_-Y)NoS&?5r=S!)xk}#(FSSHS?[_#(oے~:%4039–U'1KdO- &4Cjd HHP7NXE5n81} $Y>J "@1eΌ‰|Po~ X/\F}H B 6#L~pW? B3I9HYҶ-Zf嚵A:4`BRojN<3jXȑ%3$, %y9%S3{64:  ߣ6ywobAy%I p 65(~{vۯu0;a& ґVp`ǖ-9n%+.dpv.c G˷:zID]!&! #A Rf>)Úk`BA;H|5 )zyH +0HDl,f2ι|DFmPX:CQ\eTI#|, bp2 *+h>ia DGn 3Ⰷ~RA]P(XR(uQAZ*Dx @Grg<U'\›+||HT]5V_T 7UXuӕZu",EK! (`| u2D>}MzzHؒbs{} Pb5 =]+XDPYeGs"%TC MXÝ3lP]|I\Hd]*0ȆI|6d' fG`e,XY4Md or.[ }ZiftJߍ>~Z2݆, ib^ .4yv)i]z庆@VMD|7@4oLƑcHBZ1G@ 6wFvj> uB@QAqǐ*^>׹(xƂ~UƁMG!>dCM_2er?OLPcHw#`*ańXl$ 49@ xh~"$&2I$nAȔt(X@o 9P@ G}C Q=<B$zEX܋ (Іf*!fQ=\ `$1#cG, s lQBN(Fd`1DB! i`\I Dd%-)I<.dEX#G #*J`Z2w%Eȕb $d&3WӤf5dED VGJ&jƱ3iI8j9Ln>s%-OشgiMx$/a@P)H`:AvZf|hG مD٤'E-jM}#L @RBIB34L+ObT&-Ni#4%-IR$ҔSAJuD^LI8#9찜b8X q=fپ,ôx.Dl@}jmUZdLH@% 'H>2N,8[ph]uj,nIZ7\L})l!UjzdNXz= Wſ^_9a$\Jc$0޺c]UTl٫VF}k`ܫ$*m:e1KnYOΫPCaҲH-|&gS+=}p˟X+V^"T4 0[Fwhޡf_nx[^;7yN1?HpԖsrb0ҿr7~ug:Q{GT-J%{nK G>qtEkTZ؊uWclێ ц%]Lmx_[ 6T*:mjڎ}wtIwڍwr >c[ wLɄ7!q&2Ǎ+-8KMyjMnq"+R9WryCƫYs y1备L':˽ul/_4ugӵqϴINrucĿ򰿜-y9NpO}'vE }_S/~#eoفv<o6=w+=Knȇ^8#?w/b Yl{xCaB-#,}A ғ-=Fꅿ(=5-oq̛xd7E+p7@'~QHW΀#_'5TwSD H# *΃'&Y A@A|4H@T$'ģC"&e > c=1d&8(A/`CC>{k.;3;"Be:B1JNBC8C:$;ÄXBE,D@AD5BBKD7L1GH,gCCC| *E]$oDO>7|:P,FTH4CE;F( j;PƧ[)ld|EI Es,kFo7t;zxACCHFL G1GNڳǂb$`BO4L{8%͹HC*xWLQ Է!> "9dC4SCUA0WXUkՎؔ$}؂XY_Kҋ :dZJZV?V$kMʓ= t )Yc5=8Z dqZdW{6Y X,چX XJuղXYզz 3WHm} `0"mZ-ԿT5SF}TwL^}ǵEEYqM[w]$٭(Vyגe=X=Z ňX\^e])H^ʜV浌&hULͽ^؅8lPe8UTVKW} T=XL] MX%^> K_*\`?$|` t#]`ٲOu@ٕ`<|n@ݩE"Mިu^E*VZ5fxǗ-;Wt־n` }%DAJ}_@%ݣ&ݲA\ɍ]aa2>5L7~aa }"F=bIa@aOC]dIN9wvdH }G0T;9cQθa-xƺW<%PAttPQ]~GPԌA"~dֈ#mŐ^t`s֡KPHxg9gg|ܟgx|gPǕ7kBw="d:bLhnLtthhh h~͍c h#.h{#i4ᔮ{ ]h&7whjx`_xggWE4v[`HjjjPkhH^h NUkN NõkkV;_l+lfŽֈƞlɨl{lˎlcgl>H>l՞ ֎팘ms푆mچ mrm2mm.>"n F6*~nnn5kۮnVnmvFθ.nvo Zoooזk>/mo*mo^pG9ng`pno pqp6qBqp  oG,o*Ϫ"j:og#ei!&7o)_qg.,nfk2/s3?s4Os5_s6osk7s9s:s;'뱋kos?s@tAtB/tC?tDOtE_tFotGtHtIA8>tMtNtOtPuQuE/ pXuVouWuXuYuZu[u\u]UW^u`vavb/vA*<_v rgϪfUvjϸiv*F1mlvvp߶o6+wuG0owrxKwKcw{z-w~wwNw}/"x[0 aXCSxhxQd'/y/g'dP/yWy[yy7zGzy zz/z?O_zozzz~ze0H{_{Wyo{{{{g'y{{{{W?|/|?|W0{˧̿|wb}n0}ү =7ٟw}دgܷ?~G~ݧ}W~g}w~~~o}U}?|'7GPw[x?+X@!Lg!C6LB^h G?.HVP%K\.d93eLyLϘ>ЁE]TRMq=ԪW%UWaݚוJ̹m̷e)7!ݹq뮼;0/޽zW ࿂ܷa?/Vܘcdž%.ٳ1M>`ԩ]nZ?֭!V-5س!]zvoؿ[W=tyޝћN:r̅;.;ᯏ^~q[o7ܨ˧{W~_k&8x h2 BN*"l#"-"18#5x#9##A 9$Ey$I*$M:$?B9%UZy%Yj%](a9&ey&im&q9`y'y'i' :(*(J:)j)b):*z*j*تz++ ;,{,ɦ:,B;-^ʬjr-z.r骻..;/{///JP-w0 +0 ;0K<1[|1kq|\nLl'[æ2 ͭ7g η4<D:sӱ2O#MSsza@jd$(O$r5e+uj 0$8p$JӺj={3"?;#`(a?tOh'wO iݗc.؅gOkG?95m6$ږvlˇIqз&@>87MeO{[ n~s(|k_ڗr!5LPj<ѵC|<`cs0ԼثprZײ1yS*< p %Aͭ1wF h7-j0ۓ lo3 ac:?o@jG 0pI$ѾQ`D>+m#)վxd{[p]| qSU)hr.x+񒷼=y݃}/|kwY/~q鷿;H w#4+0c#1Kࢰ3- kⰇC,"S+Ųbc*˸Ƥ}Ǿq 7DI\$KGy(cDsCe,;YWrae0wY_6sU3f4Ygvsf9pOsc "C|3dA<6ta@+ύfj=GO:Ҏ4S#BSӘ/LcӇagSfխ&2a#GpjM['$׺@|]k` DشCkG ;!uZG[ >v]m?\نnl;[vnq6wnuϛvn/uox/O8i0o8.;b/nc|8=e;B"7XaZp?rΏ8:9} Cyr!9?\έ.3P׺uWY7{קu]ew]mw}k߷y! ! >׹;|#/K򔿼3y~h߼;ϋ>=?$ ˞}b<9 |§|CO>Kէo?>s?׏직yQ˟?}-?": &`.5=N Vr fn v` ~`` `-|   !!&.!6>!:{D!V^!fn!v!N!!a~!֡!!!6"! !&".b2"$F$2!"N%^"&!0_&~"(Nb%")J͙*""+",#b,֢-+ޢ.b""001/a03./`@ !B1Z9c2 ! a?B3Z0L(" 8B]>B]7c+A&.﹟έ#@ |@?c7BA4A?|5B6n#?c @FGj5#?cJCDc=@0P<I2b8KրP54@48րLCO /$TB!1nW~b:e!2B0e\Bt6ZiL8@!)6#N#]c[ <6Z.%>eV\d@BbWaW&iF#cESB;3cK3R\&Ԁlmf(T#\C=eΥ<$?$/lfBfV &?&<*(\%nlPRt>f;֣V&&{g!&YfE%Pټ&< C["&].&}(tM\v*EN{(KC=6fZzj*+/26t#a%F*4$huc0@#RRq&%b#J3NBON'Nx%8CxbcI4 e+RZ%(k(Ȏc1jlc!+˾l1B+ެ"Ba`a2d)a>͆%JB]^-ɪ>mv-r-׎- m٦--ھ틪'ʭڊ-g-f..~..**dF.B.#:垪nn1RXz.vۖ.{b".../o[#./6>/F/( 9-(dn/v~/oŬ1-#//Ưoج09r6#/00'/@?0GO0W_o1N./(.®rpBj.! c.- 0۾8.0 0Ec溰p 0 # 8&K@Tm bmn11 ت-~q-1q,jg"qǢ _/jr2,&2/2#C>V\1:krqB+JrS2#֊2+q'rժ).#n)1,[,"._n.K/b/[af#5 6,3Ue7oPcD2,(2K)^363c%_!82@F64S3*(5B3ZfBϵ7Ǯa132.(~.L@B/B%n;[.A;4]24F3t(j8t:/dBoptd%$IcE[( CD 3L#LI%NW/O{tF+Q4L@}eIgDH@#X5Y>P4Z >!$c 4p5H@ 5_u#|545w$2@8Pu__KP@@VgUS# aVbWudG6ZWe#\4CP'hCvi5#|uP@C?@D-/Ԁl{vdn{|2qbcPX+7wu 0`62q Ե@c3BwwYK@d@Qt!q5c3^w{u|5kv,6&fW73Zc6 ypwI;~+r߶n'&}16t~cx{Z"qZa CG"g0{K(gC!AC\c8#0@}Rhwx#|"^edxG@88{{9(T8J@b!)997ji{2S%0K@[xBK:x 8 ;JC{##w!P9c80x;zJytlvrC[f@r{3Qd(t98d:l>m{x((40۸ {"{+8_:{cx ;;:hp+8t Ga8o@WPp|ǯ#7Bó<7 Za t <[ʨD<<C#%EB}{Gp L:ԷH6o++ļww#0|Fw'jjyBê}d3w7#l4`Χ}'~d77~c_h: ERsw+!-#]*A׾YFv'f r;c8m7B>R6*1E"~5a/>(:0C;j$_D %3x_ƒj˰bD)VxcF dȐPQxeJ@B c2Xy. ?~ d96ȱ14HRS[5iXPJq5=0lܕhr׏Z~T@_)s#PF wq9ESAP5@je+z;ךc\9D?33HI q J.h՞/E*qݽ = /}!q iُ.h 53(&„N2DIAԓ rC ++mh~c!1q  1Ρp(iҎĉ",IH,grʕz! n0qJ .,ň$5oRQ8;W a~ !3%=G27F-bD( <Thɀ$(҉8 nTSH(G@S nu򜰽"6F$` DUj`%pYH'.!%e4 W`Kx3WhM ha\?IL3UL!K]=TmV`lOT paD:dp\Qqxu=T[ҸHIrQ\5%~' ᪅ŗoa W 0a``@azvSGYH#3Jd$HmrZ{Gl[:<7gɆeQ bߧ5k{_[X7 N~!hvnSvA6}?ΔئXd+/7;l#o~ kq5܉#^-Gs@iLnLl֍@m8_8w5u{ =U<@é uRĽl((о0" ~ J 5tU0b~.q   :(r vÄHd `xP W9:hkbфjC Ef7*9t!q$:~L3> $үNpHJd<|$JQjXRoKV?H D0u\"77ErAXqc}CARԢ2#j}pVXW% oЄ'*yI%%8*2.߬XHR+=AN<N NJDB \fH9TB/WI@%<&@m` 3KQ RB DsҘvXN"P" QB"X"s(-<-y/8$VAqc\渃=.aC$KOi!wz-G%xs񝐼!*ChH5yJ,#R? 7_z>\R-5Ml;w!c_ ldvfo*nNnȋ(\m֭/&/2oL`Y"*KOQOX.&( *@‚.0΄"oo1 OoNp ׂ̏*@zM/ OR%H@ڐQ.gP f̬ 6F/O<ϺvVZ0VO#l t0Ȑ-\nOfq P㲐 0 j } /N PxQH@ M;`PQ5{ Q=YP;@Mo:A!lw)z~Yaِ0 )VF\@N/* K #R'ŠQ`d] 9 ȯǍ$1,Rhh(pMqq[պw)O?wr I  q!/&;6$ ɋ$q! p%R"pbf<.uRC @(]HU28?6Q*a*#E+?OQ,O$,0[1ZYZZ`.۲!/'//} 0ꘑ0r y"L1s;22( 3(73)E3G0`C+LZ@W!5q4=16%+o 6r:ݲ klXa.7q#O9)93o0BqzfzsDr9'2'=5S)CsI?A^["gvRV@q+ RtrA20B!r7ٲ7/jk§[_8SuIkSU`4I|Ԋ@ҧ(JQmoakK]A}UAe3XbKN"wcoSoG"^ZA\/pfUqr[4%ewz? /R VvaU_d&r^c4 xm5@y4nAn[4zђraPLbD].@  m@X/ٕ8rggkroy ,YhLX ie``_V<9,$_;S>قv5XʮSm`n<r+-xWyqBoSe)zzB<`_M<6S s:qh @^/c9'wSZ&Z := jTp: !#%yr41x:_ [[\s2'm :broo/ucֆʮ[QY[;x{[ܒۣy-C:gᚤ Oڲ$y7۸[ X\;t![S4TbTs@縛>+@;^{KyAqz!ɕziѠ!z7{ |N_|Yc@PK5<<<[Uѯܧ!;u+Ho{_=ܩA*I\MQ\Wa[bIY[ܜn<1vǹ;Yr \|+{ D{SW;W6{;i c;W-^A937]1P\ԣͼ|}4G= ڠ33rw؉WħK>ܷUi6ۥ+]wyۤ!]">MY3|{/H=]}]g8[}ˑ} z֓I&>ƒ^! \i(q{؇'^3ؕ SWaI~Xt `%ܑ1tu/}}uHR#>}I3i'פ>Uy 뵾HIYY~cm͟],5)])217\РeWݖ; ^G?PǼU2u;"NRuRPBZDhѢT)UFbeMbzU+IjH BC >\ԩIV5jdi֬HB% ,Y\IO1կ@3ڄs*F"jRNJzB? .7^!TFR= kd,RJb%'z /b#bŌC`B7$kbjZԪEB 3'Fi Tryxp!G]EEz R?/t|^ >h@Yڒ@$R_4R'/H˻F; DhFC0E4qCX1,xFaq)`9R }&trܢEOx8#-WF|mR["/Xdf1E;q412HS뢁! yD S$U΅d7Qh[. ,κU. ASlTuvm>yBŻBn~1cٽɰGÕ>{3l39;;|NO[]m>#V6a2+ +`.-\! K(|JR2f5Vp" WSl_ Ydp,,ζ,ZʗE{augLȢC=35d 'm=^À[A& !z2EC1?{bM>ŗӇ lЁdꮀ0m?{J=[9A\ T+ V k_,ӽvsgs@ j݌yoͱe*oH8Ӈ\PwN>cndf?OCz^K׽IKpo꛼zݱ.br?7uy%PB+ ?H?LqS'| /pya~l/Y pu' Џp˙n~tso6~':*vu[媢f Џ*`#ZAԷxp+A $gX-bIP ~# 1iVCx7GwIVY^x3xfJ *@0  .x&p`CDNZ/5` rtyfz&v766Ao]* @" {pI`f@f = K @5oLI`tHmv |b8THAWGiY^[w9]g !^zdJu#g牏wB0+4 L - u  p ^omGj jl K|G#/}@xp _'uJ u$puJ JP u  _?{FX6HIJ,g,  *up(8 DP 6X ]%" |gBm X'8|V7c6] 0ve' 9P pRP `h)w$XJr@ *(?Ō `!dxZX  {Px 0֠ $+d KP-u  ] P"PW @Xg0 XlG(iIsƄ p *  o #{] 6 & ;u` ppJP#yW@e@E, @+@ @fućn:Yin S d#pvw``^7 8Z @݅#'yqIwXC` wwXK{sd i Аw P 𘏷@$ ( P(j` ryZjz5g iC{ a($Ҹ 0_JIi"Tb7yn9hVҥ|j @*e0og[ uZ" `N**,L. (j6.HȸR@#} HxG#xWRJ $ D^PfhwQpyrct mJui з  JhW:@ M@XQImR0vO=bw|<|2|} P)TPK)[cI `*AvZ5oyQVCv`8:z~)qX d : oJ $W0 rb:xZ.mRD F67ɖvN xx М)2TP` Y.p0   f~%H6VN{b͵Хu] ;] N zड ^ pH Nj^' X#=kH ŨVvO_7B 0J0N u9phNJJȊJu NU5ytJ0 ;+Dspdx*Hlh2Hr I@oL@J-&p &V'UeR Ëuvdo$Cs; ~WQ͍w_6^s EuBW{[& ZkTqF&*i D]}~K=bThV'٪RKoX]c?lG*@s1H;|8 E}pܘm"b%|2PڎWѽ]xڂSsַͻhQVr@{iG`νZPm)u<7zkZP =/קP'u.  ޘ/M]\!tjcM(`` J0PC&i}sf ٽm_Se/+?ޔ5FCΈYi2fQ=rBo^MYmortYvɾ> B  aPFu g,w1G%s t82 7Zm\ݷ=gQ]]p @P p]`V% }&8~8h?f">݇m紎Ҏtl p (lG ~"ɅCPx٥CV]ߚ~i@?B@D?oՐg b  AQX2 ֦X^BJZ!)UN *T(СCdw-JJH`… FXbTy 9GNMZ%K"E O(HdaR%M<}~YR$IE'!mӨS^ͺB~JrR)~ Fp % DHРzJ"E5rL-~Tt BܬƎE|\PRU+WO_%BS֭t,wx2,xbh=C @L -;,VED{vJYĄLbZ.ˏ")@$ʨk먒*W꫰}"I *ꨤxCDt p T=!~sA : 4۞3 ZZp>58I ]d+Cbn,}Bi9:j4.:j\!EEI,ؠ62K"ʹTm֚R(- 7ˋ8aGd+<9*YuGC8dC ;/U PqT‹(E DPAtH5?1Ec7k4;emZ⟮z"[r UPT3 68>%o~k_a ,7!ƭn[&׿%..DsYN.\&   h!@8D@mJ[ޖD*k ئ IfDs5 (bC($!G 6flRC#5PQʒ\xUe,=Ց@09 G>Xap$wJ pS [c$CpѰr6 t"̆xF RRa-,@Y `C* 汚uT"<~\KAl8|h2?,{23"@9OlZ!zX`Lu<f @0(IjccN?Y*WNtgaC Qr"@v$IR,&`aIm#*4 P@0@\WU 5E]9& Ljغ֕e !Ҿ(<#Zta+ bwAq%3t *!*tzt̚ ,KkGHj7"C{,9P%e U5@lC"jC5sQƦTB|D0.rͰ\ (A]͢7؀v^=ڀ*0b5G49ӍDg7CyE@ωK Zx6>Tא>17>-p!ʵmJJp-*ıt=2t{-lIDf|DxL0#L)W9&TO5y5鶾j`I)S" ha |$tą, À &*VZ5 ZK!Œ&)b8e{Ù=iCil̉f3b9;Y£aTwhDk`*^ڥB?w3~\ʋEH}9=F)~PmOc{M R:^AWbkhy/:1ϡofW83k:Ç& tQUgfq_.XamLD<t9ϭoKvƠdc8 |hC @\Qu<4{w$қd#?{ uw}O頃Z8,NhfTx=n@;vν_=[/anx)OW,E5.:(d X?|,>g۵ƷCr-ݑ\t~ތ| CmO/d?o@h 3 ~yk?t]#!bS@~Y$/;ͫ;!3)C! ~0+<z!h?qlT%.O؁_2ž1G~E%=bԡ;BF "".)}t?EDP7LdCFBo< I=_ӑutEE8ǎ,s:0|hD Ā4Ŀ c,W:mhHI A#Qh;l\ݲsPqH\D R+lCw죗ĝ{G_"_XT5 \$:TģN2I4 FSK@x@Y< B K\@ hVL<6h T˺Q8I%}P Ĉd,, 1,͒ƈRX7. !@YLiN$YJ<*kh ,C @C?#L4Nlxt"1LMLŸ TTsA$5O>DHA ]\=>%&ODƨpّ ʥ}4H̾8!YNݲ͔##9 JP#;_A؁@hRrdj"/ NP|m(J؆JO`p'H2l I 2 8G:zDB&-x"*]@Dufxs H) ԋTM ,b+. 6 ^b ,>c~Hc*^6cĀc32~c;c5c78>9c=c<dAcB>dCFcD^dEfcF~dG/(cJ2FLMdOd*NO>P6QR&T6UFeYV`eLe[J[vVe* .a>K6fdïfFghihF`lm>fn=p.dfr֛qfufvs^gxngy~lg{g|ng~ggt6g}.gpgf?^hnnhl~hhhchhhhhci.i>iNi^iFc~iil℮inin?Gi.nvifjn.v8pjjl~jhjjj?ꨞj.k>kNkj^kv6kFkVkfkkkklH.l&ln6lFfvlh^ȦɶvFllmꄖmN;PKs~~PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw019.gifGIF87aϲvvv:::ޢ ...YYYJIJggg???ppp ќiii666CCClllӶOOOQQQ___|||刈tts```~~~.13000'*-ҍFFFnnnΌrrs===VVV@GLQ\fctʹ͸ͺͼͽξξ—eefɧι18?^irJRYs͡zzz˧̪̭̯̰̲τf|̱5CN̼GGGPewʛʞˠˢ%>O\˕ʫɐɓ~xLjɊ);KnFp{Ȃm?cuf%1U~osh]kb ^/Lb??/ooS__G//#_OO;00'00+ϛﳖpߩ̰Ҳ??#??___3zeUGѥTet`Y,H*\ȰÇ#JHŋ3jȱǏ CIɓ(SE/Yt eA5 ̩ Κ;sPGmHF}jTRL:*תZ~:v+=z= XdQʝ.\q~ZT9̜246iZk[} qo%2˝1GM:nӥ-Nװ%vXdb68p_cKę qПK7ztV~{wrxξ}P 6ч|z%H@S `h{wQwq&,QD4"Whpn,BD6@ ^A`pA[xLRqE|HnmD㑋$H#9Tqn)tiI "X`h@$WH_Hܣw4j_ߤ%DĄ *P\WƉ❬ "u@@ Im!AE)HdM88P\w1zt /F 9PvZq^dVxlpI T&A -QvwG,qeĬ^@W qcT[(.AWvE\1@3©blHXq'- PfAm:vPm|E|hWCep\u8[HQsMb[m:|t}9dB Ԯ%N gyS`騧B"y촷N"vz{w -H73 ?")De@ApܫLZPяmIdWIy1j`ubE  p`|!*0:p' Y@ ¬\`OFb  B$wD1q"Bڐӣ`E4Ё)!&aE6 0`Ihϩ!,NDPA?~ *h vQ}$I?X! d9 qj?X IB򐂤 +!FD> W(IJAt$ԁ%KF%A=Y;[_Ч\jt]l4@ 0UJSK%h?jS(P a뀠:*"d r!}L_Q$L:s6l&wIL':V Xj@ETFXDMgtTV*jKOLcaˠ_ETOʸX*L]j e”ɑ1l tvSg@!?M*|Ot%Aje`lMmxmWT]5 K[|~ǫRYZ0jiP #U_U6^9eNRB}jC* tjU.ɒ$ RI%Â@6"/ ]ISְD ^VY2٠x+1lk)B2XTjM*dYE)fY'u7$hnz2,?![mʌ5>+'e_ I08%ۺ$hekz("A#e9pC3  + vy}7ĵfYd{u&}f$^2y^YYY6#.}|WV)mTý u˗j.ޚ%J mU (f]ʦyv*.@mt }RI~s8"ߜ5FL_0IktN|jqzNVuwFxsOjUէ{>Ykdb† T ?j#S!iIICŸFi]kן5) lcmV u䄐-= n0s[ ‹p=ަ4/-n`HSJDyPO,8CHG0]*kSoe T,]fvodU)q?6~IU~,Qtѹ"<g(A2U*+QChW[m2@rJ q;{bXffeG$Yx縦6^n`^ [O#2, 2&W[&cR+Abf4bWbfbsf~%/1$r$'cR2Q\BPB$VDEd**uc+$G+#_0Nfa`:Ex:O5%nHE`u+k:fe+7Mj.D5Z8UxEcIoScc,Z%6ɒcVWfc5Ft.օ}ba N0H%nT`RC YYr4](2m1hiy6G hicH >@xP䀊zjE H^xIbO@PEfPpx``:xYX ygWelUN@sBlⳐ"}/*,ْ.*yI0:_b#ޢ}1N?t/.IH)Ry.DFHH4Y`yI?9d.U TNNLstOl9OeRݶH=ezAՕhTjLzurfOMsg00x"U~YEzC0 `p8ٔf:O@=PGRHa n…Vcd0J?pNp @R: L`I*sbJpTYVɄ&%ᘝ9i$EI zٚ؝ٛY kIn9yٹjn9y鹞1=3ڊ)i&S)Y9IyM(tuOUi`!yfC(lz67nrPtbvn*d]:O^ZSzSpjI]jYHjY*):rꩬi0B ʟ}s'SE`z1X&ǚ樬U Яۯy 0 Hj OJHKkF0z @<@F{)@"k:I`@3?< Hв/1K"; >Y@;$Ĵ<kj̃IuҩRk\@Ze;@.:ZiK.g{q@k m q;u;z{|~wy[yegu۸8z?;K:D"!\:i[[k˨[;Y qL\ۻk'+[;Kk;SYq)BTT˫/"ۡ CkRپ;%Q aYd \*̰TT0 $K@˸›ӹ6w.#q*9# %<>'|57D|;L=EELM1 \/\ ʟ3 <9̴d%Ƿ,ì K"i|H\lHL'+H6͛;; }^]C9=  Ољ3)[qT Il "=5N|H сST\Ӄϰv2*lޜ ʈ԰B} J=>LNmF H]x3P7Edf8=p݅`D;۳FOvM{m~}=q<cnI>`e[I`P'p@yPx \ԥnXֺ @gC|lVMuݫm)zY?}'1-lPYwwݵ&C"R}s]"?˲$=wN7V 6,^=᭷"^C&ޅ@)s0`wVϽ5 }qe=Eh5}(s5SF+>C.@$.nhn!cDD`漒Q055~8"r>Ze 02V^@%:NV^=@w2 f9TBuwq<#K٢} }Ȟˮ)3$H'IVPBIڼ%.H@^0het3N2{c$w%`K=ӃV 0b.t|MS0.ƾM>N~E2栾+K=O-@^d 亮8O)NP jV"ARO;ϾM"?܌4(tUNB?,*? ْ7?(Fmf2}NM5ZsU{O uV,ڇVWcz^Uo,{9Cۨ-n`鸳..Oӣ%;k/=C `BU{"Op1/_%;..@=e8oM&B_0#a`(,Z vP  ` LH*RRJ-]&ęSN=}TPE dbAUE$" IBP6%HH3$Z]Q <[0 ]lJԷldXzÆ DʆlA)D@o~]@MFZj֭]yѪ׵m߶-4n޽}\xgG\ʝ?]tխd~]vݽ={x/y y^F_~#@DPLA0LI p G" 9LɅ  qD qH[Det/DMQǂr|g"oQ$\&DQ(*dQJ /@=40/,@0ԤM-R8O s>S@Ӝ; sP>DE(`+EL=)ŒKM M>,S@T@G=J]mK'R?m=U[uU0!LgUb7E6Y*RUYgVg:fWVhʶ[o[ \sk U]wJٕ^{w^շ_S`{6=f\&oa'abxc28;:KF@Sd_oesyfߓjֹr7&Z;mhh[Si ۩jyszkӲ:ֺ(F4l&jmr{n{ֻ[&'\% wip?|w<#rrhVsYr?;tG'=m#G=WwuÆ}qgߺvoj w'pG:ygh>z׻zun{f&|χ;}Qfm9~c?G[G1MXv@2Lac` @EP,xAePk䠾b5ŞQ["xƢhoc8G:юwcE<яd 9HBҐ$D6Vc#N,JVҒd&5INvғe(E9JRҔDe*UJVV21hKy}-eK]X &3|\.ٮa \fMs5Ә,/ā M9YKSP.aLt'Ɂl` 21JrNwY$6TߔU^R(t%$=SIG*d! D B`ļ&@z \%, t fgيC7.: x*TQDp+DXKavN(3|iIa)U(`$P!dPݒ0dl)" \Ʋt'4R%1lU d !8lK*Eҁ(Tcl)XK)e+2 KyYFʬ,UE"%HD2rN:v#.+E,,nukQnܩP<+H(tB4B Xju"RE,$XD ~ Uib$ɩҁzfo߱)\2V(–7Kq@{—" DI T4 aXġaEDPzTH2bįB&"1MJ^r! C +!r|gcH 9'Vy7ݏUTFPU(L ƐM/X,BڊHJ_:RrVextࢁ WOəbiH`͹ +i,WMK] r"amLRhۯ:toa_Y*HzXmb1Z,CV !¶ifD…&:9װIWhe|7χ~_Jw\}w?~'Cp~O`﯀٧/g$4DT@1c 4@' ,<$<@ @Td D@.A |4A@"!$ &Tr'\`I‰B*T,ԛ ` znh 7¾H@DS *Ȁ+jmlpmmEplmІMr  ID7nDVo8aFR4S$d Pdml h 0[ŔBn H">r#|#UL#SLXKeO*.u`7>-N)% 0 3RƈMӀ:3H 7:-ԹSSw2?T  ED HDTh i.3@ xMNJ:֞+pR@뺂)fO.EtkxI XP 8W 0L-ַ$wc}L BdN̴)DU X ̈́l" @ ( $X$HXuWyx؃Ӵ[ѪHj ֏5IUYu YHVXCiIٖ IYB tþ Y<Ƨ5֞E hZM_D#]TMڑڴWm NhSNdN^NւDH$W>ؤN[@[MFuܗUE CL1EBPXؤO%X\ԭ+ǭ ЯSQ(ubHّ5$ hBvEl%Y$N-^JZ%uQ+X RJs0b<u}_=E}__s%P|P__dsP N Eh` ` ` &a! űX1Hr#+Enru T.%E0jI VFhtFr`(nbb)'+>*b*b/b0b,cbbrX`H,fc7678.9b:8c5˽̅-nJ,T-aD>J \Fu}3N䂠?]c]e_c`e\6`Vb-@U]uJk$޿imUV`JZ.rpw&v~gwyayg{g}g{Fg*rE^@fNh芶苠芾hhhZibܢ"sMجV [͊G [hqiƞVvGnEbZ݃e*ߠ\hhuIN0ڀU }ΰX$UNvEĀ}^MX,D퍨&ȩjϴj6ۭ~h`N¶SM-`b!hJxfɬNnvMܖ Ĺevm>Z ؁6mM4mdAmN`ҵMáMf҅SU脤- PV$̢tKulǃjh x7#,v4mceP3̵]Vp M[*[O (]-'+P{ZVٜ+Obr]%(։OJGEqkpjso؆kb4F@qUq ]H$b@:"n-Ђp 0QZ]UEURrK4ku` ز^/%$H:o R \uZm I] 3NEE>zpkPvi'qo0zڬF좨x3j)3УF-HJSQrmRv#Nb*>2r4EuhR$HgrP 8|gVBMIm7@v3^e4jUsl7pXlpvpXgv=w=l&^q#31nPjnr[T%Yl ` #d8J)\MMOLL:"֔z#_{3sS扐JE>Wg_MdywtŲ zk(YX*nXcIUxԾ]~!&T}$7@-ꔐQ ]^|ly{KTեg /L`4ndžEQEyp7L6l5f|Ј`, { R6ڐIE>ffm ZfGmjamnt3%n TX$p@"^A2ph@$Å d0Ō6l# 6L%̘1i&Μ7O4i3` ۸Eز3` \=ޚẁ8o, (ذ84'6l2_l-ܵ `T`Ev-j $| ṔoGD (Ԡ6.Ȓ'Sl2̚7c <!Nt/I_0p5Пih7^liԞ1&xCАn ٶ;Bm; U3Z[N$,8%Y[5B D@F5@4h@(2@QeZ2 x")"-@VAb-(w=~ÞM|8xde! ΀ 70YJ)< %a9&oUЁW|/b3uyg-}e#_9(f&KkV(\&@ZYxj)?|^:je J*abʄmADdn:&Yf)yN:錳c: J;-u\LT:м4ƴ+BHtQYL„AoR6ORl|dVCЅ!PA0\i k^Am,Bqk"FikWD1&Up1D@1:OT4QK=5U[}5Yg #L* P5e#zvm-2o. 4uI=L0# DmRQI%/AAE1d6fp:ꩫ:뭻:챻n6]+ӈ;ウH#lPY[7m2JYEM:91.=NCч,];@`c.9T:GF; i8xm- `x K׶ cXbΤ PAGm6bf,B6*! wPe[HGN#D|"G"TVr[Z&[͋r9e5ږ"l/nǽҔUH >0v]s$H$3&Ks?8RLE,LMrZ͐g f׫U>bs2dB2CAW|#(B%eA4Ma%Dts RȚ=))D1{ $L6'|',؉cM c2wǑo:$Wzd!sIo%cK/ɝ-h0'*UcK]#H/|]WUr P Uڅ{b>gYSjz' \]40$Yh ƄibEud|)?#ի~6jL̐G;z Ћ 9߹#T uFuRe$8G5D@S78TQsoq&J7Sm^c E+;OI}]r#.Dy'W',5Q0֥BqEhP`xPo Ep _tE=]0@`s}2k;yլn].{˵qI1k!N?zd5bKKsiKc>c?#B>A@.C"DCV#E"D9D[`Fnd#dm$HRG'zGvH$GdKJ"dx$dMKЀMN"NO$ PG%[xdV$5^$O$$K>TK>IJUZ%LdTdWRLPD Y%eYZF\RbF%JR2%Eܜ%9Xf`&` &bb~"afbabcV*f\` tfgxgh~Kfifjfi%jeg`&lg&_6%43"" Q,Oo&'4 p"s1nqrVg0>8'viM'rZ'x.N<5h8xvEp'X^nC5p@J]ygx'\Xp07T67 {b+h{^>M7XcT/}'JF\D7<5g6[1g3ztQ MhelH@6TCyAK75T6K AgYQ.fXgEdVjg6|Z PPjdxVC(`7,h54hc@황DA Shj7 P$z26hF<ӞF*'ΆR6 (jհ6h nk@DNpU7g|c|i"2ꨌQTE(khu*+60krBNH+_Z+fk`kEr~+gxk5+e2+瘢jd+++++0*,\k-h ,&ʻZ'&6,*BRnbNl^,#j,*vl,"l,+,͞,z l,ϲ+n`m.*-j6m2mR:-^-fz-z,VІFm-۾-msM-޶hQ'm .BJ"4.-ݚ^.涟o_nUrxnd.KVAv&|o/.)/>9/NI/^Y/noi/~ry//]/o߳;5?3<@{HA*tp0AKJCO GE?4B/F74Dk4EEH'tGc4IWJC433L837LM 4=4Ns?4M{3O˳OߴN5P8Q+uRS3]|tTICObuFkup\5X[XSWVXYguZoZwu[G_]AqBu]ܵkv^ v__aubbvc^+vd3d;veCJvfSf[vgcivhsh{viag#ej/611˶0m?FncIm6.fvl l6q6pqro7wp2m4W_7vvoww[qf@7 oƁAAF`ŅdHwzNQe{7\\0nծ,~~-xQ"HDwsهA= CmsJ4?K[D <@0H @ H$d}T=+HA~dD؞7o_Z|چ׆iδ?v KU$k-kHk[b|?x_;W0@"ăb4p ̘'"881qttʀVY(Q=P  Xu fJCRZ _"IhKEb; üȦ(@>8(2EGqLSM3iBb;Nh@5 2I (B);CIQ *ŠfG!I ZiI\Jtܥj@="LH +l3JZi)+H]boPeW|`h EV<*:СЍ0b7`8dmݟ&]* 4h5됰"TDHz流 /:Ps҃jɃ/|+Lòyݑ;;F[vY?OJ"0EѴa(4c@t^$XYvݓNa 2XWҪ%3K"\âz]HV .؆5+ kĞ騕['M /A[Oӽ!Wn(G1-9'\ѓtQO]ui{׷ìqOq}u߁~qm]䙿Ugx#N9z )0Xi$` Or(m4c5KB֑"~ǮO3(ćz2@JPliKKj ͠3@@pCP5@VGM ȰX&%"*?,y x e41& b4P 55F!fH}|,x)aaR$bl#hF/2U!z!%B *DU x!Nu j: )1p@K] $c&cD94,|Mir8:iE\-HaO`ЙNu0HtU[NcfpaOh?N&< TPLm?0N@ͥt9>j%Ҹb2: j,%C$6  4qS^"ovNH]yGqr 5Unj>9u#B HRUC,ف (HfIVsUB1 Ɉ*X9ױ2 T'P-=I٤,Jg< Uf&`IN,UZt $B+#$2 ^j[Wyv tWܪvg6$ `p0p3+s gS8 @:hHۥe}@&'O p_2 U\$^SeBkȼYm0ԼYlNܴ%,0#aPDaKT[ 0`XZ@t1nJ!d.|ԂƉe0CJ9 f6[L'pcf_@`I@5ypH ހC$8 B3~i*\Q>`l"&,6h21.ҙ p#g F໤PL Tp"E'I0kVAlmIbiaUT0q%xH>e˰ jr`Yw.?Ӯ}n xp$pocKXA{'. s{[ wM2h:\l L`2FMc6c>*&KMZr ^܌N\xW/) K 0ٓ.VԏUk0|>N`L:Po>ܑe $`~E0jH83Xr"Beɇ`do @ pO ܤp"lI ` &N00&ab@ @🾬PoI  d @&2(O $f"Bn&Z- ٫JPPrpNP P<@ PJ (s,   ^ro pq 0ʐc % p oB}@ Q* խZ 3VظPcb h001&@JPܨ }ಐJ.+'4KjH0] f P,A. &2r0@ .qoK J ]bDN`.cM1B4#,@jq d2(H,${T +Y{! Q`F !p|  m )!r2 Rp{*? H$%s LrQ|Xh2(&z,m q(rza@"-]aܨо . 2A )?/~"`Z/^-O@:1@@ ,72/O@Zҍx 01ISzA> "S26aU".Ҧ` ޳52Gs> Dq洠 ` ? 5(Is(p&@ޓ7},N':("|-$:CB v r9.e/Mt#(@ t`F;m4a!2T 3@32 Ssӡ`'m@ 3?1@AҾ@T,?#4"+BAL3NJ83D'J"Lp F$-eo@@ r`F.մD:'Q E^l jS-H o.1!Ijj L{l܈ JoTMAtῪ@ O?A3(ؔZkAr[L 괘2AUOT 6?5M0LLUD3ru F R7nגX@fSi$;\Ta? t૜X`& zS[diVqH{uKhaѤ˰ JGUWh  ǴA@ i5C*{]Vkִ] ^U 4`5Ms%qB~V![AlmDzdCtDTMb?j "`f @" fCZ>6dA9;vmoTvs?sKlbֳ`8VveWgt0ofWhxnAkWHXi j0 fa$Y^m{u i} Pj44`d~%?qwMm{mA Fnw.*l!}^pjx4h ȉ)7 2lE8~MBrwP&Us9sKH @ ``tk膠Ț(dK|(\`8vgSkd}8:Sw}7CVeh艢& z ƸXzkz{0yWm`!Z((IȨH0 K @ d!wXrZWp߶{%yI! Fa؈(h) &!wٶM#^A[!>!thֈ 2 9Goc9'4 yI"ɔ#xK4RYXr{#/sw?WP  T i*6 \L yvG6QsᘉQ @yX}=:I baC6VCA|֑k9ILP4!  I# :!غ6jCaj%t>#$:yz ׮ 0! VmaZ  ڞ5 0%{\Kخ97{! (X h L۱wr}{ѡ6bXA- 0aF@Dp`\n.@dOZZѸoweziڦ[;{qf\ fU잃뛨:}Xó39 !$a&a @ ؠ 8 h\l\.,ZWQڪs!%a)ـ ƣm|*#{7*:KAYa A˹` ͜!;_;O5LAQ\' ˽}ܠ;'{s;+;;R l I۾x;TMs# i@mߛ[.ڐ{Iҫc  ż̇ȝ:gO]坳<݀=; ݵm~#۠/^4E= =ٝOM#!]%~ 0==AG: z.ϒaaձ[ֹۻ]q]yׁݽ{[=]ٯwk mr۽'<ǽ܋ܓ:ݙz{ zij}۠ae~<>7j~:=]ߑ~gmDε/!TU-?>k|i?r痼{#'ʅ5?]C̓mճ~c]ֳ]s}܅=;1UTBf' 0Ç%J @H<G 4ذѤ @nPq2dĀ +zh-ZrX@B}5ԩTZ5kU z9[ 1a|e+XZ*e*G E4Қ5jشi 8qș3N;~*UtLRYN%K֬͸:{kiSW3:Lcekm۷qֵWo_n 0ōC\r͜AbL( W %J2${Jٓ^$K,B 9DYF&I&TqK/4SMBzTRQp(J/UA,Zji&X{ւzdY\sUFix:/ז--^VM]'nk_,tjq{k]o꭯ J 4.Q=ܦ)I17\v!-Ԥm@*>'-\FWj7aMmVX5.2~$rl6'+usFW e聤J]V4E[08L#p;5&?,]2P=2L/SrW8AN;φ'>h:؇G/,8x/Z?5B@cC_,6m~C୨@p[C!>"37![$̛ ŖoQ+dUCsDu >E EchD!vJ("1I0gEaQK/hL+336L$6S3<,~cQF( ]Qm#$'BV*WR(xJmj[)ە@Ĺ$#c9At2p?zʐBt+ao -ϕu]&vXRԝԘDfU<⍨#k6}3JXCVd^<:7wZԞ=}x4_@0Ђ DB L9~FQ:h-5sj $rHRF[@Z-HrgU{5m`{9+CanLZ(P0*¢Yi樚=f]=.IOgYljVF!n}.\Y=33{j^ GKQm߭ti%%i?Cz*\dE'kZ%G9kTpWڤhR$a+Šj]"JG|*ɠbDr(L ۇ/D9WvҼtZݭ^׫ٕ4T0yx^1]{7OXoj H-V(dM7 *hf R iQ|SiU9K?_G뵍=l h8͗-. uA60JaUdD 9a57aNƾ[)S! v^[,Fnz\= =Sh39l͑OCP'>0h>w '-L6գ0Q訁1+K3FF9P벷,upcU3T&kgVM"qdm69S. WfOfx|<Bu;z L +4<糟%DĦ$FܲnJSz7(|…* Gy,_<x V"{|JޮH':M^&[1+{fYdη΂k{6ؿ]ȣܯ\R~읍qgZzKvxS7 ^2m۹x89)>2]P5tiwd:X}M<ƧT`B٪NNs]1lGhrP}t |ngggse{goR7h&o&py~a|#| D||1v3p&}UW}u}AeO50}UUg~UrUl"le~)3r^]FۓyOG(HfBwz6g7n XnK~@ {VpsZh| L^Z,b'a'XSyȆ|X_v.9p3pEL7/T;4Bx6xZ5~]%rv~&x(~_OFDyG57m}efLȈ`(XGeXX8LƆLDŽp(P'tX"uwug{}؄Sh!AHD-8ЇH/i@4}64}fw6Ҋe"'Cdh~ bPt4u 8)iYh؝=9z6)ɢ ȓ)F9JJ\ZT)y_k wʟ*]Ij^v rQ(Gu KmZM;^ 0*#)[`u?Pj۱~ْ JZ^0'[z{$_0R-d49:ĸI٩KAڹڥ'W%@<]J_lSkj 01@_ozqJ;Qڻ_`4G-*rY˼*;(,niTK؃[DǹXɾ]^`-+yQU mfs+4; »e+m !k:YA_~ыsQ|w6TJ 9O9BFwCUۯ;VP[G\vźMWKr,dZX]8 {ب:iۺ+۷npL8yw̽GtZ<菗KȶL~TzÎZ||F\yHləɜWȤɠ|a[ z』7*\ƻBܨy˲skB-\<8,ϼPىlw"ŢV |ʍlga\VҶ̘` =Գ,7mYu\̜ٽ5ظ-D7",slҴXJܺ̋; 9X$YI8ϭjL|żb|bVЖՙ;` ?[ц|#&9qu}W+Lӄ+n},<̲L"b{0ےml<-{=> ۻ.;0!4Kfeѯ lm=Kɺmμlf(ȍ jx4= װxʖۿɿKy}>A4 > ʽ>`\UҋR 㚘ռ ,~{DO.ޘy}֧@3RMf#xZ.`* s=HnW vx.c/Z&B+Sj훊$=e>DMג1]\n:ݶ22?i2ЎΠYn}hfjlVXt_ҽq>v z?Ok*nIK PVIUюT]F ޾do7!tK! $H01gˆ)3vL/Zxz+V+RLB$H$MF 6m'N9sdֱR%K.]”)Td": QIhCA%DPX-oUqcǏ8M"iJ.ĜCM;y*Ѥy6  9:qkW::rdCgݸ9u;hPD6i Uk0`@k4;Qۄ%K>ԨQ @  F8R$&Mfrㆊ <(P #F _p} ,hђ#j lJ-P QN枋lN;σd0/=^XϽZO> P`Fs1^Ƙe+0҈#+ˬ6Tz8ɭni.~ ѐqF ^L!h"*I%K:)l*q϶˽{M*L"[3z-(l-+³FL|Pa5"2l:T-/E?P*\5j;v+䖫:騳n.;{//6@$PXbmpg/!Cj;TGTV Eb<7_VXa}r_D-+$?iɓtIآ;34Km`!2zL&>,.vS^rR;w/j.P5+)ћя#yd=MTWL^05K=T%cUg4,O[Qp{BUQ(H+ }@j4A-~3c71} $E9"bGN2l 3Xpn: [w)pJX8-ؽ[墈;ATp`]s:"Έ+ĐD&:&2#\d¼F!1~I*cJHlk 4!`;gr#~Z͌":M,dF}NAk0L& axUL)+Vl+7]m!nHdY;"!aNN[axlh ^$LӖD)m澚(NnNEW%2@a\8x'#-GmldOH| XH@WQ"e(H͏"(d"衫i˒6X^6\(RPyu (7 SS,pjeoT6/O0-UG0zK%l s3<&]9wt/IKkBڤ7V5"\͉Ak_|#&x<1{*ֶUcM-,Y{llmIi>6k:*kN5(leQoL{D0 M`kOei۪=:Rc7x ׄ\ j%^K24f܋!a]Kр ~_wvb\IW _ T`LX`+lXT%c)E# @iLsrgYGQ1H# &`jf$Q=RK%b!l`(#pTT6'Bm[.RXJ/AS~uEٖG wTnra1KTUdއ5q LbA<]~Uw*#3g(h [MNb<ޏɈX3jxDv,/I)ij (Gp֞h̜_ZӪH1jG C;3$Ӎܥ# ;jLRFrtgy^rRX=!"}lNa/'pTm s3c4HJ7@c8[DD/N8q>a ;p%.(rz<ãO[z_3 *㭑.C_2`2MQ6Ӻ{uTR?)жv.fW0*\:q+ʠrLvhɫ^ hȀ0*[3*jc/;!@Ӿ8*h"CcD{{Gc&`о=4ܻŢ}@9\ЅZ?(iS:^KJ ><(;؅Ea`|---1֫3#b`)ӿr[.òR;/6Q(@6l-$~7bA0T`8BcAa4Ac-K=x:L^''|25;#; <E/°h1B+@CaÁ>EF5|>jC@Ҁ%|@ vD03 I-:H=(\@ 8Kăk/ Dоr09kSAsqA3?؁CPA^ܻ}4AZ;"{D'Hq& @(ilĵkn,8 6 I;_F]@ʬsGicj{C81X=Cxi /ڿs?-?+I0Q Fd' sH:HpߪA1Es8ԑl " I=h ,3̠=E@4O@aԽbBDm0p ܕl UM`GFy0HM>>Ă@ w<ΐG>K N U t;Cc̸FS2=N"v[l؁'hJ|*|Pp4Q@Z0_">,(fb R.fjړ#. VW~eXZv(qd-,δ@ !!` Xn"e08 (d `0 f8 f0f@ef$e%ff]8\R&@`$HgXZex7n筁_4agrNfVffvgeifka#0eTFUnvehvie e^4CHPA`!Y fPi .jÀ^hpjjjjVWN8.j^jofkk`k]끨v>۠7{v  ])~^mmNN.nԠmnF޶n춑n^o^ono~oo˜ooooVWopp/poOp_popOp p p ݛ ppp Qq/q?qZFqoqq^qqqgjqqq.qr!r"m"?r$Or%_r&or'oހ r,rr*r,/0r14-23'5G6W:g/w9;@ADt8'C7EGFWt 11 MrNOLQu)uO/U?uRwuSTVOZuXouY]J_Y\b^`WaW XN`bo@^kijnv+vl/o'qGstu/wtvpo qwswxz}|w~ww}`HW]Jvx/RoxxFxxyGx_1'yWgyyxy xuzv'7zw/7xoz?vzzz{_woh{{Oy{{|'|7|{oy w| x|ȗ|/ɧ'ϯ|Ϳ|'}7Wgwۇ}їܧط}'?} |~~'|7~(?Oo~ À"$h  6T!#>Hq#ǎ? )r$ɒ&OLr%˖._Œ)s&͚6o̩s'Ϟ> *t(ѢF"Mt)ӦNB*u*ժVbͪu+׮^ +v,ٲfϢMv-۶n+w.ݺvͫw/߾~,x0†#Nx1ƎC,y2ʖ/c 9Ξ?-z4ҦONz54Î]sڶoέ[kپo{8Ƈ|yTǟC.=9֏:};wԯ3{~L=)ϯ|DـF@ 0~ >Y_r!yP!v&`@m$0a |vX}وI P@>2x ). $ t D@ ~L:ɠ@hhf8 0pb&2`IA @\Je,Z LPP*MZ饞ez ڀ`"}BzJ hZkj !^Hlg1 &VЀ bipkq>>iiivvvӼ000???hhh@@@fff444,,,~~~AAA///MMM  xxx&&& !!!dddgggYYY333pppjjjcccaaa\\\[[[JJJUUUFFFSSS555LLLVVV'''NNN,H Ї#Jp3jȱǏ CII)M\ Rœ0cʜI͛8=.t8b*@ J R>2ɴӧPm.T ͧѫX"]M˨`ÊK6B!=رc(]Bݻ[⒓6XCbÈ+*l;S5v(RhH(MZ,tdr/˞={(or j1Fťͼ9]~wسԠ:Okr6@ܻė|4A{h |Z@w\G(;qgwEhbmx)r`i P8ǀ4"(dv1u&lrxlV\6OE1"C)Hd,MQ#d8dM1d) 10bu1@tEIx[^CcZ6@ *͐'x͔|*7`f$Zh]m99LJe-h]n ,[LdA6lk*ꭆ6yͲ{b-."4q3Be&Tz`{V ,XK=Jv5; [xI  CL[-mcOHj9 `v2B,՛0N_S 2 73׵ץH+0B+W]/[Vˡ$~gVS1ҶI$v[2ZZ[4Mn[sfK')8,;@PB` jF; jF3]P!wxV~* K;+0 ԛkP%,Dou }#8vݷ m4Wqns_3ct5V֢nŸ Zb.`85'XTAEEZU5<}'q,J|Hm6]?/r7hvX֖e-|cuxc"c.[QfU;V;#srٻa{FƤ[!V V,ۍ ij@~ ꡲ168\%.. AbY攀ímKL>41Iy9̰ !p{"f,^xBˀ+``70QΔǟ0Honޡ]tigXRt3(z@h\WOR\.;TZ4IY5!وy2{F"̺*Y0"s&8D!}TW6?5(2^\l] {/k7׹hHF oE^ Ԩ>SIB QJ _Zrj޹젭9|Q߽`= gL;Ѕ+/b!JE<0!c7|*~r|R$'6^VTP_fk^C,g47 QQ Z>-w'[p3ha9(87Wy7 X!UT) f!@#.Ȁ2(*gOxn\mEʱF}[`T%WB#Q -X~W'RP Wb}4sFpaUJ$yv0E]Uosp  :u1>+ |؇H91x ʷ w4as9I2:W9 8j8@ AZxBz Pm hv8@$1'4: c#m!vWCS r8hx0bJ @%긎#>Y.Xɑ3!'dli&& 䈯sLd=g>+DbOvv[B@ /(|&5i(J`$@("A P [)2&`bY8 )  hPr"do{Ba2”CZ$7&&puyyّX8i/Q vЖh!e@ p  zٕva%g))=I#ƀHxZ\Bl\E. ix镪B9 ~A14"GH9?Yɕh`eЩykq#sra ʠiZBi/pn A@,%pw@ Q)ڠy{i~*0qiԉ9jQ_x"KzQ:+ڞ03ښ☓5b a``9a$Fz1z1\a7$ "Yz0P* J,v1# 7:Z@JaڨFDJ@DQ$ `:ZVڕ I Z@ #f4j ;jJ0 <lYAEpN \;0y*j-:&4ا_JZ* Y}QCK  ;*K[.9ٚ 1CQ T0:J({+˲ p@ жI?@P,pA0|+K ;= KzڱI_ zczik˶s[@p,ව+[*JUWzkB\P1 e";vҭ14!*0{e^kzjhp. 0P˷;; >P+8kb[拾n۾@ @0 wʍа:q Գ1)#@ "ϻ@ >Lp Nb6qB 0f| ۶ ˺ >B+@`U0 +);[ [%lQ` 0Uw ɯ & 9ʪʬU;-UKP\E21&0L=!O=L *|ea d\\^,aȋ|}ȩh]@ɊkpP&P p e˗0i{ }\9zJ+;l_| P@Aft &` *M S-#-X##)CѫL Opjp.*q aMh>͛ꂎȄ`nAZTmq` n~vA}֬Ȓso0 nqR>/~V =} L c0OopM`qM ϱ>6.@ V  V] @ʀޝ>/_Ͻ` ^E.娐P ^g]*@'+ϗ-? +Э7s%'ʠ|䟰: FW N.0roUO@|aL^pM p`l/(oXf /\>镮j P횐 ~ۋS^O "_W_p~ Wi0^ouL1 PJiʕj%cfŒ-^ĘQF=~RH%CBUQS^2dEH…-[<*WR ʬ.pުBʭ¼%)AE+e`Tl Ld&P4iRSUh7ֲ|Tm=ZITt L6q'PDESHSV-epKO.:4Ÿs4P!C-!Jqe.嶔JC&S3J&*+Us#(KV"E! leEO"4>(l70R$EOJ>9 M2AP+IJY0C|9n\32dwb^{e.9%j?jbhY8BiX%ٍUCL*,5YBP+*v%7v|;ӄ~3҂EHJ#WqRbS:l׫ǫY@tM x%؁z zn # تAnʺ>ZվsJ.Ŋ|VFdc{ |6Hi5Vl$XB+ݐ*5 ô~E; +M0*:"x7 !"W P" )(x |Ѐ-p|&\FS?uH"Lj$,xC%$q%7,hJ?Fx7ED@ ey #$j2HPSH8H -`c#@(C:V }5V6V-1H@cU8S@35Uu apآu9mx)<9ͭE)L 9v2q*BXBXaӜFWWi `144XRѦ !҅d\TΔN 1 &ܹa]x;L+;Z̓aat G as06y.tDx1-s4t)MqSĸ0GKߧj0ٕepI`; peah<Fgaz鈔VcHFD@/iAal aT2]BKLh)%Ԡ n8dX&28,m8єI*#K;SA[ Rְ2\n8<i`[ךe%ff"6^^e d@X9&1@غVJS`)TQamkU,L3jrkԨb& WO>fVv.!+VK^0 U:tPYHg"_+mo~X4I.F9»"*ӚųD ^v+j3r#tRrm+ b/J4p%i/fnrc_H׆|"-WjX׼sHwDu~WY* ž<s_ X򹒈& 2gdBi`&D5gWD4} Kܕ09ENH?'CE/-TU#]n9\1_s <%Mxմԣ *8rM8`TKB -u 2Q` ׬?QᥤhGE6⤗AW\lD$|\`b8R9/F{*ML2E9 #BX.zǰ2$OB#6s:gYF5%= ~o_n`^vuf&UH~j# y/2 &<7@ܩn_E400 1a gžj] 3d~w 1 nw_dg XxD޳Jn㖫oC֕}@gAa&wz|&!sY`Hw cyjoWAsSk ճQTJ/ zO=eWjY0gǸ3\]zg~z%B޷`ZwƐ(ڳ&>)>2B0=2擿 蛾p[>C59,zI0ڲԓ<,K> ?pkR ikZ* +j±;h# q)T)xd)̾C/8& ?4t5b?sI`BCArCyPTخJ&&J3y>1$hh:ڌ9˩QMˈ"U=BÈv,bC5  J(5\=lKd,\C0L.) =8$FKrJO$p8" B ڈ)N A%#'Gy8 DE^ Y@0.8R3n) CSAcDFedɉaqKh4:CHq +{D$nG,1Ǹ˪SXaY*LS%8]zPz*ӂa*4⒘ĨTZ%Z7(8OlO %XJY:4ˠ8U#<|4VAHj̦#I&ⶏ2oZ?9IcltIHA@7hkkMh:5iI$t@m \ 3Z EM: GZaꌮ袋xZOóK9rubb,>:AJPIjsbQ+@JДk%0/nfmi+A &sTKhЛf2؈yD!溈 ڕ\Ĺxl!Q  e3>_cM T\$[J9 s&plemTkLE8%=m4Zj#ԄݬԎi^ϱ&b4Bݚ %SVD_%jVE6cw&GƟ$BLYRh|>A_ۈ"!E}$籸8@Aea # lR̒ *pj PCY)'Ba"*զ+WZ֪, bj2m)ԨRRj*֬Z>5A)8LhJprV" W!T'~[i=& 'n]IAvP ,]ԒЂ߉$^Rs"a9&WEcmU YJ"$DML  4Q'B|")DVF%ىdZz|B LkOx&mݖnUIOjQ2ƕ"ihIu$g]r&Zea yv%*,|fޗfZJ)Ϊ䜻]J& P XdYQשzP-]x"#G{/UiL}7jbuqtI(UiZ*ו]V,Q/%|rS΢_kJkm5e\ QǠkzW~,oՐ2껯 LԿ+ۈ"U⑺޵*'1sIv \+`cQHtyMʡ2=35t̎m}aua]IoܒrvS>:饛~:ꩫ:뭻:>ԵK]S~u%E1MDPшsY_3G\Fo-~ڋaee][aC_Xŝ 7&$&?>Qz)f_ AIR_72nUAw@gZ=~w#^ja4sRWw^%0%[6 vԻ:%NyH,y}qqpYa;J}Kz9ԯ2fl a,mKTD7#߀T,k9auu|@&X?f@d-ֶYn(;+vk?zB"DzA&&*Ph;B`B]I g0ΐܤj.d @!Aぢ%&x[Dh` DGYNf#g)")e P`*]҄lexi |))h" &~*&C]]T '8%,lf\Ÿj w*q$4(~Z*>3vpjnn/0 詆'~g$jbʂ΅^Qj[Յ$e&0bjihkwMޒZԣvvf4򪯖*h <ø$kuaB@ܢ_e=c2|j뽎鐢x!R+yΐqB!4:ndtB-0h@J,k 0l;֩B L?rNB/A+kR,hg$+Bhne*H,A.-Ӓ>-Rm[J-DiM%T!"!C!ٺnښ^l"_Y-UAimyfj-L0Gٞml+ `㲈VZFbnbFrn*-Bvb԰+ljD+7%Phn貭+oG.CH@ ټ=/@oR.-& v/Eأ]A& tvA2Gb0,>@H@To N~k(gl/zo,,)a랜eGN6CoNnvf!vpEς02MFAAf!h,p -/d*B*nL`"I!- L1G힭ZpZlO3qTB{G'0rb(l 1GWo ,r1 $!r{h1^MW(&@%/CB pr'/ g/~^+x*r !L{n- ,@HU=Zk1Dx/KS'3x@8s{h@}Z0sd'7 7o8%,9'Sq s1 , x@3 C%$43=r( A{-$p.4\ $A9031c+2f2$pkB"/,>\J4[ऎvctM7t'?tGNq3 sgAtQ%@'VcŽA $ Jw3t'XaӴMsNKWpYYc$Ahh ?ƚh%h)X^t_C ^z((@awM4D+63P/&| ehh-(@dv_ p-xB/H(ja:N0O7vEyD 0soju  (;=Ӽ9t罾&oqF W%G/[z=oπo91!@-@Cț-0 =<H6.Qr+XѣϦ=BR{c/i`rDI^?~}J,T{J9nϩ3Ϫ m3-Tn.k=ܳ A C \p M 8nIE:AҶ#( n6A,ClI<0Nb8¸J+bmFclƳa!ċlzA2|{;3;4)PFV.v4a0$ 3`I=I-5O%.3Uo9+ ETQ/Uu[SWQ#D>CSMV:blPpvࡇm8oB\ gB]'(k75 q!-s}> GJlwcV\ esY' Fa#-@~I.8` 4c dW 65EoTP܁r 0@NX@ACH竭9W` 8ZVڀlj `I ^5OlI綛+ OKF J䫪"]= L7=V^7/O^o硏^驯^_/O_'n?ShW#@x@O5p!f1AeBAid"X$a nS <j5t^&`Ѓ.LT`i0!B2 eB2C o%6y3шL̸$,?|C44H 9hPo?ac䱌O#!YL{D)HBRr#$)Ȍ4) (F%/ARe%RB@O9RŤO&^t%,1A"~ '&P0Nq:&B\@e2ә%jz a`A h&&4`> p &&E1*L;g:6Kg}pP—XzZ0(W1JPQLH:*sI3n!" J7w >*Ӣ&uI93 O @T*[ʏ5a)UaD.TgUN׊V/2]ALP׾Bt*}S`+Az[ k@l- J &0khTU^0XBiOZ:x|(A Lc[p~YG <5 )7$EdέWH6q{F X 6)^P4.}bbr؃/>0@[|V5c&6 #%>q% Oqchlc%G1`B-\QKy4  ,`I(@g%Y e'f29f Af6n ?'g:y}v =g>|q x &Ѝ_ %22OЎЌZ6uiUO'٪:jYs^gõ-=^ڨ6v}_K6liCپ}H3Fwjm0Rwo)xoGTWW9|yEOž Iqp,G˝˒57wq\:{pD|tDjӡuK F˗u! ^88pC̎v#Fl;BPϝA;x <X\bMyAA/kpB TU aIzaw kuDE)aѓ^(HU}L@B->'>p=Ĥ7.ah_&m?¨0M- 㾏 &*pbb I&,+j\*(*PnL$D@.K*& }NrGJM0@D`J@ O!3~d`B N;&|n5,BD`0&AÄ a⥨0Ep4 ފ0&o|`'VA Co*(DVA`¡*1mvP g*@Q/Ivi'\P4,(k'jd yB1 φL5x"rN≼M Nalm $jxm` \-ބA!aƊ#M$l눯@Q' NjF@؋!ϑdp'8g )F# !} '2X! \r j$ B \a$pB![)y (L :K(1`"0dP邦&ӥΫȏ3O+ּ 6rXF@+G)0隸-6G}a0s3րRTR0QSj&)tv/1jF/}%38 /PO1 %yɫ.R*ĦN`헌3&ns&Xk@8!J" +9NAS:/}gvaDƤo ~) 1pG[꼂&VT@+˭.ؐ7+G~N@3]J gkSLۄH!lMJ2oCq DʋD96/}\r3\FeH(ԑ<4ѳiD|:*ihp}J ~PU 4M%ԣK[LN_Zu:_mO#$PS ՛OOݰ:'u 6SoFu1p4Rp7{MNc"56&. 35nxAoX-;x%]1>y)J %=9xt?CQ|kX"׺3(*)&- AaKCr xg"XY&Yِ Y x9& )y/97ya51Y-Y9ٔ=@I9Uy;_gyˀq&eK~0uIt߈ɸ8D˘km@ 1+V `J~)ʛ|jMԥ'V9Y9][9QYYy )z-/ږ!7-(vs *5uXWuPGgJ`sXm8Vmʶ.?su/ț"m8Xg۱6qО31Szz:z%ڪZZoD"fr=z_yb寭XrX_jc`e ta 8`M-(a v}8yUr݈x_/b]z42sV4vuP CK{*|kkg1]%6S'6WjO*K_ZntI釗FI{an8lSoWom/>72[y J=*۲~Gw{wHf2tT)v"t/;so&2u1p+B \rH4oK\;g'ԃjMSa}jNYiI&xG{6Lkw(|HsKb<(9Lf+SLJq" c%u6C=z,yE#+(X&VKn) ns2mc}c׈QÉۀ# E3}%Obw/Í6\E=ܳ*3&mnJ0΋נᶚ @jEݸۘ=K6#o@90_o 8v:mM?vS& jjh[1[%Y;W.T%]~"Y8N*F$3gK=q= dTFʼn׾š5Ր %kgq4?H9y)nT2M vpJUI3ooW!$orqG;3QL]5YA-O"۲*޲"2$JA!5@4>~\2q5:vH{5Gv ڷ-a‰na֛h)e>L E6"]PXUS%+,Ev/)1NQ]8ͥ+nK@[D3Ԡ1q]暶ގo a@U3+ȄV9epi席)|˰3+K`Ҁ)_MHz!B0DEN`Ԫ@S8bRx0aA(0 B "pÏi)*( I2D=4ҥL:} 5ԩM!5֭[ *E5رt|*LR BC@>R`Lz컈 >;`@k@"C d+b}D1t_ ByR&J{nBR>{9fȕ$44AeA& >R@B?E+=>5뇑@N7 4B,r kjkA3v}՗FjE0iA GЬZLBZe pX_YXCAs"8>Dk7Hqbk2]n![I&PGQ}y]tمq)gw*%&(_zgEG}·A|h|J $@ C[D9j\j*kT* %H zZ*[xu&  1,~9m%"֑D1eZ !4Yi]Mt+c pJU])s EЯRP) \ r"G&#kLe} !˫ HI TeftJ/ǀ:h_܈b=&q1b )X(Itjvn4HUXeQrC f}ۆx/^U&?.j_ySh(L*=MD gMx뮿{8Wp{{7;$@H"HT:S}OOQ׮jqwMR|\´ee!;^}ۀAG)Ay"hG{Lgl닟z i`12Ȧ49Pj4Q'p,l\ V0@mkEpTa&) Є cl$4ƍA( El;2c<MVJ-*ih@CY4M!AN 3+и.q4p {seᲨIj `I$90QlMp{䮳GS T,WI(3zF;,vbrQ@JoSvHvkb&: ηQM~7D!Ī[mWzIup-$FfofyJ]QBqN|*"g"ɇZ f$,ofT" ݹK< -$0.i@L0 Szʘ JZHz{լ5O($pS&0w͎SGE=<ۿt 9JTAWoV}:n__e2+|?qB;g~~gA%%] Ȁ˥w'u+vX=*('!+S"C$ł-$eR& a/H/fs)S?'p&AhFl;ȄMTM(cYCn#S[օ_(chUg{U9e*IsUeVgEyU&VzdXwT~UexSxX@4R5|hUxQrƉNnh^h޴wNŠM Hhȋ苿(HhLjxe2W;?x*(#BnnJD 4}%h8x% $[8:8x(xxZ`&P0 @  ɐ Y ) 0  U9b)"U9 I ) `i U $!8 䠒? A ưx%ӏfhr2;0 pBITɒ0 % $f Uig,ȕ>:H ހ(wYj J)bi `xix9 #KInU P 9y)p ☯i@[@i yPA S,ɚ)9o+:/"pIhY oy2UY5Fx xI&0 AR *Y׹6>`W ʼnY 0 Yް 3y 帝 ; ٝ[F9 ٹ #5>;Yci3I9esH;0)i &`=ix& 0y1 30i[  IҐHDjp C 0 2iRʠ% ?‰>IYXOҰ6ʓ&0 j 9rO*XqZ Rנʩ1/ ji mj'<ڐl* z*|f5>F%3p t"*y`ZcSp[pI 9 ylʩS p0zZ j䐎V8909vyx@*w:GJЭYZc} j[ 0Hگ[w9uG G >ؐ9,2` (1J {۪_2Y i4{75` )z &'p % &```V`dvot({ *+iY*?yYcŪY!SdZ`\{d@'`h{ >H?h+ d`$;?>4kH%9`jT &[[6`6 [ ː\; `d_½ݫ7 8_ +k᫣:qA_RJ3Fi*pr{ 񴓵 PT İ4J &p I&@ @ { +,kk p0L&p6*3PbU@Z0p yГ0Il*+I l:U >wZAS T{  t А\ &Ā{ &P4j件|ȥ+$;Ȋܻ?)p#@y`:,9J&9Z>˟C [ 8J[ZAYZ.DZr@,@  Đ{ ɐb[Ɏ<;2L|k_pj(ɒ II۳@@ʐ p ( c\0/Q 56{` &кΜu [0k Ջۋ{L{[c2k꙽1[ܩa=>+>y GTYpZL& [¦ ` V ٗ ݹ|Tk 0ɽ 0=ٕ-ՈU}JgخAɒ V ǻzm: 1.?%?pة@ D i=d? d@V@P6 "lp `@P߸}MN`7AY,ֳ9겴mv}~NH̟JYI?}=J1.l g5Vy 4; Aސ*蓜zIݣ:ʗ%N@0ɻB09+`Me0y0>Zi ِl>SL j炮 rJ< %)/>NDk*MPΐ *͝& &@= f7X {Iʷ|.G~; 页 dю3` \`~R5J)ۢ b醹m՞ ׾c_A 7Uʴ(n@l  v)rN  .fUi˽a*?Nl nR0&` .ZTʣ<{GLzB 16{̆& P R vi(;IJ9;9h;@:U.4/RVxilOxNY;c{䈗(=TlP@5X/"p >8=1*M[OPj& n/@w۵:I:_R>]] ň]GyZ oo奻nY KyQJ% L\ۢ- .d&^AТVdLkG!E$YI)UdK0M((E db. &4#!M3qVѥ&3ܨTG%U\ X"pJ$Wh#3_:_YBUfΝ=gնaأ&" 5V͜n1wF&`ձZ"[bƍ{o'gƩP=%K{MtӨQr jer1 i#i~-^6뱢ehnxˆCP8 tˠj)*l Bbkp2.8EcSBN&1-ڲ'J+jM4*`aqMj,'MdBJiCEKtm<8t HFm3Xp)"*r8Djyjrb2AM0M0 6TuUV}9Q <,9䔜b`aUh `W T>"QK3Rmu[nV:eV\ԅلr 'wȧjL4ݤ^겺LВ)tALo;Un#xb^3Gqi56`<}ty5/:8I ei=R5)yg8q ظc JKVZ6]h]tJoda^xM5U6{FqqG9 : ;QGF48 SZx䑗/k##gn.rBVm<}aupZfRY<rk]c;( DQ+tk1tOs C "ZO|qßXw ~iۛQwzfzrhB}-vw@ &r/  Vؐ@GБFFc)CK H0A yЃ qCiu^a7 e`$@)OXa,q)a-Sa q=*N4d(D80wtr ; RЂ4# E$pH*&rH'(B# hp Z``| ev&aM)"b|vD"G>1ZB4ҋ4^#@HV %3ГsaFF⍧戱:b#b) \ ! P̙$x؀ &pO H` KЀЀJZgffC_Jq&G2$9ӹvg=O~(2͸4robCmʳkMcţ͌&`[GN`KIO~,(L LÙTxSL|9ӿZh<8`7`Y k:;d@+=A{?<=@3;SZ<8C.=;A;d@{S5xk=`)* @TheRU$dL#LLkv 5xF(*ho7+п+[+Ǐ8GȄYpHd-wtȇl8y<=˨@ ?A4YZe<MCNS%T)Ux J!J!ЂX$F-UžL1į+(@4Hۿ&%KJv\J|Id6= B<;,ʏPF LKtF,̗R@)SU8)$ H8J! 460^&*3Kό+0IdZYAhA$= 7tLZ`[Z(| nt\תŋ -@QU8X{E-E@[ - ԏЀZSM^׾e޿-ˈzRN\K&0O˅< ](Yfp{Jem ]0\_۽,W3Y0`u]bӷ$8e?`; L< ޘUUx5RWaXTzW?X@Ub[MXT%K"Ԁ$\g؆ .KkJV8UDbTHKd(MCMD-2e ;kJP¨^.> ΄+.(ן۽|㖝ZMp Xa([aMxN^SQ>S VM EMQ.N6Qe0VRᲅU\RQe+RS=V\L97n2F[;jOM`LiVV@_HJTΕ-أH.DH]KgM  J`NhUVh͐HАPeeّNY2bJL2KJPڐ]0Sc5Ihr.sNr\Iv3-@fnfKIo+S Kv+FIfŔ4}cWۍU4Y7ji-.@Κ^FAU``Ϋ|>4,R@kUnRFFDd6]W1ľ*cp.k~^l6m+pK;kj7.l ,eWfkJ̄$ /"]iBG KQj(USZuuʔU "X,(A3ac֯^!,GHqiP& z#")HCHXWVUŕWmy3H4Z]>4$Jm=j SZTa-hB&E#R$i0yp&gfj)tHBbo!Qp,*$A[Ľq~V s]ځ(w#螪ڪZ|Y)~ah(K]'6i(c-oJ,e2Dž!y]A Ub{"L#50”W[#c^})%¤/]W5Tb/S{X>L/my4|ʼ \pX+Q qxtJ_&rR G,A1q,]8˧ϙvIǧrK*wɜj[sݵ_:2ۗk~I6\FЄ Q%9+afNR5UjSH pf7ސ&Nj+E^;>\b-#u·'i4EtE΂GH w$R+tDq]AӁ*jv sرۊ?H%|+=6VATLJCec  Ltd'Bnczg )>نX􋈤*I[X0^$v$*6qhA]Po2tPꟷg02KvsWC" ZCm pUd!6\?2!hf]@W ITp8غ(EMo#CpHًRupk@Q@Rt] gFq[ EQ0OOiP;7Qq.oҁ7DJɢ͢q[ݞ k G@H q$C͡AA8"[,(ݛ^R klYɗb ҋ|V2B,g!Ⅱ _IlBzc(rC;2ZpJh+c> `$ab28䄰U L8V2 DfUsV4/9+\0o)1)?H$1MŬU*hGmzV5+N)2j-Ϡ ;lc`A}5ͱRa1M *Hx%f86{2iYˍK.wAF*!{ݑ!w[ސ\4k&,K&$ud\s3 q{xM q=/84dT)xn8HQc2_OLFh=.|Vl _8%@&B-ĉAlV=~awG $ ڦ4YF2@ 9F3DLF'ƥahd6OWHjqH@ Y$IA1hM]K=N+% eJ< R)~(41Ͽ: D [SVr t_rfeD=@#4f%i @ "^.,f _v~DL[&fOaHT)b+\@~FwmvmT߱ W5ľ_IATc)CR-]nPTvn'orfp EJB|±g0sUtbA6uZVz+gb(|kFKdLJKGDYh- ͧ }~꧀=ݍhhi i 2QkBYNd5K:T%- YY>DŽnYh髀I]y.)\>M)I>%h=!:~1 PԌhj j"j*j"iy&N) U _VJ)hJV) 驆wRր9AWp)"\A;"Zimр-E0-"k*2k@ޣ)CR'F\ATέ.SjfCj`a\2r1Dj,@#QԈ*uW0lK*0l:BlJRlZbljf,)@0jt1^k9.n+"VVr͞'< QA$ZhTU Ȭ( E(ج~Og*pNĤnTmI-,U-},ABF*JL2 &ߙraLǮBVcff>n[I(L'\hB]M)fX&" xxf_nFE.$9icG])# f^ .ڭ~hk*S%Ht >F"VFA9noNl*Ls8$UeHWnFn~0ݞ/hlgZ!8(j﨎5hpO&otF&,:](!CYkF)df0nJ+XWǁ:b ~H Dma*(5$ CʪJͣDjD![j!Vj% 4q1v3E*햬6oo /pi Pd!26ipƯ>َ)<> FDf/ژ!4x'j"_):4O$/+JhZ,'2/w2q#[ќkSjΣz0qrrf4/Wf@ b*D&";Vb%j3X:51H…11$ӿUb5ssA@ <-rA*ZʮPFo4󲫣2eqBBsKjTu2壱4 3.S dLiGtjۀm ޔ]'.1?&((Tt%(F,ʱlpPK$o.1E7SuJ]w3*礢;zG4cX3C HCZ6t4If5+P_8f?Rg&pvg:ߓ(tdkD_J߶uoYf6}o-F皲~/I%3s(SSvvsvi y<bp\KF;Zvk+qU4lzoX(@t _#iTy.K=_M`w_~btiΔ$;Sۥ£4t'JM 01m xkG2O!F$C- A#zXtNMt2p1*0̻'C)DA kOcFIўWtjpc{k?~=T_ÿ HXW7ߦAgA $/~g&4L?S\ b9".KpwxW 5iL,K^ѣP(QZxRJjƕ+-#kJXtfL3iִygN;y\)8% YnԔu TL*T+4@pȤ) 1 ,zjb/fǐ#L=)W|sf͛-Pthѣ. j*cdbh j@ZʼS)n)ubҵW: ,E9z)Ip|x,&j)MNS.pb5&5Z}BO0# <ia(¨K: E&-) 8[aq%d$Hŷ+0.,!¿L:nN2;ܒ˞@FS}scnC|ñ?6] .nqGd9'êS Ll|H!5S4ܢ%:c3ƗtlefO0abt Pr&:¦3*G% l/F8Y+lIfRXbrYg5Pp)pQ-zRd/-mEMpYi1m߈ BfXB dP dWC3 w:1Udfͯ)8y+.Zڣ*6O['5 LtCT䨥7ߔS̴E*e@5x.D$XbEWc\ mc_ e1[a>]78̂&>XmB];xEoLWL#kP ~ZƇ$ABa b{3vRn~dX@;Y2YV*pfT3b}/\̓uixsy378ǶYx >ʐ P w\0finxJ>]D̻:Jfn%U C.q@*wn;ʇBKM;1Ctɪ-IL2|q[IJK,8`! 7ATi U% VYdi`]*AYt!(/jl]cġC5>ĉ,{CP0l=K J1R/o2I[bfT8Xc*ċ.qЂ\J-nq ˺ɲ& C-oMЍ %d!"P=t6NA6f:t[+f^S}7YPtl9mO*c'\THz""PO{]4$6ͥJB0- ҒQPh%bH* @N&- x)L.r|$}?9>\pVeo5iY>РioJV{Q@RyTPaIGdAZH  W U0}(֟[WQ $! s]*Hèutjvac$A -ـŒKæQ0-6Y?.h RBu|&UQVh3 v4hbCH} `)(0Gl]nRG|w5WۘIPw RVSL@\d, @op՚af؀Z6׾!4]9]V`!Ri<g-@2pZ Ȃ'J-(f=C\ZVxi}<3.~^j<V,0 \` GNg=#1"*A&bjksгM `25<$ҙFr|9O;wgm8 3pmryL _%[eϝa+tk "f@ (9f:YVs/xAD>@Ån{5jImoWB{0A,m\yg\vG*f 6Q$iNaTt^ys\ݛ:J*t`|<FW-5 Td;^V;|ASy0³bY!(y +or[y#Bw޷ G&Z ,$0!AoȠ h@2ON%.Nx"A<, aBL@! jq }O+ȟ a o"Ш @ A + 8/*P 1 &! y>.P+%  a_ -0I ,- 41A  0A^q :ibn~Q0j ` Af` ZLb ] .M ~Oɑ 1AL` Z`"]< $ @ ` 1oh ( rM <!#r , ڀ7$Al n@R\RfQ&`*` r l 1 B H ~`* 8@*  %+rA/ Ҳ Ġ-ƀ%%/ 1/3% nlp 0rv`xR|Z^b3fS62Q\@\2.S3` @3+S MsTs5[^bf3j6 77M| j.)=e: <@ D`H-?;;ͩ}{|qpqOMNQNO~῿gee׳]\]~}}蓓ٲ{z{C@B0--TQRjhiʨ856HEFFCD;88usscbd,*+@>@IIN536ommWTUa``AFNLZidqشضٸٺؼؾ׿ávw{VVYȪɲؤKQY{y{ffiȵllpJGHtؤاةج׫wuwPexmLIIBMY|ٙ؛؞נxwx-3;͝Ј؍ؑRu)/7zق؅j:Sg-?Muglq3DShSd[`VDOPٛ8`}񘟩Ӽuwc}Ĺ,`Apbā+>pƅPG#QxeJ+;Sd͌* ཆLtЁE 'POFU:)QWf*R_:+SgŦ%,E;Wm]w• X{&P@ sRT%M$!3gǗmJx<1w͢)]z"_{ƕn쮳q{ln߻n8o‹+?<9s".t{կGǽ;ݹKO>zɻox/_~}z _|` ^ OyRЄU&awv8Ї܅"H& =*.25y9⸣=OCdBM*dyЕXf\v`)dihlp)tZx|矀*蠄zg&袌6裐F:硒Vj饘f馜*Ji*ꨤjjQ~zꪬfJ1d뭸뮼Iؗ@ T@a0@ʆIF+V;XA^ `!dž]Z[+ko˪\%telDQQ$(ѬPJ\i.C,PePFlk[,7\F  @F1 DmHϋE0PG-TWmXg\w`-?)0`a@K-eč|Аp-7bQܢ @D^p]6Џ9::.ܤn騧ꬷ.nbCx+y00:.ymFx>; 0FHt_@坯-o/;@ Ђ~.z/`8|ɳ,_5v rܲ·=!_+C&4tJ"v!O}(Z TQ.b`$0ܭP'\`-:T„@e*zq}[af<%wR 0+e tֶ/|)X4O@^+t mQȂ&.2틘 600C4/Ø$qғ@s4xAMm6ƹGz1B%ELPh\X82KϢb=25 iHG$S #&IIK:әlgR5F4ɭu;e*Sܧ .ͪVnYJ(4 LPٶ4IKR,'P%:Q-m4_%O&!Jyɛ3V(K!d4SX gHˆ3 Th|J?uBRDTE.jT\J9Ff[\.7m+csE0Ar*Yӄ 2(.. R3u%LxکX{zfT(ӰdVM0+ ʬ]]uV>oz`PT޶0`neK +Q[ddS-u[XM*֦VN(g+ nM4K̎er(QKZiNȒa(XJtUJ*_[}55bXe*LC\jV-dn` 2rb 4-X YMbB28o+m - L/ b.q(PERqŬ0]MK,Tk8c;b[DAg۳`JH/KKy͠0_g.mT6F!`Z@=yP5-Xm ق`yS\!tPc}T3PgU' wB[kZ E+4Q+3r5cﲱrPԝg XS%P9$U9 gV#2GG7dv5"(iI:xQyf+"S;jo) ]4 ĭn m%/;awD7בQcqޭ(`NewװվԼToZ [:PpٸdЁꝹ)%\ڢt}!w@8c¤@jk p51_CڶcS6ZXay;ȋ"lfc5Zqg7.t)zx-&~A a,(' 6O(?((B燷2V\,<:8ShBzՍ4Sr+(%3}q0| 92B )EwJ3A(1̗.Osdd2,4ѵ2@f’7A@KbFc`lfNsnv>X'%u))'+'/Z0_i'ӕCQa%;4F9@wzA΃D|D9:v|dA~$1]6(B'i&W.HQ(^AnqXp9;R]a% 4@ q#ٚ9BHPpKB8AAtyy}U6K6e.cՉ}Q6w5'['h'61 fNeYJZĜ<=.hFfA7 qC.7yfcZ9c%c,#f*~b2fk TTO/q^`F2۔1`)U3DEJPp:$X%Ub_4ebv…}m58keZY.U''ߩ'Vkuc Gj@-VCEZ`V+3ғݲ2 )f&C.F 3c.+%(%*N6J&XKerc /v>IXb,w8je^'m ;oq(ox]g>lZeAC 3fϋ,u7]Z )eXlR|h+詘Uk7\j ʘlX8]P9K*'mۃHc%Ztb{s^2E1>iex WXb18e7cUWR,i) 0kk&mmäZ6D{3û0Ò2RerãReyR+D F)H/JL&L\.N<*!f'c\Ƽr՘jgI\pŎ/] Q"Pd2 h\e e&c%sZҞ-VgWȡ^l,np&rst>Mm|%6rA]&][s"J T%j%Υ7|&?[%ř.]<&,Y]]j&{#aJNVfty[M=˧d-Pg &1X ̙_ҿ _zQ,pZӋ,ō1Y Mӥf6 ( ˭'׹ YAt܇Дve^mL 9F:3,nFjڊ=F10F8]yYEaKyh&j+eM-%1oR$heO +n7]&gufc? Lm+Z\zC炌j>a406e؇8]\,nds(a+ʺ>^3l3UmȺb뷾(w;~؞Ⱦ&ʞÄG '0X<E >^~n!0qsl}E"(,L ?0\⒖r"?$_ oɎ2&_67ܮ2(B(ݞ7>?d'HZ"R^ +HYb\]R-,^[f62Ltdu'|Qn}h/kw=YRĊd?_X_EQO30_?_^!_ 8?_o:$0} ?_%&Q?o?,ۏ/-I?_B@ T@B سD-^ĘQF=~RH%MtH@(]SL!JSN=}JQ%ˠEE*½{7>UTC[RŚUkΦ#nVXVɞEVaWmݾl\u}W^s o`… {X?0E-_ƜYfΝ=ZhҥMFYBG|ƌEdFVƝ[n޽}\pōG\7 $]z\]vݽ^x͟G^zt|d; p?L꾆#0/@p&B0B b@.Ï&\B-O h6ESZI?D|1Ǫ+jEGnE2  H%#ȋ|JtJ٢"-K#$3TsKL,2^k4J0@>3shQ4hHOňЏը2S#砳3,JZ"*#O'e(TePHԎ\(45ŕ/N U`IQhT[U%La}YPQUEfVuZ fU%lTaS]hYCv]%)VX%=Vn5vjԆ*6, YiS,Vo4bm6Z4@d#OoWBېx%[cWB@PeH5ۍ537qav<-U([VP"CY@  L4@9,@YIdRފ^[Vol0Q|=nIm-\햊6bbLX>i8AWWj< `}ni@l׌'u8T0wG{!l?Ye(lQŶI%cd[{t/RQj. oQ x9?)?C@&~j%'1ib0HuCVǓBaj- asܰºY,oF iD*} g~Z\HX{6΅k48&p"TJaXu[Q`[nXn#Dƻ' ӞBdhI8qvBcxf#$3C, /jP|ew}p[XO².+_RΕ_Pf/H݋!z1,D]EЈJreS #6!,g<rN5#wC;2'y(I%ň}NR(O:[` "IdV(h:}EK&tn*ֺdrrMBShRSiSIOQ7ͅ((%mIS:U&2&\F tIE бe@-@*]_XYKikGǮZhgO:6 4"`k²4uh!B@!Rjh?4'H؉&Qp-hUZkeMjeRk񶵯-3MJ g& T&06cu >wDte{(˒bU #AB@+ZjĪ/AC0뵕H"+ #T 56 :$SQjtVS,Yؑoe-n1g ^Rgwx#u-n,.(:(wL`c px!ZAO$[q4`gGQ >evt*񤖌ާrJ^aLV91\bG9U|^ِ z_>5D6 e2pRUPsͧ(4 Ov)] Z04_Mk:!_^OG8n#h!NRȴ1[iP s\,!P%PB]lm6aS/w5$󝬅5gcH\% KD)tbT,euɔyMKpHIy\2w!dڼ{Hm / &dk"9M9:\ҫ}C GH,ݲ:G7 %ǾSy=^ V %w|QG;}'\_ק:ZF3ɏej:NV"fZ|Y?V B:3ZL=rKV{7&LjMrfmcE[eӞ#WԉRC3B #@A@CKk6q?+#>?C!nYA@4"ѭk<|ϊ! 4;[b 3D}ŲTPLRԊ )655eDPk %58'u~bRaAAkͪT)5*EȂ rkTGI 7D4IHB//c+?U_!Q7p˯t{F%mn] R{˚4Wax"P4sa#ZI[(׋#J;|ҹ{ґ7r،{}j=#Qɲ؋،؍؎؏X qM ´J%a ٴ<$tQřyYSˤ%ˠՊ|T YY t̉: ᬨE 9Uՠ ̼)DLB-LD[HE+0eI#*ܾ Z a<H+YI{U1r"ݣ,h,daΆ@{=CuݥiޭOJ:\ׄR-D)4ٟI,˜YH 5A, \늮Pe*t"o)`՟ îlpu ̝X\ _ڱ! .+BHPCEORM54џ2޳ۿ ME eBZ0 +.Beӯ !aYՈ1.+#2nA?4-!]̲pq3-8JS!֏;,@F-;ax2&* g^b _33a1n2D|3A1srcE:;[!m-Q߳#0K%DR`ge5_>>UT4P̶d,^Sb~/8õU,_~_sUj[4ˋr.Ȣ6dIV#|g꼳U af,V!f-@gF.gzt,,e;G٪gk aȢۥEFaʝ2"Zʏ~֎nF0V  d*|46p%AbF-LtjE{jrlIj"țIIяJk^ EM()[QYژ"X`Pp >h! ,x25DD*k P6OAۼeЀx5Y:S) I^޺q 6 +m;YpZLMJ=9$0!d(᝛6ζN^i=nMJ+t #\#^2ށc QX#ĕ5Vono}掸xoEDG?юaa|T& VC-h i2<n "\Qaq(O1jqS}Ł:J = ʯ*c9r +ro. *\uhc&[Ȏs@_SBwY7kIoprжqOo /c GuMYZ[[P'>hUBt-toEdWegfV,fp,'jӱ0%.A + s^ GȭysF?IkPw}ܯ -Nx^¥Wj/?Η~/ }~ίW_w?XhYl „ 2lH@ J `"ƌ7r#Ȑ"G,i$ʔ%LlxϞ2gҬi&Μ:w9@@ϠBHPAFi"ԨRRj*֬Zr+ذbbϘ1jײmϷr4Z.S3/.l0Ċ3n1 7sl3t" QEnB9aBm6ns;ܼ4U.n7i#o\I'+|jڷ{^9cWͳo/4ܻ}胟=?p2ApK& נ[YzZ͔ }z8׃"X\M1%5x#9#=#A .u2*[4$=EXUZy%hACo!qQZ4&;pm&q9'uy'FDaj(6jh0hC`)ӓiJZӚxZz)jkِقDX 0(4@y7 $'@ B(NT3,ktVZ+S*,v֧ \"S"4(zjp(.ĪX`At&Tġ4 @&$stYf* 80K<1[|1kq,w")Ի PO@T߮ T+DXҪ(s?Q0-D*'|s]{}[O(.Ҍ؂ [#@Y3J0JM+1 e4NAj ӢP&+D.-q5wcҁ_rTз_䍀:yJ.<< r =驎e* Ϫja ]s7/3MTΚ5't]@.!:ν v̛W[ ]8+%(aUrDHŎy 2Tz4% !s@Ig>c.Xp^*sv9OU"SOjh ]i@]P>P!(9:BIҎzkG1@5TUK!D![V# 9J[d$; (AQaZ):ҲC<k6&dR}ex_"c Wz5GQRAmv [fh`B3r,UM2t/d,bq_c -BB{vZҘ&ĥ*)BlRDh)| SAF]Bj{ J=*QԨ.x*T|@ eՄ5]YJִ!e+Zփ5a2ʙVIP0AE *` L԰84X12Ah$?ITTD_,ܮk"KEAB t!&=ALjU* 1I*!A R@0asX\=t[]^wv~5x{^M{2ck̥m*(eUY:jx 3MSaؽ}ea6}VeVMԹmujWJYe{e#qOwJ`_N /U\BMcϟf.1W7|=-!ͶhZl2zf`.aLHmkK oFaQ=%; (En@Δ1Jt]{UY7+ D]"&Ab>\6m.w\n+~eN 7#-2e%T $ma `e`|=8r'}ʰQ6rL1;qSw12lcpz3 %G\wiNGy~[mF/_4l^D KTDEDKlݟ{؟ TBE <KAYp Dx`vD` h\H*C`A  EA^`_KМzXDDCOChM`ֈj%NHߑP|h <F 8a<ZL]!&|! >0R" J$bRឨd"))"*)RFAJ1$B` -"Nxd1#2&2.#`>K",IR!D5@-"D&D6.0B 1*^;;#<ƣ<#=֣=#>>#??1,I4_9*^}U,$C6C>$DB>%Z$4J|x$$YEG~$HHnDZ$KK$L wp[$NNCI  %QQ%R"e-`HM$T&P\%VfVn%Wbe-  cT4 [%\ƥ[ށP%Ye``&af`CZ% HcZ_aVefbeP$Qh_{@!((P$"_hC@Rh imަ|&ޓ"fFfN0"ri+1)C'pZ%?ALÞ?BC?Ёp)qi!&Ėv*@h,j>R)OiOjh_k( :0 QokiZDbt'i^%g@Md8C9ȯ kȁ=|`jA]hbkiT ̽ yK -@O¡RBRϙ))U̍ DڂR B`BCQSd $`Z@-ĤʮlK %("v+5TH8OY   ͤ  TAD 1-Զ- TK Tf pݷaqeRڦRh̞M& xj (pN$N(]X( NЈ\ ]l>E(-ϔTի`,4-VeWƮfWR̆FʨLX GDD4.ҒA",9)kAD\o ް}kXeEƒ&hZ\e%­vk Ӭۿ|B4aY$oS X'YD(U #I.MB " R/em憉+bN)u*ʼmk )- &2R(V^E<6O l0f-phlhL1ijruk6 Lb(ķDO1J rN-J ̔0Fy' <A3L Nnn\*"D! @l3DX iJ!q0 h9i@K 鋾Ls̑ ji#܁'8L%&+_i_oK3^iF1t0B2OXL@,kF`,c6wEw&'{2(2)2;w*2`"1[HE%3t?89:z4oEjK!4&,Rˏ'=Z#T0r(el;L\ia* J2RSK5l3@@t;BÎLQ,WBͻXSghPQhB^-`Th^_PImb{ knvș m͏D&b'4!ޘ@`SDs#vK߰K!+ -mvosoippwGq/O!;=@d[Ζiw^t` Ha57%n}}Ki~WFe3ѾTQ1k+˾S-wz`0ZSFH |8M^b8z)ps5Np+W_oD(xn,Oj5oMތɥOBNO^D"MSsONj.DCH9~SB1nuT-vr-آl_u` jgfӢ2;(#WD;k&LרNAwfwơx/PtK0|ք- TjZd|`N;E u9 c%٠nㅭFd߸|3-|=؇؏=كGE̻3xP2{KhLնK#DzjxP=|MB_(}k=^{Zk8|Г`%b;}3l훅@M! X i4ˊ^ך[z[=L>_<_Zf%$+/u(Xx>$g:}- =cVT @ *2J0 @#Af0@K2hAD+aK/aƔ s)7ԹgO?:hQG%cDSOF:GZh@R_[(v'A+[Pb+l)`@݆_M QT2s{.ݹu%",lILp4NJcr]^Κ7䬽wo߿tjqM9r\Gw)Vz`-V[HeVbݮHZnb;溛S<}tf l:>`nI!P " 29R2&S2#E`4`m\,/[/QDo.h2.ƽk I\2A {1Q5l( 1ӀB {1M k 02 EJ[=L`H2CLhA5%_jr##e8-"JX%Q. lш*4zO7mYfSZ@ 8 6!L%n]0&p0p[Ϛa%qQ$ ߄u)WEwL_Ꝩt1AZX݂!< 0XtY%Uh"L * C{ݣVݸ.S3P[ $q1"Z2,.fB%!_^Rw(i^U+h+@b`p1Gf'!$Z&DU# ̟r!IS:LGR1&|"fٜ7mɃKf)%ayڏ2\r.n~)L}%d!""!-8`i)%]%ܬ^r'*GTdAl~*c] SF]`<˄J8təOП6Odpb9\IJ(= ,be"VRq2+p%9*@:uP.)&3*%l T*A$5%fvt=O{T5 +`+ h@(*$8,80vMdJb%dr (1hegx'Ѭ-gM.A,/8u&t0\gYN/9BH' iIOҕ1iMoӝAjH#-Ō辵Y( -,ֵ̚qk]׽la663pݙYVq}7?+mmonq6l0U~vXWSo}VwL&YG/]z w!2 .yT3dAr%7Qr-w=9t/w//fKld9շ}_cx |;_NK~qY_r_ / \P+'P7P3-%F0S/e</pA?Pi0qopm0p P MWP[^0bh 0P p # k } 0 p Ƕqj2017 }+={cIwC;UqYa'P1i-m1aquU}1?1ŏ1k[1?)1űŎ1ձ1iۍ1 1   q 2! !;!2" "%""-rtiZ6`# D$i$-$S$M2P%B%W%[.^T&s'eR'{'ir&m&& &'(R(()('R))r'+`#]+7%R,r,],c--ղ%زI2,R.2!2-./R//0R000031M#}%2'U0!1 3&?S?7Ӆ.2]H9y93A@U9586A+B-4BSB9tC=T8%CTD/>3>:Q?UD]Dat>WT?[4F>GkTF_Gm4GgTGF#_# $R*R)+JRJI2J*T+I+tJKKôJ4MTM+M1#23NT2NN4OOPN uO O5#U@sQQ%"uR-*R5@S,oSA0SBTG'@R>'XU \B<$Tuu7ҧir'+hz% ( bhW(D UkbIBh!*[ V~ X bZXYB g[&Yu$U@ UsVUuQ29 t,Y [_b`'1 `\ϵ+[qѾ% 0`Y @$1}r_+._SU]@]BeW$@ $%ea6$j0Ǖ*eY6}Q^v`vZ5 W@~7!QUUK_ 8M8;fV%- r1xBv9ƒAxBI~xZ]a8ex]Ouxy}xmK懍xdXxdYxds͸8"g3{ h[ zӸLeX\8 f8؇@78e"U]VX:X؉ Z  @ʀf *ZE᡾cI# XBM&("ي'م @!z   d Z8H P[ҡb~rV&d?ؙq>fy/jv$JYd _O7X ;a`u7! 3ij Ysn!g2[^R9C`z`aC^8 ` ?9%`.@ TN# !ha[ y?U .`$|G>`=ha%ãzYfXhyˀ3`Y  ^;р[8œ8$$7dj#2MM.h4E=r ֱ>t["O`uм (:芼YθuX ]H{\"WnR=5 XU&adIE\omu[Ӊzӧqnҙҍx8[ [d]ډz)Ϣ9ۣUɽܱg˝ܗ=SuݫFܝiiIFU¨s7UIF=~^,W$1^,H⭆a0uUH(>QrGpT^: #z81~#$?h3e-` ˉ>@ 6sCH[MaA>Ye ^v%^K,[  ؾݾ ~PMD=)]! ~ Ƞ4# f Ҟ  ?>-[ov3 / _ ` +p΃?`Dp?uw` @^2+R(S > q`rMuy(s J ɿW$ f?} ` ` <0aA  q-\褸1ƍT٢% DX(I0J&6Up*ldI32+M@DFF)+BA5֭\^'X0m@%ޙūܹ^̹Ui ڶ81S%?@+9MƜsaeRN)AK2kv~ͱ'@@y:cʰ;8.lʌ![&JnK'(t[iL^>0edĽz+?Jɔ(Y@9œZvaXXxێQw%PFDlX~ I_)@V uQl'0ʨW1ISgTKil\Zr!Jv[ijlD`0&Hf| c_QDg}ԭ$l]ned`klU7[fRlSVZ*6([a&J-Zq k%XYmACv[U'(pRc:rfme/eo &1d@aY\(\1e ؼrpq#E+$:}1z1 `7զdkIGXP[[XěRcLwp7_GEX;ouՇ[u]sKK,`nS`۴u{L*8D!@Fŏ[ =pMPs29=~m&QY4$@#ȅ@(R|odiճ7=Bd4P|LO0KjSH0*& nA:I3ssx*-!L* -?FḬHx+HƐCTAACJ rPAJA%nD< r<%rxŨ`Pb >JI0Š C04PvG 1@ŀщARf9`B!a(Ņ\5G)8L$N|F@4MɈx $l%--%dKo D)3fƒJY27Jie-32@9ZB _݄ 83"BJ!/55KCRF+yI #Dj<#ˈO Of`YsJDHDy!t( M]x* @TĠ^/54FZE9jP((LˀBцH;g 2N?E{#PԩKguה-!Ϥ+-"lP:S! W-2ZxWAsJ=}c/7X4ZZj %pJ`cpJ\5]!+SPe @x4ڭY=HG& WuDu_ɇYay ^W2|*L+XD@ney] clcM XJLc _< Qp_ڎsc1oN 1E?cuc}e0/0Aˎsc(LRܼtIahD{KC4.ɗ8%\;)@ '1Lƒq `XMDO!J`v\g;88 L6MMZ#fǪAj4z oޙHZl C!c=czH`-%ROzwGUiql@!@ QAʠo P!aȋGCp) 7`OS3OY`}@y1Bs$|[gu݈E. nmNOLk>5Mqt{a@*"=8[g &7 RT(w߸<i4oHwD-Aa$*_'GYpK[r X`)qQN^:<9^fi\0Tpnn)aPyV᳁e|5XӠ4<G}{s=ЀF,'1Wzx f~ڠ~\wZ>1=`z%z huq @ `w+Av xrYIhz7{,` ly!rp1sBpgs` ! }lNWe7{0I6Br0xI'#x0<`XH|'g7Yy 0 B2Aae !vqp Ҡ p#eU[Ajh@ Ȁׅpq( ǰX#=xh ;!xy@vo | :ZU@A Rpȅ:DRGeC|A8 py;@#rK8k ɐ 9 y9`?P P " VxYs[_h| d؏ p E0h#A pѐ YɈ? Ϡ)u_B~拄 x Ȑ 0 >]9Ua^I> ь}m Ȱ `{@`\ bi^Y4 ؖ︀M9Pyɠ|j0^>W~TؘP zؕ4AP &`%@$0Aɑz}7f"Y$a8ٝ @y ZdY0[pQ9ISHXG~ZgP @ P ~|pk 0z ; k M"RY) ~ |z)h k<ϙvA]X#*M UzWx [ʥ>ɡyqG$Z n0 @ =I;%u`` u@`L`6P(')9{\tg 0z` Z L5Ы' %@*EهP~!jYp  @;   :n@CZG #++ ۰0{Fxxv9 ;*K,/ {{jЧapw9?*Z a %K ۴N +4!)D[菤.@R 1ګ): Zjꪄk4۸ zj}z[*+!jZ JZ;@`plNKQ K BK;Ƌɻ˲.+ ];bdz>++k˼l۶0p)?6rǵ@ $;P +2 U uU=d)ڷ*IkZseZʹ) *;@È{ë;;Y: |F˿kLk+ػ ;{{/ 59;cZxK@ƀ<<ˣ_y׸ص0e[,3k)¤<){¦ Â[Rl8;,>\B||D :O2l5lŭ@߇`ƪE *B;k ˃t\yy`{lHǾkmɳ  GP|Ʉ\-lˡg兝^!ߟ]eߚ`~^d| ymǎ%uj*ᱬnN;#䃗+<~+̜0Mm<;׎͚P\ݰIŵ~]}׾Nnھ[~lnz}evsy}߁L.J1?z #OZy,n-n<ة'㼭/ /Nܡn7>ٓnBꞻ FNdOK}^2f̮;~>&)f0NDFtv>颬AڀӮM.nyKD G-6L^6?  pխ>\lɽ~`n=/ n%'6|_oѝL" Ӧ5$ * sq hҎKl.^|2eT$I H B :TQ"E9j*VA UVԨ@I (NQNM(@Y X 0,pA 4h!x¯ 4H 5R &J 1BA $mD3M*`x+ ieVu! NCKLafΞnISYoBک([72Cd/_HL hK2 <Νx)(V"(eRБ!+y("ЃF=i#3 cIAb?pҩ'@L L*!k#^:TDloE,@)Ɏ&,B4bϽF*>X:RSQ$(D*;تZ⚫ګ["D,:3`JBM5| -h 7x[%S94SШ<59GG/L!?ラDqEtIsKcB !BY phO v6[|[oTrs3|wNTޞ~r@`LP}*Ks'8S$-jѴ]VoU*3UEK-܂K.շF1s 2(uN=M4Q]'R[O6U^+VEo]+{WTen-Lw Ȓ[mU8o$u˥`g3\]" sbm጑p:r}H>%?oaя" vcA_OM ߉5 `?yP :"MR/}>z4WLUWm-Wů0FWU־`:W d-oG!2.aI:{e 2] ȥ%Y=+NqAp~Ad"^D᠁XrH(` c4Ny3?=XkM3BPB+w4I)RMsU-3p6 aFZVF@n`%QvJRXAaxbؔvvr"aL9Roa\(/2MGdCfru4X7"vHԗLJw[">&&+pӢ C/1zUEFULP=+?Z8qD&;J-TpE1~`M!ss%2m\[r |Frc47yQD0~{17-!⒈U)1hJbQr#Q)YҕyQF6'0w])eLs΄Vػ'rKS Stmfeiq8'WH3{'"HMji}S9U@U͆1nz8\N$(VGF-Q<Gk c\]WS:YcV8Scִ7%-3̽l!ntXRu â aܠVi/^WAgX5ֲIDcƄ+<YKP԰E,\X6E`%%K&`k W4*OO)vr0UkEIqШ[vg$(ק#lӭ['E)rQl2QK{iUa'hܼ)wxΜ\#f^8( Տ JX/(Xnͱrp}l=H8) / 4|޺V.E /tJkZIϢ|*59%BFuuݮZXF,^ n3k=*OK,{eq3K毙9df0q|G`gpk(%ᑎ֟@iCÒ%oGJ!ȤmRGڵē(ẑU.ɆW9e3kЌMFa0mR~@,3oWoڶNyܝ-7h9\u#|3\p{1mmP[sPYwzG!qtRXj궚+@ l񚜝(oki>T̃xskֶ͑lI#]vgEtt2\z~uyoXZnlC<ܣ~WhO7;uQ8U)伛 ׸ߗrxn"?<ɣ|Ɠ|\嘾 F<2/fٜC3Ak3`!:<P,OB>3K%ӭ=ۺ\⾾۷;k1 :*c70A۝RsSɪA}5?(3Y<2Y926I˄xX,c:6ɲT@b=l>7-=@py34c>o.AB[:[l 4>>ӻ#1@tĤ,\"<#$D+crB7bț2Ȅ%h-.̹C=#.+@P5d<{7L;),\L>\?ZDAeTAl )8tA;~%(F띹1>D 96類;_S*BE+ExE+.3({^_`4CE"0Fbò{97 hZC4=F>@NƁG8DIq>6pGI>D&{ WInDYGSȵZEtKȍEQɄ6@[(iϳ6s,HhȏMRsCEL7L8 4REOΨ#4?%T+rM2QP]͵BPDFC3Kٓ!HQ<JhTo@]ՙ٭KC>-T FI\mTҥ"J>IUXM5(M< RR}ES}K-XhUh{U/jSZu,5SPoջaSRNs;8m9=-U=;}LeV9g }CTVL$]ظ{WL,W Bt} v%3<$ O2['M{MSݧȌ.X]L3Y125} ^K au}md=ӎٚ Tk%8}QɄAAZp;TzYDYc«TTPyҢRSzɿsZ Y ZɌZqXrZ`E@\XN{IC=Rt]f\IQֻ}-]̄*OMT[\0\#YS`V׮DZ|轌 ,Xځ܌ 5˅=IdN8mu<]I\ ^MT(`}YxyĿAsv' R쎫%]R߃\._RϕջBXf-e:յ_^`=` MdQg%G]^Ϝ a(x^'ɕͤ')~5߀ES_4X[;VFP>k`$Q;FbMVl`4$qd` úӥ2 Rk8 f̷mc4驞HvcVcEPd (>K0l6a6Bj0DOlad=_ `'L!b&ԹX,]+ghbYU0ϛa.YVC6v\]^R*0ʨW\Z]:hI6_am0n E[q!X)uttui`TzԦgW~^M /\ne,' 8#͍H=~ڊLf;X\h;aLk]O 4$)%̴g%biO>YMYm;.k&R v^QF HN]jnjVᣕ*Lh`TH\cSe@$6lƬU7-Iֶ\9fJ&>kuV޶#nN TU2ϞlTe\0T滼ez^ Ywzw_fq wW ,(>vO@ x͒mih',P50t'Ml6i!&b4_PuGvsw'zVP az}Zz\22&scM&h{ #HUqrF~7P&]e`lWbpn47|}0p(uNgɗNH-P~WQ{e-4hѤ;,ٮ]*e)TRI(A2th$DN.RRժU^l&i6o|%  *t(Ѡ(48ph@ X d A"@pࠁ+޺pACLذQ#E(P0a #D *o@Ɗ7=W,M Rn:A낮 J,k۾]!wnݻz~{"p #'^1$`bΟC.}(ԡ#'[7Ca/_$V(#G <$ʔ*[dS&Me8q*Id\vsb9l4!x wEXFQHgJ+LNhr,5Œsvyx R!za{G}#އ~77]!,E(8Px=Daѐ$ؗd~L6Me L$'P`E9QMUUYmWaUY\re^z`fb"(cQSpT:gF@@(hfj)lp@opFfN9,~B @566c`xzuD$G.ҦK䓐DiI,8 i 8.V!7mfb0-`3΍B%)d9J-0M"$,*,i@K(A]&PCaJmmRGIp$c\K u@|f(VZqXbeZjE[\چi_6Xaņ:c]8oy@s҂BԡeUW+׻kՀiÕD) LS^Pe@Mn{3nއ\!+@&iy<|@<%#hѬ<׌Xc6hޏ{'dD'Q.9]h%x_ Qd}|jr## nVUDU(1*kdC\j/c۔<Q1.a@^l< (F[WhUg38.Xav,*2X`e#RZ/e=iLtEe:?9oD6(=_AH$7(uSʷ :ʨ-'?}oxC^|#@ >9D~c3]1$[];Vii p Xڢ樭4UNTAG;^cr9@{afHA Ck #”"'7$si#6bG}UBdbX:8.N#Zg5mp.<yW`4QL2Ay/N  a,c(=9f7,r 4(11xNA Kz Yzv? m 'X(/$Q,w p -(k }ɩSTS(4O#I4\5sMp7?h Jk|t2h5~dENxuc('?£i5 {z(PC.AQ3z @c4hiuF֧^ҙ@} s"4Im"='ZC3'2ՀG$tbpNt=p5fE@c,teaj'K=3YIG]<~ 9:@- @ MC[\zC2HC 0!3{:1:ءG怇KحQ] T8h 9Y`,@ $ϥ^όI-#49#5T@S x$ @|#DC)LB#P#_8A% : X A D .aiB5@`dh &Xa\pB#'̀S!TXAaApb'z"'altA @^ A8"ba |@\'b@b*." D2, /`c6j!Z#1 ,2x X"&Zl1:d$$XA`ɥBj)" H+$"4 d@bOnIэ\ @FdN@OP%_(8ڀ @@X3Ҵ @h%Wz%XXQ.Y&e1Ÿ <\2@4AФMW~%`: %AR HA+b6#@X `ehefr&xYR <+eP`@ N$`P@QYh6#3^@x@|c@(ƧoFo@h H o\xgy@o a @|"h ~ y t*[$En@h~z D@#gŇ6}'cgR@zfF+DP荞(Z~@ `@c2*@iGi,4>@YT@J)]@T)\VT>,@d@Z8lŘ*QPj)il=jt\)R**j2V覚ꩢjꪲj&VSjjPҮk kQj"k*2kر:kJRkk-jrkzk\Pv~븒k ARk+kk뽢k l+l*2l:Bk(ZP@* Ej,Z,jl,PƒǮvlɞ,ɶʾ,ެˆ,,,΢,-.-ʬ&-6>-SP`jm@fmx-r؆mPlmŒښm٢ض-۾E*mܺm-ʭ-~..ŲEEVP`馡议뾮f.Ʈ.֮../../k\"BPHWV/^/f/N/Px/r/֯/tooR..oî703+/SGOgpp0p 0 ~ p p 0pp/0q/;PK\6 PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw020.gifGIF87aϲvvv:::ޢ +**YYYJIJggg???ppp ќiii666CCClllӶOOOQQQ___|||刈tts```.13000+($ҍFFFnnnrrs===VVV&-3@GLQ\fͶ͸ͺͼͽξξeefɧι18?^irJRYs///zzz˧̪̭̯̰̲ctf|̱5CNǼGGGKcxʛʞˠˢ%>O\˕ʫɐɓ~xLjɊ);KnEp{Ȃmsuf%1U~oh]bk ^/Lb?7,_SCoY}dѧ߳PE6oaNoεÜ{Я۲԰ɮ¬עyoT?/Ώ~_7 eUDWet`,H*\ȰÇ#JHŋ3jȱǏ CIɓKRPF/Yt eA5 ̩ Κ;sPGmHF}jTRL:*תZ~:v+=z= XdQʝ.\q~ZT̜246iZk[} qo%2˝1GM:nӥ-Nװ%~`b:8p_cKę@ %qПK7ztV~{wrxξ}d 6Dw|z%M\S `h{wQwq&,e74@[hnTD6@ nE`pxLfE|䨄nuJ$H#9Tqn)tiI @X`h@$[M7Mܣw)4j_ߤ%Ą *PlWƉ❬yM}@ Im5E)HdpM88Plw1ză 2F 9PvZ(q^dVxlpI ͭ&7 -QvwG,qQTĬ^@[4qcT[(n7)WE1@3©blHXq'-g ԄPfAm:~PmE|hW_eplu8[PAQsMb[m:|t}9dB Ԯ%N gys`騧 C"촷΁#vz{w AQ #73m`g|N'QDQqs0iAE?.f%G]%PAN,A HY  :HL Mef5Lp `H"kt'* ^+'T+6 +jQЀ@ LB NUgq"ׇ*t Ą3UqD#9HZ )T QS]&IBd e\ 1" PJZ#, E\R:0, r>}` Vth f b&RZԮ(AQDbeG ߵ?.\V*$#u` c)! L:v`#7HXp>%4`2$=g31j/)oYo'f\82*X4~*e". SHpbf0es [v@e ρBĞB(@P:"SF%/}IkЬZ[S5{[V5&FYT0hC=ZZ3ȖUXnU|,*h NYS'0`DQBM$T[4rQ$bWؔJ%x/ bҁL~ LhUP*eBHMRʗ]b[%vO juUR%2IJjfZ'y7$pnzR,?!cmʌ5>+'e_ M08%ߺhekz("]#e9qC35 *wyނ7ijfYd{D }&}f$^2y`YYY6#.}| W-W)mTĽ w˗j.ޚ%J mU (f]Yu*.@mt RI@~s8"ߜ5ĒWg:%NzӦ4fTssۄ-(6#NjUը'Ykdb† p# ?rcS!iIICʟFi"^oנmlcCGA؍fxKAR`xn۔Miriy X`yc~Q!=܋_MZr`"Yt& ~p"7IL)J[D^tnMeR+6݁_ڙ^g?sĨ+<8gO /$n#aQ$7\emQMr,Pa*=%4##sGq1o% T.5:wqX%]h*Xg9jH}]| AhsZi}~"mgQ|>ī,w 40o &T  `"lciDÒ cByh[%9a2&$f[H}!}}~,6g[q+BOR Gr2(n*e(U/DQp:IgD2] 8B1y2\4hFT0CCdY]'6Jh:PTPEX" cVMpS(ߤ6B$^eJZW46,656f΢5Q_a,K;f%e6VlC8r]1 FT0z?XMY' J pO%gLÅ.Ӧg8 h#|HFh9֋bT@8YvbD`M TYiȊ4 @8 Td O@Eibc0H^渊kx6N2 TT1]ƆTTXN0 9'6>z)N04Y6y8_cY ]B935C@.+ƒJ-'DP)30nXyKҔtIbyHԓ8Ic\ٖ╰ANOtNT'IT|OnS?Uz0TxsT)I')hFM{)w(Y *Y7Xg:0 @fi2iCJ0Kp$?@H #[i:M`pMP0 0Ib9I YpS 0 ѹTY"y9 6?:ڈySڠҩ)Y%qəy) 8'iYn'fȩЙ')Ɲ Iɡ4:Ȟ Iɣ>*飬XtjLub  YX()'QEڕlzr%FEex:A~:P YJz|]JOJ1+ v&J'ɩzYH"3LZzJjJj*'ꫛ aq =笨':;<% 0 꺮ڮ(IDz5$&bj4 @ ۰kW[˩{Y ڱ$#@ `.kۡͺ$/%k%DԲ1>@B:<+*[-; 0Z#DYJ&۴!> !VK.N;ZK˨ ۽m+;Z|{'Ѷ諢;;Kk[Kypۿ%̒4 j[ڣ zlDCdO$̰ $ C›58#49- [2X%E3\97Tsʪ8+˳,16,zVGQɛ|I¬̈4|]~~J`V{FP NPC׀ BSnND t N`P'P%}pͷ' `pұn]- ,}x:-|i,D}Kݬ7rw2mΌ=mw-ݥ[.*rX= "Mp>7=vW Ϸ`}^YJv}!^G&*.a'.1nw`Vp-5}0seEEj岿(!0_q;A80!;anDb>>N2&CN$Gnʭj+n=_ln4~^4b >#U.CvHɒ&:^ڧ XN0]沮C&Xڬn躍 }ԮVN)/JSAjXS}PD>^0Hne}>;N2c %KPo==jŎ(@o?a}>\X'Q00HUnn;p(~d=ʭk ?SNNz&,R0Wo6Ajک]/ /BY䪾L=+*EOL`*cJP#G5Y.:oV,ے/VYe7nz0_U#O(NܴqXc=Pm~C>=mBcS0'Pҿ'(v ~oHګh6Nv^3Ǝ4^櫟 BXa;`4 thȡB 3x 4aG,]"$PTPE%D (H>UTU^ŚUV]6aG.)q⨠&Nb9(a'rrAA4:A Q`cVF{0p aA^nIe8!ӕ=pקWڴ(Pn޽}\p7$\rnn]tխK7uݻ?]x͟G^=Tݿ_|ǟ_>$00@o@ܢ@A0B R'0C 7н /0DG$D>9 !qk!a)-Fq\0G""G&uTI'2,.R02\|Q:WSdH2DsP7 UBeQ)rHJ<4E5MRH9mTGG8.OGQeNWOf,@V7[04T UOEVUIYKvX!d]WV+|6\5$qEWoMUrm7^y[w^ߵ7_}w7`w 68a*xav8bjx!8c+8@;y_CcOnwd3yeUeZc=syC{&oggh4zv:::=Vj.okzllVv6[8jnno pŧ{w<)+(3'r9<Kot?}qu=vZ_]uuo;woE>xxFsW̟l1z<{^r:'_jG?}_}_q'h_x?P6# x@%o d7Fe[-H2 MYAjLq#a -vBPca\BPm3 WB`6<[}(0 MCWvD$K`cbįEQ"׬xŔ["50Q\cZ-4VMkVF8JQctGQ[@ 9HBҐDd"ȉ d$%9IJVҒd&59,p& G#De*UJVҕe,e9KZҖe.uK^җDH jf30i,SatQMdA 5GLmf72MqהB6ˉrvniX&1BcR')WUX8zHϠEg:Nnr q #%ahPjd@#QUR ,&'ISFp$2;g8'N y-vcrG2 \B P# Y f'Q#>d&.sQ`4# zLQ3OD iJ8%'9hW:Х\ƼJC@ oIk`X¶U4pPN%ӊj yBRd$XO3Ҏ&iIFNQj$@j`D#t,[ӱD"$  l@ 5-lKuWv l "D%qE=+Ӫ"]#* =?!$Yuzq^"%!/aI@*D-%iK"2LpD 1Y+d^!J5@Y>U՟oLWp [G.te =MJb wS⫝%z ;ٗN$'1E^Ɖ1ɖlUn\hHZ !A5@dr/D Y2BlR:.oj'dd&9BVׂӆAe\^j65-gP~ .0.}G]RY"{4Vz:P݀G؄Ϋ4/7 kEFU,ְ&Y ZՕ[ @'d=nEBloHGek60Qe5u0!%{sEB<gt/T27soywwKQfC6vgpBPG6-{3DFVNpAص8.Dh+hsi%hpr\ \M*ZSN `6R ) # ZR'ΐ #T=^ʍGݓpq^hΑ05s:$eȨBxj~mO ~}wUo@տ~?#g?34Dk=@ @, $ @*TdA #L(P`Q`ViJJ1yP|䆠qM&pJvkpJ h ME hkxHmXW*H@yzԔ| ˪Y@Ԭ IeמeL ,%̨ٚ LZ٭Wϟڳڳy䆣E $ +?t ͗- 4[Ou[ڱ+ ϣԠȀ4 Z xDܮڸmLu\ۯ׼άL$VVȇ\\|܆]Yܪ}ܕݱ\ş@$(XMO ^4:--XعN*Xs]H=Ͼ=[\jP]0ۭ݀$_@mDn8 U< t_*=E_K-2Q@Eq"T8Ys~ē` G ^x' 6[a0twvaFaFa>!NbݬQ_ULEбQ $&Ͻ)_sb<<-*b2H@X7H9c;]Z;c=feSNeTQVvfwVq7.xgwzNLVeeZZuRT']Z ڄ\ώ- Z A-&PFeюT|J XdXǼ~E>~֜gUxaxZTa(n䦘jxxxnF v &joH ]ݢ8a]e$ E Xn pqFL#L (xbhMU_  7Ӽ,L Y憘ǣdp$@xo>L^$Ǐ<rs /o 6^xƆrqrZ= -ԡr؄2_2?oM`gq4ߟ4ml.?P'[ܱ\Q_޾-к[YM.N ܂eQ] mЄ*Vr]UOzq-]q5)Ozs X 1%<_<=7&?Wou$7sqP%n,rouxD WRmEf͗1xjqaÀJrRhVMaruwhmEXTgx1-XO$BNxbNdWvsr`4o$t=(Btur0np'__/u-]!5W.u-MfMz=U"mPn``7(]y<{ESAJ(_^ '^+ 5tN̖/=O0gqmsq膘rq(>G_I5zY U< n$nxPUY%qdOI۪SKGBo}g2H{pj]n;›غ.~?|厄qK}vggjdt(to?Ez[T5~  ` (P >`A FDCC@`kY*T0#]䠆&; 1$РBmhѤD P‡H౥30 A RlPGP*aܸrҭ;h$zfn3`9u@8]Q'7r칳FG.m4DLs J2\-Jb_ PN`gp#ğ*Tᖛ*$H|C-XW0܂P-0D ܚ5˅vP՞P+[y\8dxc8B9v#9 \"8#58#`AE9č^CģNB I! PBh@ #>$CyM=VDWވ{6w P`}^XP1W|#Ne֜( Dc]Rp}!:]:#_j\ץ{;\*c+V$ ;Zyx@yҲhCMk\h-3שs*sT<.+HlPJ.CVuJm|0؞I/7$pEQL@nYlcI+&2-p0><25FuAu<dJ6;BEH @.k504aC`E<l<: 5@Y{[b8uCG|-׍;>yAX1T(YxApA[xx Ha0CĤKxԥѨ6Iuwq)ڄ#  z"YW1 hQP8@t˺Dq̫JUzh2Z 0>0IRdX֜\U28xyqPpQ\k[V=MA {%r2C1c,cX Kjh\ĵۅ0PrK@* + w o9^(5p\KeqUiitܐ8\ihb4@@"$eAa_`Mc;+`tLtйΕVBKp̰1Ԧ';cCw&@ E, G,IHNM=(UNdv!:h-$GК!pejVAmkӠ3\\ӞYGx? l\-Pt@P\lҐ-L:‘sRm(aacP >kp`t#r+n%w3iαV3:`4W< AqhƝ8hE;VsЄJ@-nL:vAuFD>z\*|}ONuL>`2`Rܙ=H|./EzbQ #`0wu+M F1';g.5Cos5U|Ic`=qixcl xϛS{0O ?P,Q\΃Q9Ν_Ɲi_{^MڎA\IA#<#lюu}Yeĉhյ_@>Y@\5Ai űaPC7 !@F#ĕnmץ!!eixY !&șj1"m ) SW> < ›!%Phbj_PL"zmdC9`Hf*guъ4(b):YY Y|$FcT7\\:TH6r.2.Z0c 11L|LXxQaNmOC:LV\C@88[ҽ:.j#i@d]PSWyeBZ{œ\W\XF^8ț"Cd9$jHdD@@EۀE#PAN-Y%6Y6a5ȷQ&%%J$LN%ɤidi`eQ">24 9UYeM~hPp%i8É9fZ8.JX/*ZZa`T b6a*}8Aidffn&gj'h"4A2j&kkZ-&m&mA#GkS^Ѕ8%r&r.'s6s>'tF'sshT&w͂Şx瞱@nRE z'{g}'{g$Fpv~''C|zvv'wD|{goF(=TfHtap}( (lg,hClhxbhh@|$ ⨅Χ,ȇbK΅&&)((NȨBfniyN pn)*G) *̑ʅ<)橞))MEq\&:η,E%URŮE*p#n,*tȒƚŢ,* ֿlHl ^\C9,\J\l\,Ύ;EжE&\,E6"*7v`p]L0T*,jdp W* t0Z0 co   SeR jK 0wh Jgqo>y1' ĴIPɡqe \g@!E4@x𱄄:H D7 @2(xď9|8P$# %ǝ7e7nHDŽ. A&vA77q+S5zC7t N.OȘǘIld#<7C81Ŷq89tC9`y\5dzP񽍲$Nx*1@7hu'˳A=)% :21SSj,r2lAg4+%!fsDF7wC*8S23;s@sX5k4LOG/(d0*q7:g@;3ZtLah.4#g#ˏ@s'OR#U׌Q ,dUuWYKp5Y[[\4]ߵ.5^iXs 7+_5akLU{`b]wqb/6dXc?cGeWX`3ke_6doz6g6hOhv_Xa6kGZ#jld϶mul6du(n5`un6av7q_5rSr'Q7BsktkuOA_7j7vS3wkpw\vf^+p6zw~{7C·|{rX~s}W~x EȀGw~%8Kt&Gwywajxqxoņx}pL8J[+1xwC/8J5i@ooK Ԓ?96yA9wW9#g9w9O嗇9㘗9♧99ߛ9;ޜ9۝9ٞ9؟:ؠ:3ա':Ӣ7:ѣG:ΤW:;ͥg:̦w:˧:˨:ʩ:Ȫ:#ȫ:Ƭ:ƭ:+Ů: ;WT|Ly'i ;7;?;㺴O;W:g;o;;;'D$ Prk;ǽ{Ծ{{|{{D# +c[_s~{~;~~WXk~~~?N~F>~atH7D+#aG?[g?Wc??Fc^?H?@p00 x… *d bA Lƌj(2$H 5lPD+Ud07؄SgG7k]ϝA(E>BUҜVrxZ4*שRR*6V]~؃ pnܸv2 /_w} x`{WMoƇ C6 JŖ/vYcʑ?O,73fLTukׯaǖ=vm۷qֽwo߿>xqyoysϡG>zuױWW1{w?|y̷W}{/^~}׿? O ,n & 6as$` `G>I,;mW P ak'@8 6P€(24,#čEh)rQ&G:@l * -PF:)@ qb %@F L? 4%'jI%0 :0L- z4R%ּ1G"A93 E`+#J唈C2TYiVe 8@AJ~4X' U $5$`D8A28d1HAsM6-[%Ԓ[H[Rz Zv8FG[n FVC /THDu!Xb@)Z-;2v߃63Wcd  Π,5ʝqNp9&7`TF pKRIE7[XEeԔ?@d+6A@ !4 'HBF }AB@  d@P!ms D40aF2^ `A245a v8(`dCvqgQ  `R"WJ `810Cd,~gҍ&8JDᢩ BI)Rl҄&dY_dܚ#'d%U|'9uǚa9K:E  yX0 * YytBcYS쎐V-)aP'l@#7Fh(xFp@^K"iY aDN:@D-d:Bt%_,6?D(-EE@QNT6%CIiNS% 0i tAԸՓ @MyYP@&*@NīTX$$P:AG@R7%@#h'4+r NH*Yt` 5;=gxV`N? ;krd:Z4FVCCpփ,M!9 E*Z|AC]z4 c R'F WPlj]BրW00 QXP'!NɅؔ*L6Aa.v aA[|uqA 6C7S^fP'4 1?>dx)jb27|ŀ]!.v X6py7gBˆ&8z%0:0| (/|/Kz`ķ?M7V]+4A :@(\w$  o7j@ r7` 0 b01yG7A1wPi7L&ıo&*DRSQ @72`.p~19p s1 ^>` cWY rM b"CO2&H  # : J7's `t.(1)Wq jrkJ TQ*W` f8z6 f$KR&R*# -2Ĭ@l)'w+Nj `$ /t0*%%!_8 11 `rr24`[$Q4RT2NM11sE66YQ9j6,.7 C%R 4VC9T5Y4U5 .S4@Q$S>@936eCNֳ36Ф>o hs? 7nF2<>]BACs<}(?z@p ~D6l 84eb#RrDu)6B@U63c#A(4;` 5v5%`?&Ecs*@>`& `#CK- 0 9z)64t.G[C  NY>L5O]FSP/ Ĵ5TQP5EI)=T47pn6ROE3Q2U5 `L54f?e: 0V ` 5> >}= 5cRFrVu62 ^54G2 h@S @H5-c5 L>!#PaZu%PGZGu @ 5@h \2Q (5UV&'! j\$`+/^YW9V_5rdO9 ZB5]`[7VB'6&a_rr5sb@c@e . !cCi5X^ f`_imiCy_wf6hqaU5Bb6k#!lnelXfQ6ew;p QUiilufavnA׶j}M&sp<n585`ci5Dis pW( uUKnqCvnk)@blyc,c?&GAW  쾔miW$\w TtC TeR oEx4: ^}c= !XodT!@7Y4 ZAr?(zH f!CB,aO (bv4!7_:z* &_!`$ Zږ{:xAl1r#( A{:dX:!J{r1 " ` YKy!a z2k{AH8@;@1s©Z1?z BB I {#!;QW0@op`o$=o[߃cyav! aQ2`k6[Xg:aJa { {<3p8ȏANk2`odPoCKL`D  znn.|!@ bZ@9}=K~ Q=e> !Fo}nn.&@^_ ם~ו9}ݴ˽nhAخޮRB r!]᫼b<͇~Wa A]!&ڮ{ &!'ʳܪȇlAqaJa=*2I9@ @`a=15mi tR2™y'w]E_SB(.;tnG绣rǥ?X 9 Sێ'20P)G;YR|6!IIC+ђYi[җ2B1]mohZ5 Gs t6=9Ol#7 jKv G%o2@ S LB奏UzC,9qn\V'|'%^JEKyqa~\BExg ÛygD䍑ued"=5fzKYJQb^X{S>iicK\_>eo_ R6 P h1gFZf4iY0(& -TBNe'IFC/y!%&<*y|tIosգbGiQ]Kh1hn_;cȢFM\VqS;y 4]GrdJP:젭Yd+˛( +*at :/⭅#1&n-u8YPO@\MeST=E* F&X˨]0LUs5&k*1QUdp eVFQ,%6u!4\8?85zUgٙQ+/aSuI@K;BdT]ϡU~3$mn+@=ڒNHgm_[ɲ,N@~fW5*K$27Ε!nн}2\tlZ5 Y\:5T/Z٫Vuh1}luv%9Ľp<[r.NaSa3@)|Z ;_Zzx+C&Wߐx2nIgkc0}h":O3II^+;'/ReKs9r1SU0[&zuV9Rk8ۗL9Ġ^ ,hBЯuGaNđKc6h) (G~֮|P Hڶ$+ș .܌_edGwՠ՗p{L&sb}.Ӌ74?ܖA=W:;|/ŀn/C^lC8džӁ hG]DvG#Yq8"$slړkx%Srku?"xJ xd6׀mCzNgz5EeA xUGUIm mN{P^Gn'h^łu|0}`,v?h~$SH}7ygJMYwRvTHtHbJ7x3wIxg ЇVÆy>e@'sTSl|hzVUm8th{s#tf7p5uW;2mᇠ8}xWAYC}F}}(~NGGhQ古fP(1x!kcIȨcgJY(8s7spXs5vx؍?K[ÒQ]m nie=HPquExv7ogdكXoӐ} ib}g8ȊM R x%yWV.8o1Id3yqhxT:ǙQHmY)^afOCnMUY|d2֕ǛQ f)pWjy)wQ& >Ir;"Ukk2Y hMTYUUtBFX^KXk{Zy_-n [Iq$Fe9gY)wщQp k:WWڗ*qII6 \)Iy뙙I{hsw֤Iǔ$TCVd ُ(2rjJw}ɐ{}jG vix:q1է)ꅁʢ*WrAƨ;Z (z UF5|}JeJ{M)uMr*Dڥ`Z9: 7pFiYnQp 쪜ʜIbU<7Y&Iժ[xY0rۺy< zluHBjzۮ޵N:f؟;{:8zYiZv[j;7iڜ"8O˅%۝0j?.y r] JvPfڳ :{XʎJ{=40Cf襸T[k`w|Ztj~˪b عwRHzf~7 w4{7GK:۸< t> V{&ڹT1Q;Zʠ˺}  v^˰Gx; k[#٢Jּe230vQJl6뀓<,D9勔 LC/ +3RkTڠcJ m˵+_˦; 0|Y {?<"+$./[\z7lX?|PA+Dkn˚; 2ā#ĸz˕:<۫Ł\i+kS={jvKki psk%' D:Õ͆<͈K^4͚l:Flqιp0=E7! ͤ)G;y@Mۣ%'}) .x!JD3mP,?%ݻu \ lօLkˋ\SI"pCkx)̍Y[^PLB[q Û w\ + i~H0qqH(VH6렎t[2^Ӫ7>u}yfߏAo}-R^m!ꄳnܥ ]mvԻ{qsu>/=ZǞ|k߃a]Үګޓ.ݞլU^n΃^|lΫ&L𻾱EG?N!K|'IH JA` mz,򎎮r+M, N.bI5gLd^xO@BD/@Wƪ+QR-ˡX MA#8 $e_=^-*6n{CU5o r ~LʘC>En̲tDb!B8qĈ"TP GP=VqD)Rn1ƒ @(a 3dȈF/\@ŋ <`E .eSQN}jўsW]zu UZz%iJ.abæ7ođ3g:vGPL6mԩ,ȰrUe̙D ˲* Y2Ɔ*{6ڶoʥ{/?}HpÉ3~yre˚31e}Vkad͢U-%J.͵vntzx8Ȓ)#W9PCv4lqMVڒĔ[]":* 0 aP@ ("ȄDP(0聉,H(J2邔`f)Zi~@NEeqJhh.h>B$PR%`&p҉'(3"EFut*Ҋ p׼{+.k/01 9L?Ѣ!4Z5`.M+USSEU[ N+뾲UuMsiA jDgA 'KU+l6̝jsn+bKVݭfѦ&POj49s:jGmlΫ')|Z Càޅip5hՏ] )>C~E>Y$u4XM mNmi(s΂[,(@唃,9@,Q Ur0ܠfhL&Saq=̬N@ӔW$fu삫"VVc[FиN=2|ukGH :h|iIl@N"PɠT6c=Tn5x=[V&u @ );)\5<12dR܊V8/Y̏b`T7ogȺ).(P@/nYQzNw hI֗4J1cХ<]]nuAT] st:cw+ɬ8q;jl5Doҝ(aئE6#/z3:΅2zَΣ%KhV5j8%M~RMTӬtT]⣖jԷ-_q_m;Aڐi|\^֜k A2*ͩ]e+bݦyXV0Z$ޚf;-w2 |{  vozd vKάώWm w'\4`) &rn-lj׭n-d/|y-~g.ؼpic7̪E; @ЁҾr3NZMK1_.HTPD%{ &˸?Ԍ20>`Xa<?Sr %`>h`2L6+@fӹ;=̠ !+ 72RAž-@0AAA7Bӷ K,8%dBDh3+;[8.&F1 0UR%=LåJZ@ 0({ r"ZkE@űK4_( <5c(=04PI*tF4@a -Hno6GD p hÒJ-?T2/C)m "9H̹ҳFѝjԶ춍,;E=\E TP(FF%z7 yɈ ›7j.8>\i JG"'`Pro4FIT | `g*)SCXJrH>M X?4GɋKDlڼFpF`bP锦#H4HI8la\欀/LQ$Ľҽ\fX4FwNJA]t ,0,'0e)DJ@@|6bM| ]`OdTע 03PLFC`Ƿæ̌Q2MHp0YȮ86Gk,K'20 0"F0 tJ3=pTLR+ݻ PQ:IE4t(`GBDPd8D8Qo=eP@!J`軭dRnNR!=S?O pSeG] S_(!}Q гe`OD<11TP @ma+'dФL{ !XVSGb-: ִ=UM>@St*J5b8 +] !WHٳQxS,Of+Ƿ-0 K?U)<,OoGS hV JFрlEK S SFH+mIi/Zq>XP,XHT: xX(Rm1XU9Q5 RX -WUُڀl5U <8,;}F0?H]buZdΊfugG ЀdŵR@eaܡ -Kp< (EsZ' 8mDT[#=z}[*X.+FMS|Ԅ-ܛpA\28 e5%#A\ʒ0΅>!08IUS}4Gh5RYj2%_HRUe}sVM`F2+,=(T,]pӕS7L^  @5Y@xӃԦ-H>ݟjˀk )XԻjԃ5C#T6ThWa%R0.8u>\R܊Z"a}J^G72X#UXjFNY1F>8W֟A5e\C{ͱ4TbP _FM6PD3O^{H(Gm6REXtc L%iրH.DSy+a=hUdx& !U/xdG"1A3H@URX + uZ>a X6Fd qVK], S>0Vݭh48O Sg_U=/hxv;:4PP=$ZNR-d8dxƚ(B@~VSD+Pi 88Gj[hB 1j8( +H*0XCW\*j 2l38 m.4/*x3(>6X2ȀA64H585XU=؃=(>,( W,i"X>h-P5o?G5 >!n$&e^AЀhp. Z- J+'q0oZ16-8qNEh a=H>-hoH⮂Ů|$ն  n8s4Gs!H.X, =r ^ЁVhHsB?sns,xX; :?#>?N-Otk!.ht!6X/ !2tPu[78/ss qW_ >CWh,uOuQ7D_t`wamc-վ/s2:hOos01t#pf-GG3 w!xx!"8x(h bw?8P#$$% x_'&( vbT,N xh'x'8'(y@xbWY{~?wxGxz9)xy/wvb 4|w~w')(yW9:hrHSXP؉ * )\R ƀP`Ǐ||o z}}'}+I/|{ cx{XEp܇ԧ|}W|'WGP%ا}_wGɟ@ncdX@xĉ"Lp!ÆBTxb $.XBDDq$ɒ&OLQE$4f(*ole/5ʜ9DFNL 2K6@РԮ^ +v,ٲfϢMv-۶nGn0`-ݺvͫw/߾~Ɲw0†#Nx1C,y2ʒ[άy3Ξ?3 !ЦONzur9-{6ڜAp6޾;8Ə#8<9Ο^}: k:޿/~_Na^bna"~Hb_ .(cB1Wc7ȣ᨞B#=AA6dEK"I,VLRFiZr!\kvkryЛ uީP p'J(硌h.Ji~Ni^*磖FifJq `*BkZ+++,٫.[l Ȯ,^l&mV+j "tnj.۩;ojɯB&p /ӛ/flN-{q˱B'2B"Do2+Sr,[l.Ls s(t;<'D#dH4E 4NV/IGuP_ vbotdujvSvfMwvM=B| w߂?/^8Bx+8;~9K9c^族9硃^觓wzy㞻޻_#3߼CS_cs߽߃_磟߾x_㟿?/́ h"0 @p +(>0;am80! [02! ]hp:akxv&<"C "20$ &:((C)?Y2} @j#Nw"#z곧gO99N -ge%_]ZuDPSZYI`fFčl(J V= [%Rg2먗LlY92 P7Ԫ? Q/]XspPEyr1֡u`7pP $0-D1Alb*VO↤x2`_lcx:`ol8 챏] d!#;PK6,PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw001.gifGIF89aq<<48`{jaI> <Cz  _D<ÕyC$cьxC?B?>? B}e6,0PHA Dddž(P[bL͞*hBGQp^r0Pۇ4&S=a"!9+ J@a5`I- K>O`cTH +?`n*éR!vtv%5/cØb"%RDC Ə1{g%= e4706U[B.| 4jh &{+\xe#|ן/ۜJAv끂w17hZa 4}{v(0}2VyaXNzU34Ad LDA.$Lm7_Qe BhL.h0U{BL`Ny!ȋb S]\w>!#'81NMkѸYGȒQH=M;>p蓍YpC $ HPl$Xlϛ}0(6h<夔b)$E HF觛!##ɩEAm-6xHt-'NX D,pCX}$Taej0E@PGa5E4L V5>j TeCI%@d3  6 Kv d?(}KY2<[!z슺 6A? MQ3stk͗[ͳJMD 7pS|sCdK3 |TtJfKt' m6'~ u r| .8gz8qG.Wng8x砇.R0ꬷ밯n :$.eH'z7/3OGh}/Oo>埯>PtaOFȏ, p[ Lp;$| N R@h}B >H$\_0P0 ߇P|% o>H"HL&:PHE&RP*ˢ.z`C2hL6mpx(>9޳#=jsyGX\@51j%ԩÏ D1!AT` 7F%!'!\@@ 6 1rfxL~COZ#\@Md/bHh VuLWM/ ͍#tp dyI&b|A0$U7FԠ*@u *)bD!t |3?Y6Ho+NKkSt"P ʴTMdHE ؔ"|ʀ8,%ECS`9~:U1#bSD o" 47 g6= WHOҗ;PԧN[X?x`NhOpCxϻ{CNO ;񐏼Lϼx>ؼGOɃ=; 0=pwgk'۬w=Y|C =O" - |@@ 뿿z?O~ | ~} uOp}}<}x7>@~W||~P{Vﷂmz||v~{ } W{Dz/8nP|Sm~ ~gffxw>0{=׆P`~'քO+8짇=6hq淄O@~P n>>xaz=0F @v&8Hǂ68c(H` zom/x!槁E)v`p |d8`Ʒ2hr؋{zZh/HK'H{m(mGHXnmx#nj6v[f WF(X(z8+,z8gR&ȑ8 QQP@{ @ zivn+XiY菪,ȓiP|4I9BX,{8)LJXQ ^nw+(  8hꀆ*X9YWGXvxz|~ ؁]~m= 扄,muUP ~hǕ!!P0!@ۦ{O|!{4(~7{mSڡ{z"({b{8 mUڥEʥ{5bme8>ZQjYHڤZ).W֍7zwrzy  Jz:zWx٧:ZzګFZzȚGpm lJ==՚3ڭsC:ízB׮:ZzzPگ pFW{ӑ [8װ;"qH.i(sTs$6GBaQ@t.+04-;AQCR 897۳"q>PB7G "O`K'JaNKXu\۵^tW+H rWf{c~KzxDO^gH+ͺFd ޖC/'}IWm0I":v|hnNًQ}zMڀE8p=sX9yn'PJ,x(~x|ɑ;nX9hۢn'^ Ò(3LG8{n^@`8oޥ9+P- Yv9~OO'{_Y |tz_~W6ivql~^-FBz8|,0z@F{xRUWY[YHG!h"" ff {:{"x#m"8x!bL\`+}BỺQUB-:hn>7pŐ)GLc<DP ƇoaƜ? z-._C|Meł1xDQfSjhRd j6(tcA@Q,' |)-So2LiM?Wm-(dAD=0ġ-}VmcqMBT,Y @6F$+e4B[y-%* j׺WA1b z= W rtomdhDqODHx'e MYzWq' M۴>ݚ5qLY+ppK7 l0B*t0wP5hAxBQHl )uIᩔP. ,@IK,PEGƋAhAKqgGi%I]Qٌ =Y\5%-YiƮ6Zmu[o7\ umwWyגPu%X ._|󽮄>` X)9cO 1azQNYema,Yqnyf{e>\h.0n駡ZCZk>Zl!l >[^~[[oqn)Q@qW<؄\9c'\8TwQo#~COu5\P2iG>T]w+}wY!wG o?詯J@k7A9|O_o_~?a|9|(`?zP @Xl@ WA B8> ( . AIX ȀXxA3|e( @$ ~ PGy0XD }ԟ i` )2|qX LD2@A?@ D> 7Cq!@4C)H`@=I.j}D(G!r {iJ^`%0h,rFHp e)  ,@hRwa[a3f؀ r |P#5+CY)@m#u[| S 'CL:Eՠvڣ*&80AJLJ*VjT9gʊ "@$䨁?00xV`$f&$?%IS0$A rLZ9M ,`e!>0Npx`_G rEYW"vM@$P35iPUIOA$'@ d5ehG[} OYW5<.ˀXc&rl")Jf33+|!rmth]L`6H̽&P)J l߹UTp\-ye@؀/\WWID ]S v0J N8pzD]@Rz>VV-C? jVVKb6jM_ W[Xr>)>Fѻ]]X Ti3oԜGRf q*Y3P7{ގy jiAQ/>(_ mȳ!]Jeae8*F36:Jנ Uz  W\@9x~M|{lPX)֞xy>NBn;a\]o}F_tW  @c w!q [<1񓙓ǃ ;PK8PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw028.gifGIF89a7VVVuuuOOO666LLL444RRRCCC&%&TTT222(((+++GGGHHHDDD ###@@@yyyϿ<<>>jjjddd^^^ɉͷ\\\xxx]]]hhh111zzzbbbkkkcccmmm888nnnaaafff!!!eeeqqq{{{̩sssTST󝝝Ǝ~~~wwwQQQ===kmo֑AAA:::ƹ'''867777xwx534EEEA@A|{{mll!,7 H*\ȰÇ#JHŋ3jȱǏ CIɓ(SLa˗0cʜI͗B8ɳϟ@ z2E8k@(]ʴӧPJU8hIkF:0E hӖ௭۷pZ`JKF V#䰂ǐ#KLp:e4DH1U̺Dqceb/LB䰁6v'УKA3A倅 L܃qoO-p[ݼF_\v  @ctKFVP:yWqĀeV @Aaއ =7݈$^Vf^!@Bt?YoB]#c$C_%Gr@@@?F}Egbwa~aisA$X p|矀*蠄'xivyv(dFjbgj*PJy/Y@'F*@ƊbrIHj؁+Dz:F: P2 $A$p -p% H@+b@*s@@~8p mT`Z7wv0`t {EgW ) ?`@)wGQ[Q/1ݘWyFE?Aza7K~l4CHSpE M! QB C/̼ 5%ȑb!8+@:Bdboasƚ\G+i~qTmQi8wHrכ4o0Vt1?f.L#:r^c@ &w/ogRo-@C.K; 6QgƽgȺ3~k9[yxF$+x,7{:z5 #: < |y(H7Qnfv;Bj>ylVUť}Yy6K@\N/!V"`Fa;X̢.rQcgC c!/X3L]ټ6Xկ^Qͭns u?T£% 7𗞽gn=£]O'=&X݉Qb4 AZFn S;&{sJn=-zl^dW%A b1 &< Ƚ%[9& hTGOzO~?V~.% Cf|NwcK[~fyv~UyG*!fW#PY׀Xe}fotLutRkH$€ Ac6D%Z`j6~|'k1X*1*DzFxw;JwxZFt&ygN!1 GXfx6օtT׃wnbqPxPlHgPyX#8wR}p,q#5Q^„J~*؉r9:(PKЀgtȈv~"M  Qm7{w{`W[$ffdfufw1F8Uԋ~1eU yEWq{XjV ܐEͨy0XD%:d AcVPiuEّV[x쇂5 )%IɄ`5_Ԉ/Bgxp7ٍxtHzIȅC)3sTRL ȒOMVE^E#q}GnbKnpr9t9`kK*# y)J;sSAd`| hC}i~(!JIX c`P @0 ܲ *@_ 6   I l`/py3?ǂ$~4{4i2-r-ٲ--2.r...2/r//bs0YUJ:Wg9Y@IS:~RٟhvA Q%2 y ,IS" N) hx92 @ -6~':Dt w?8:ڢI$|fA  f l0 R`+ ϐB @ hGQKM>z#q=Mh0 0 p@0 vnP`E0-Pr:y{z zjP, p ک&Pp,*lA mtPNFqX Zʥb॓` sh n rwe:"q)8}Q ~P[~[Y.q.a&FcmeذQ3:+y*RWiA17m8:<۳>=Q1+DSbqQ| Az9$i*Z\۵^`b;dOZQYR!:p} $k'~;[{g۰X_Hcz| {Od9KAciX?׷ۺ~빪;kȺ{kKNۻ$sK» [{_қ ڽAR껾۾𫾙f ] pAFP f e0$\&|(*L}r7 z4!3Ur Y@Bj˽\9Ĝ1h|1̌12͜; \x'=Ll4|%<%k,,L\7Z#}G F]2 00e¼ϴj1nkPnp?U͘m%[[aF!e|jN+^F >b n^~*rZӷ0eʣCy8N!ޫs-K&&"{iIgaTTLN6TPFC2bMl)3Ey O^QyPW.Z>K caPT@ezea`fݫ,.ENMTgĄz x`頞$P% 3wN6QprQuA@yB!lp{n{plVJ}m.$P9fygp>CK.a碞qް@Sfp 6!Ōz{P` C>䁾ON@{x},P ?nu`˞y&Iyx$ogaPP`\/fNW:/oNnTpx{~NZg@gul`bagP?W+f`pxi#|loNo0g|U/GQN{@&[No>*TpE%z|oG`apL>ĎnWA$cC%NXE5n#F! $I2OIdi$ Ì odL-kOA%:?3{r"cFA*CY~pڏCI8SLU5E6.g_y dd`Yj5\#swgСE$f3œ1ګ{hk& TwfԴfP1힁s8\3 6^E Vj.8 ~gT$єvxZ{ѓ~ 򭷋gf: 4pά@ a3,> ,86C H-$HLT-y@k *$6̠ )ӈ jc6![џ$XRH"Lb66'@8K0kUQRcBabJZ'qGfQ@s({li<2T?@ux;;a0}o.x 粗p G)[yϙKEXz% t|%R >F #_;Lv=+<닂(FhR*)a%P;K{] S" 9+u%<0:kR ?s3'XBiI"83AaY6pE " +̿?k>  *A3-@$\!JX(2)29XM0C?ջHá8#;T%<#p'4 P(SI·*ESQd `Ѕf(EBC $CD@JFT˹GH|IDKDM\NCP$<$SH6ټ -%Բ4WU2PZE*;9 I`]FLG;MM(%P=*=- N(WpW~XCp2-99x^;VbcKdUe5PfRTA Ni8}^mE (]r=k;u6Gl']My]VSTFP}ـ&?7xنW؉UH=XٴW@m"f8=٥  H4@2pYs}MPRRfX|U>4U[~xY0U}\2)PU.ڵZdRSgh]]UePY]]4Pܻ]ɾTnT&Tx֜W{ՁWۅ]\:PUh\4uYѵSX-UXxUq%m]Eg\ݍݘ[t^MNYY]^W` X4^4WU]3]Tڋ]]SZ89(3ZI5(8`ͫCa JD xU$`(ڣ^za}凜C\zV `@ۧMb~Pxkǥ[8U)'&W(VkK*n`v}&M ,qh\\8R8]}HaeRc:n.-X_\:+ܭ^dEWK\wP S [dVS땂7'\]ge_^K:e ffO>1_k^)(}F6خ\X^~jXl~bNne}W-V^O.uhV7ap ]MB|吖P*h~-Ha=.ؼKX!4cknl"fFG! @,Vqr*a]&305IM%bg7xg-*j_gaR5䷎Cm7]j3ߍbh*V+M^Nȃ^C&Ene2X6Y~g5Wl1#8(0hnm6ImL.ku gM̅̕jn^>eok5 Rl.1!5HR H&#/  a[.I}Ͼoobp`BH"`f9`8$_.l& WnHqHA<?WtO1XtEGth`4lr&Dž5Wvd5wp&ɺ9(9hIu*o-qOWصv1\T^u܆]09p \x1>q & troC/owPy/wfzv_w{'w&؀qNbdvږ=s90칭l$kngig[rr^"xxXg2^d2ugr+8mP)n~H~p /qt! oA7wF({Innx/{PxFG":`幝mdW84P2xeՎ*guuM%\HWCU8 pd$Wg:ii]pztzmwIwz{}~//>&x~oM?8I]>heos^5}k6˿OZ,h „ 2d!Ĉ'RG HC`4-_ֈ)B抃*@` " $ s-όK]X$n`A@~_6tPA7^mҵup *6m7s|pC;~9ɔ`\Ag7j sF`2CS7~ 32ukׯa'3xÓ/hM6IQݰa#NCo~9?4TQGSPV? \u\ybeZ1aDAf]Bf(آf=`LPPE<^xhၖi tIDt9!?~oцLiVt1 qH[+CEp2Uuȝw!Fg:Zzh^i"ayOjZ 5`L@i1%ZVfǡeDB&E$bt_!LX Ay qL.8+:B8ēqVɞ K2?m%s[ǑA|&SZ c1 k" 2:1w]yB( Q:܁L|DmN2el9 vct`PF6#t`}.mVk}pu;]MwߏI܏<9f㏬2AG4e$ZcfC|?BSJʼ"}hfH 'R6?ȡ rA :A 3g( ~>Hլy'x;9]/dIAe@ )Lv~#ŵ}"<"'gÞ9ZU=c5*M~4t0 EB B F {x폪#45JȾ`#680x`.$ǐ-dc9J5.8C|TS\Ȋ>21$FqT:#+B!R,{iPkh)j9 .N$780cI" -"ـ(h B沁 Ԡ2#H+R ĔM YTws= sݱ=<z*Fi1Fs)Gp g/CC׺M}/jMZ(f9%( HcB$p\PzEꉐȤ . Yc-4f2C.x # B ִbo3!s%Hp. !#YjVy$BїISbE8 \i Rܮ~`5K&(c,xhbք:9-7A@CP-B5CI[\tĝ4aúŢn]NBQ!M FC09}KƬVȭK :!u׽뀵!e1o!=y\&'8@L92'Dq9.M1R%+HsB‚@SUD!4jjPC[s!0cveI2Bnd@-Wc&=ĺ& fk̟9s1;^+j PnHҽ>Z_07BnG.;c0tڠE~4Za9As8v br&GWK$^i2:Φ6q}[4> #vAF?1e^}/vˊ_qLM )> ̊n HV aCH+&Ȇ!ttgV@U@Etp^J?$ѝѢ lE\ [|B{`X?Wf8TCܘKZTN0]_fTr}~Odb9́բelrPnmnF_lx\y, *˗.AHA.6C\$ʚ֚qE X\MāAhb~"p.BpM5+@-B {,x]`vn&Hm^(Ah*t]">Z<Ɵz"1F $#Mt>}. !JBoR-r_BWE,)Ďo"#WXtMah?#|J Nq&ew@ř2"U@kʅ)( ^]ަig ?HA6.l-iIw%2.B,'پHF4"@n|ƈX ~˴HvB1 K4W۰Q*+b$nHMLn*?r_B/wnE|U_3sms(|.BM\Ldz$VL~qZީ?l?ϨAΘYcFu@'u(_)c(4QMݐA(-# u?mSc$uVL7Θ3Ge!l%ĴrFCB \ :_cUBnU q9)-Xks L)ƌvg}m.t5{kJ9_ mtm h+0Ԁ\ ;C]lE}A uK+1  O4Yӑ jRH?Gǂ\ljfvr @x ekVklmT`6S[2-͆j(ia%8@W`hKG\ g]tbXwyfud-q# emIrkwyExCjeFJU+l 09akyws'đ7̫ݎ@FR뉴"꭬K +D,8WNT{稓JP!P-8s_ȶLZs,|L}6=/.u.O:Dlk_VcɘWH gt9OAInL(8i[y?o(A!Fu@ kH:{G+x8śP ;iͩ{/ H /w/ ]s֟;W ;Jyjs 1p3xB=='/=7?tE+:ߵ@C/hg쯑oJȏxwOvb{֟:[v}9';՚I|>>'/>7+O[;c;k}pGp#-oY:I_ڿ+-*K c.V?z.:?V~@04mH.f3>>GO?W_㻲Wνo|{ |yv~KijAm [˸3Vgp DLp_B 6tП,XxѢ '8ʘ_H~19+䷂a jXF 1D~(P9|XAHqqP"Dp$HܰlXcɖ5{mZkٶunZ&Fn E783$̅&CPgK@@FJQbD:^r!اWg$2+ bԆ[jm0 w&w/S4c@׳- WZU蠲g qa_nRFJI$'GELHj{aYG; JcW c.E4t_~48(Q`OȄh JkN$K85,g]hL}0T40yIUPjSĔhvC,I)6 3&ytĀ3,h=ISgQGBbej[esK_(M!!WhQ336h@!nS+ei˿ 5KȰ(\N2~([kIԐ:'lmbYPbVURr5>rW0i}V_[_*QlUMa gpEM} KnXW 7mGwurmА>zяr"PF̘Υ{;jo:QZt >@)6{Ԑ3uMlq[c]X9S[̹EbPJ@W`qA  f&`R~_F?gL8Z7 Y$l"6.vgzejJ2 :] sXmȲJE %RX5R8 !g_kС7s^Dtnů~<* 1O3k:Й!vZȁClt0o T"mo;;֯bKcafHLE96eo=AtͶ pp ;䖈!.V^ H=iX\Ω(۝4h*͝w'=>Jy h3p[P7 yN @K$'Ҥ`lZ&l/:0 Qp ߐh$1" 92u6k](yS((M| 8b o@  س9'3'2:os::<؃F3KEdDHAS6cBr#R>>/=.?VU?M+X@PEp AT2g*_2=+ 03SS).3CjE(ηd.hHQ=YTI69Bs7}-PCu$;q3(DLTEc=#I3TJMCTN>cK. lPStE9McT>FJ)QJGdWꔁB >PTTE3>q߾XQ,R߄GF sX?TLI=F5UW5N r$V,o[G`Ol t@`TCIuI-Q<6@ R;e ^"<D@ 6X`MK\t:]UL Ԁb3^CdcEFsH&ݠ dQVeW=YO]hbC]Kb2H`DXdV؎ ` 9 Y[\sbAqy.k˜W $.A k SYr76}KՆ6Ll )Y˄犸  L9f@9SywXan6XӸv찈 x z٘?9fr Yy||UY* d̜ Pd` `"Z٢5|EbX: qwA 8a(mz v٧1;ZAڐv=x)$̠}C@*Z'ڣ9ynsѕTIFGXm{A7ڬ?zY`9׭aa8x@ ˳;ٰImUہE( JZR`#~;ٴ: vK*!Zp Zm,?[ۧ噸]}ZM[A \4a~K8<Y;o  ƹ,FýCI<Ѻy\_hƫ{[aǻ?\ S[;j(!c\ y&!C;||!"Gk}B <{Gz27 ,`|v9,`T/=۬ۼ\C, ,̠n^ >atֻ\Q\x c}{! VՃ=?ak=o<@` S 6H,a:[=uq Va*,p  ݁ , `^%}w׽X5!}D#ڜ"!F $ @5Qw^`h<~'`4{IS~1 >,>j 5 9>,Ɓ4a ^!KW==` @A" ?|` z־}l >W@aC_yuAN`!s񗞜M` J)@= €~a ʠ b*[@? l!˜+^,2 :|1ĉ+Z1ƍ;z|8@F\|q$Kh)002$I lL ^CGEtQjٱ/_$؊ ӟA(x0Ǔ ؋_6=6صlr|ѣߒX8 K;v X $9li6ɔ+[2fɎ=r,)S.2t8u 2'.j:ݼ{h" .AmrV:gz옊eː>RС:d˛?13IkEG3nkԑ®v3Bx㍅?`n\N@D?! \=Hb&R?YBQOR~Effj^%`9fneIgv޹fnBYx ha砊.h0gIb 0nʩ`,(C&jJ2ȄjAxꥠjj_F.l[d5 Din-D;$;_vnᗐ'nC(ދ/R;g;/~o/EjoLHoTALqvN L8&|둸e;B+(ߌ`&ٱ?T>sJ'CgYV)K_5#XkYi}}VbCf6$vm_ n]v'~ EtG2P_(@p ',a {,A ^o7D\ &| >^xhfa p'ȅRb ] ѻ nxb|G u"OBGXË!LOBd4 )@qABrWA(I!2b "0H (D DIIRa&}N*H>Nr,cJ D4_Y<`,A91.☽ID8/ gIA˖ P@:B hN&yZB9HUA\?P l; Izƞ@5!!# W@o` 9 zЄ~sytSNޜ&) FHEJRv* K!"d5D a):`HV 2Dq퀽 1<  N!?5(BiǯT(PԢ(BTɃE:RuB\Oʕ!AC^!OЁn5eHo;!մcX_m`{Z؃@IrBe}BgِaBM !H 1DG L[r+Zq9c Ou[\›Iz`B8MaG K^ΎWRxWFckطŚoT^|`55Ёa M3i#_v@ EHlb h1e#g/ϖSD"c+ż?~ow_p2~% WOЀ(5L'נ7W/1(4u\\#pݏ`w?~ U1~뇀I&ZY{X% %x%($h%X%!X$|#"B hX+(_W҂H3qG҃F;(.g'1r%,_Cm/E҄uDQ0х&_O&2_ȆUh$iJ2cm- rCR#gJ21yh42QE2oHxv؇DRH$*0D3F‰#I `J2RȊf%AUZWQȋ lhX%[c&ʈh1F~՘h5ȴh3lq~D<Ȏ؎Bяx2 Nَ . ޠv)A @  <P)=Y %! "2ik* 9? A)  P19K E07iLd! ;ɓzÒy]C 8[96b 02g)`kɖY 0%`xY |ٗWT9E h)N D `Ai%cy15 .9 0uP~A2nLPg-- pc58!l 9=f3fTb ` h"i X9Vډ+!L0[4WQr[7k6&&2LЍy&ٙ?)p YDZ 9@Ahb[ !b%F`B0F_.*w0Z1puɜUz#[")1W%j%kck5%1j&9ڎ ` 7@ `陑БB\jP_)&,'jBr68tG^R LWxb1_`[bV&c Aʠ 0, @ bF\ƛ2eAY)2_@jyڒ 1 U nc%S3 >x)`krʫ^ Q}ɜ Iۊ2pናEP ƹj2ʩFY )dZ 5sfʯk<0<حc):pʐLf Q_%Zrx)tip8Xڰ A%.F = [! ={, +-EL p85KPK `TkV0ufF y{o@ w˷˷i`H s@ca%V '5D[u[p P #pg @ 5 ;[ g ;[ 1뻯 kE@a 1%3µ ()0J@V`0ZM`4UPP "k+PPf [K1 ۾6O[H+4] X|('iRVbC(?8(&lw)eVVv*,.\ 0Øgf1-z9|hQh _gg!A|\;QJ" "I|UA8/^MLa,=W-=pH$H5` t|J#!woƗa5c%eƂS$w$nȌkSXFrS|"#ɖraҒH$ɠSASW/b%ɪr3cF[".L755x6L̆[Ǖqɜ̣<+[eż‚˸L\LK΄+͔͹r5Jd <%΃ɐj ͠ ` <5ylЌ⯝)+NzəzYI =Hfy 2-u]@5]'<i͎ A-[m@!PN"|4ښ:M KYl@4hAAa\fɩ@+[qv],z@Z͜ p*39W3eoYhsk!霷5`"h!s`7^,cp[\妱@`[B@0Bo}ڦ]7 jϯ@uͪV4r_0:8Sܑϣ ͎[ڥ1]p'6k6^U,.[`mW ~:6-)0SFPaA.Q}F)""r=_ cM@ @`ԇ&c"WfZ+bn)<2k UawU: 0皯`nܤpMڲp x^~  jάR ۉ!ݣY_3QR4mNqn8 :˳g(q58^]Ȫ_>N".0nSu%M[)p0߰NѰ# ХW6ejԹ۽Ӿծ+ p!V+/%߫A /#Q ` ? ` ;Q=+>C5 p  #$0"0Dt^4o;=.0C SPpJ 1a7"0Kޟ.kAf-NpqO@w o/s_ -01 pt8f2~.h@2ʏO$d _ s5~^_,o ڧ.Z l"#X ~A!~屇SI2ѿ,?Jr)J!L/UԑR$g"VXeJP,A#\uś }W`TSFXbnCr`Yb0"Lƌ& = _MBj֭]V_9mnުȦ _2Ku*K]t*2G נ{p]N$T0𽣿 cgso0;mJ,;Xd~r@ L 4'SLʁ9G~d/?O -HRYBAB!)9.l Jhai5*#("BK/RxY #j! @2E$ȟ9%6| >hl,,KG5+L6 DMv( t%:C>tbEI=Hw)I(M bō$HTTd@5N F{%\~A1:3 tقZß;7U nj q̨:0B8P1s'.݁Њ0CSuT69LՏoDv=ksNdsh!"Z])&KaFUb27B8(;i#?Uۉ\5%ڀ>0VFp.nFJhvd:ސjA2lj" g"x n OG=ujB@*hc*ّ &2؍'9{A֦t @* f| 1? 2Ï0!7"w`@ y:GFx%)(J mPA;TɎ\@'5Ēj 1Xa/RH 9ƃ1LCpGxn 9G2?$ d bx$9Y0+>y3")JbE!c qJ_l=%(a*@C&쇰k?&:AP65+ $B4 PMHGFs1 bPEyMDFHU Ї"EMưQ6]>PB j';5B֓S5U@p 0}10o*nLJARpR ,'#s(Z9֞,QpphXudR\^FdY=vTFYւ&(QI [njj[UK欵=QPt\6׹Gm5bV׺ep g} &.׼Eo׽D?7]?{Ʒ)*>v/F6>2Q% f7r. Bg;z g?z BhC7:`A?NE~ø)?5\EݲNݥss?U;ר{yn_kz˩kĚu"*c=leWRF%ykdT,v=19fwz_{,V7-^,KɦYm}ܵݞQ$oUMhz x %nu5>r'GyUrbaLfJ\-ǹI<˘ۺ}E n.o wud:w` |ѥ0T@{^3$ dBb. @Aw!a @$$ eP?$ 6{o{~G}KO*j xw$od =sNBv4$9 a6x~}ρ:h("@W 4Aϩ3̃$H@jAP3܃˛5x3):00=$ 9kF:(C#s6x0͂`P=%=x u>>\%P(P QtN%G?s _5в,eHPmuP؂(GX]b+0؃ț0h;[%KRP!hR'>lNR-PS+21M2KȃKx&uO+(u9zK1=;{ONZ(%XT9%N(ɤR%x#8'Vjv] 7"TUG:=I=YZu']U2_ \ V8dSOf] QJiU~@\Ch:v]\cEVT-->)}UȊ-=[Xغ]Pa7 %ޚ_a[sNK(\M\"P^Z`,NM`B;e]ٍa_]N'~YeuaM^ŝaǭF9uajޚME=d&vblF~a+],[-VY9.&])6V3&a5NHn㤍%h;~`cU,P]A$ fbLv_md-ȕZgY1~D.eZZ7fU`:b;<.=>Upeb eEe@ea&\c_Nf4^}g>vQ.kFlVZpWF1XBH 籐CteeBJKidf^~\]>f@hhpA  h@ATbtVa]]^@/gK^d)0& 66c(v$jo;ó<0  (l؀+dI<Ŏnl >Vd.iF(Pia6k2nܵ\^IPiQk>eff40S֙;1j/RhxH&~ &f>f%mG\WkJծveNOmmjkkiNh!P *cp(O&0ڐ71n腉h $o0ombVYWh[nqVVYhnt〖paek3" ?j o8:ͦ Nqјrq&iYgc{_F |kMȕs !'h.TNl+ph# 1h5pH(r- M @@>g5igF>YJq%fj>NXth\tmCEorPEhDvILo!ȨpM" qaRO6g~SЁԾse]4VJ8_mB/v>t"Xtnrtn h1»+ G P: ydr6w@wD~sW` wq7}Wo`vڽkc$(x HzR/JKzi ?S7Vus Nx/똯s{ܯy~'#U.Kez^)u7^x'y瘮y/̶/r{?,W+z3 /{6oe#xk8v9iʿ]$| LNC?4Ж}W3)OOG{Dچ|A{/t` \t&hTDp:fÏsa,?x bEɐ"\ \q 1Xx [D~SF$Y,rEG"EԨB`.d0Dgq*UbڡF:И"ƀ0B#Z/0kͫw/߾~,x0†sW"H&Sd2L6s3PTTCj"IdԹav2G#qKZYYņ8hBTE [+9"n9).ݷd^V*1ʤwK=5zWYZrZVY#QA9^ ֭CV$zⴴUغ;A.?2cs{OI|TP$\0rL|ij"sE'[ˮ,:5;ws97I<\ Ewz/Ҡ;$74 Ī$CY&AlX9ƯL0a_@l]t}x7iҢXbR*7OQ{4.bGzaS̪?Xzak<!%Y] h2x:8UeztanQSWv {߲ )(MsN: PiB'&WfB {VOZCU-8f ~Ǒr1jzA[L,aHs`(:^RP/8r#<5|kД*L!"ƉPhBNH ;4` l#';ɑBwˣط>~ 5 B{ NJF_K!$BJђh$Sj~2\<2NP(+Aq!(mʠDB}1S0P'?9Ds9+b(Qp"Gt*`AY 24 *_^ꗟ I L>iӛSJMfǠIག8Ers0_p PC6NQ)ز+u![3u Y3l++ˍU#1J)@  WX7r˛@EC|XKhĚp7B`& 0^({v .aDKczA#08l5zgD7\>@%%LA6:[s+EUzՕ؄ˏBx?@  )e o8p04M Vj %d! Da?lqRHpc #]lhw5My)oyoUX z9 4*ȷ困` @?>>nnn,,,222[[[RRRCCCe}]bbbyxn444stq<:;@@@򢢢;;;??/?7,ЯⲲ_籱oYҲ觧ᮮ¬AAAﳣϛwooSѧÜߧεoaN԰__G_SCݵoɮ{k󻦥//$0-*00+WWWYdddaaaIgggYYMmmmSSSHHH???wwwxvw312ffa\[\555534333OOO___}}}^\]{{{oooɶsssKKKͱvuvuuu ]]]||yYSKyyyXXX߳!,  H*\ȰÇ#JHŋ3jȱǏ CIɓ(S\ɲ˗0cʜI&2" [&<,E͇blaa 9z)sT"N@-Dmh pPG=4>qommwmHdo-G7'΅$ͭ~}W6gA[yژ礟-Iy蛷^x t nA9|~gAi^7ow8aHx$b&] 73Apc,(03@ b+@z%/(# x(>R@/P`8F1!'P%PK"; $  _ׅz@p<7 ސB9H2s=|C>ɏ~P`~G!x`'X fp HBP,t! eHCV x6呤s7.}NH+q]ьX0U1pd>Z~ۣ(PfcH $1Az" S03!>^f3H:8|eeLVb4q?ڳlgf0'ڰ=cvbGjɅn~std9# BJpt&I0 ?QVr,AhKr>DIѪF̢-1]eљ#bIh+LuqDKF ozvj'( ~dl;Y"b}.zVZª17Ue~ 4XM#M NF攤M-LYJzE@+ K Ml.B ln);Xұfb9PQwj&[M+SJ2tmN۽;k?{ҠD4[]mrdt7kҨvKӷsemN ۞ζ-%QW |ZěگFa>7xX [QKSi^WNfc;."fbyi]mRq+P8ƷkgyY+/mig^/l!m27Ų孶0~fIV*7 6iuf3o2y{Z0æKQ\Xyvtj]p5;{htKs>xx+8٧49qo<>v/=>:ɓn*q*O3]{z]{w|L\?Y/:YlwY.yqQ4p;;S/Ft=rO/E)=. ;%u>ɣy:}c7 W}AOQHE>ؕc⳺b^wDZW,x~7bgTuhSu9Y;cv}xfu"}viqHoׄ{~PqUx5}]Xk'ͷ7nt{Dxwi8s{7|}uφzX{Sxzo\f`y#x1~Wg8zN('dwxȃF1A~|(zHz0(h q^(L6ep2'~)8녌؀ȋиȇ=kXF(h5Xю:f`xXf؍h(|ȊXusih،( Hr8yGx5g~:w|9' <)_FȐ}c}-7uyWŸ؊wgb7Cɓ蓳mXn-iGulxKX'}X8XYZ){(;ipEIBHEah 9UOeZ whTڸuHh)4YzvS u_ɘOjd7 '\BG ajxcBuV6 jdvɎg5"'6FY 86WipngmoɜWYyV|Pϳ=I 9ɓ:@ J;PI:RZ9鹂9588:mxV(J ,ڢS27*784Ϸ3=5B* 5K4CZU;YPz4`> J1 Z C` =@J1C30H[ + +K20 C @Cc:O8dgk+@`0s3[ڥ_b1@fjʦn ru 2 00U ~0~0o P :P ^`\ B#"b a Ȁ Mp  #`x X*/UA+@~XPh>0M 퀬 _@ :P ڱq:/   ^Jb,b  @@  ]`@:zP,`   r ⱬI(= E P.R2J&@p{'ѹ^0+𷯐` 9@  ."pp pˀ >(` z۹[ ( 70ǰ۸. P @]p t  ھӣW;@ľ۾'; k7'ÿH \<\| ![|(\ 0\a.6|< |e[pBސ +}2>} P!\`ph@Fnݲ:p h`}Z>+ UniR,>0NlCL^|, JmY .P .׈e>꛾Qn 䑞鲾뼾hp`fd{Ȟzw[޹̮"i۠޾%YP@7.[f*!4+>~.t^?h M32Y0)&o@~02]P68:0,1 / .ܰ"<O mгh.~#|=!@;hwpr?t_̠4A J ~pK `.@` _n#"ۀ(+PU_n__u?B.8oʢPP Od4 `۝!1=0 <T*`a`h  F@-p XA `%NXE5nG!/J7T)Ud2. YM[#P!?>m)b %ȵ>(x RpVkRVb3ճ ŧ#BHS%M$ctYpJ01gec$W\35oȶ1 84 ^^h}EnlO@(L!CU(A4ζj"`oĨ;9qŁN{Y;&+<. onQB`%{Iڇ6Y'#_ B'M!uop0p${veW}/N]yMO?qf<}%>% xP>'_}9 {/ _P%@?6"7-DA@ic-G l A H _U/x(%V! gΫE6A 6uF,UÇaaZ|И,AT@2J̌ bȮ;jfh7P xt'c%. +$8G*aWLoj!D Ā$%)]tuR;T$Jư*)@UzRF@|_PH1 D[`f3 * @5yMlfSf7MpV3uyNtS߬+s*S¼eaiLc"Sr]J0y&T ](zʝDThE-zQfTS/pT#%iIGys=(C]_2[H"b`G:FU}+6&UKirTF5(mp֓%<>*Tը5]ILRdp \@KUN k_m=u'%laj0h]$ ֹF6.k ZֻQ,64-z^EY΢ZU>$ Z mmxZa84@Y"=moIȹ2pK Lr7Z؆t0v W sA>]Sum#BAcK򖾏i'6G?l9`zkW Ic'- 烱!zYvh TGtyme{4Q7K!nqˀ(! QG_Q'"d2p=Bv !lYb(9jgBx{-H] bXϯ4Dм.oB#bHKnF\;fh@tjm-6H-p+8Z<:#[$pld#<~7TKٱ$>d<;Rm-=6,Aguڢ뚸Hx[yt}r@َk3o{sg|*j%@?ɂ`#cG5^Sz-]G!\śؘnO UDǧq<$!'_"WEf;׹su)96 c(>tvU,OtRWI7@ch-Y޼ 2 KҊ \:Ą+l㺂tjMSG0oLHWIxǧ~+ .p" V)}{<,ni#DQ׺=(OK $~#6%`zgN{;|C0fo),p;Ӻw{l  s?_>[ԈJZ@r;X2p @:AkU5 +K>=VY6D6?>-h0 ;,@1ˡAk;TCCPTqDΚĸNHDCaSDbHxúvja,j` '%&23v*X,YAE`\\(kt^DuDtLGu\GvlGw6x4F̑oF^3ƕ.` FEo+IlH|HHyhGā,HqH6GD ТCǃ$GotIIɮH:Pf1zn<2Ih2x IT/S GHacɾ169ʬʘQpx|xȁ"x0o 1J$32ALI˖h(  oL5,6ʯ̘qm (# z}tsx]K|FO DIƥ͑TˁipPl` ɤʮ̹K( b"h&0^͟tK <"@N\޴mtʔ| (ά|NΈm(8'0)h "t>KK!4: PM~=,t9PgKP=6uPIL,QQI9DLdLL P,R K,ʖtN!;DR<:MR=E۽(GH<ο  HR ؁ a3D2=SccP5 Ո| KR9u8ԃ*OϿG0.AI߼VVbS"؁-0c@M]Ή01=SPUnDR0S-2HOb-VD W(feg5%U(U)ֹ;Jd%. @12@l}mV opD)59}We,X)^8I<,=>rjN:|IIɉZ7=R]YG] ˾zU_ |eژP9-Ȟ+%+%ZȊ}u71}-UڈPCZڥ-X=[mȴW۔0=[H[ ܯ;Ha* ]-=\fۇ>X]֥I`ׅ֝>p]ڭ]ٽ]ۥ݅ލ]]]DX{܄\ZWE>]4`tf$R#-1܊RYb&nb'~b(b))V `mI./.bcc1c234>c5N`uޗ !&@E޼We`D`'| dyT0@b 6Zp;<&dCc .dza=ʩebB!xcdqlHLK,dudD ghc(AU~^XSf˥AU[1tz8Ws"`f]*fc6ĝŕ.(s>Iv)~eLDGHh^LVn:sw6xv.VyI$h潅gQG;Id$Tpa(vPst~h=ڋ-VatLi&c`"xtH/f4f9jGTZe\e^fdZ鞖؟nyǕnihfjflk-i_j|g~eN3>knMkZnNg@noVǔ+&n5B실줤j2k=lhHCl>护dIG=6mGVnm5l j켝m6ik^nWl nu`Efj%n'k)mnH $gzVɕ^^4~ʑnSm Vm6j醓33IJzFҮp GlDp]mXpefk2w"oWN '33 r|%&Ea4zn:przrPLط!8nF(sAa钨UVs@.js>?tsnvud@pt"gk tJwGK hݎȕsM7xhuJ>mO/TĦڶVjIL5] J]^@YdjGvmȀ8u:OOU"bSFrssQPv/cwrvJdlv$hh_Y7x0pXϷyq^Ww{|[UH["uu$8(707 v7xpvdoGq/7ybsO7`0NSnp<07(v]hp?(>v8z0>P7 G/xrRGQ]wK{I4uHTt{֯a{g/07zX7}n}'8b?p'г}:^e~HCg78z$vp_zdo}Du~:^~ww6 ́H"b}D/ŇE0Rzhh%̘2gҬi&Μ:_'Р?0wҤIgt.OR:tάZrէUV UٴS`-ܸn{$P(ߛ.-'oJ!14%ʭlΞcVl5Bb.mtE7$nEӪeumvhE&7p Qpq>0W<^qo4ɱ7r(}n (5D e饜no4Xj Jh \i6hi"~:lVkE%vCT^1^N,x DQ Dȧ+"&B;nkR(.&D K H/T +;@Nvk"e{;ANk.;Y`42E|2@  ;4k Y(TˇD,yo|fOC&ep[R ,$pF-F%`D %ưX#Pt׍v,7z?knR~8+),l@Z}Mt\^ɲ.d{-K6٥s:d. H,2MA8Rlbhy4yԹft~=^(8Y.ځ|?>=@8`FV[xnS$?{[H00$4B6"l5@Bɴ uըU _BXU (o'Ia8??%z""JDr)%^@@$)Co~K?D1d+>B/0N0 Ow(R`P $x|pm{C]aiO `\k"! TE%L  "$nQ hd#FqT[1{? JaȰ"+02Hy _%zpjt}blV@@C["ֶg-Y ?b0EQV@g+˕қ EYs|g<;&? x\?!4ୢ;*ENA ǂ2аHK.9xW}ιQyC keS õBՕФ?<' ,r\¥Nѩ8PXVU^T aXeZֳ!O,G _qPe,U03QD~k(me)F潐Rmnw Zޞ+HkԂW`]]Tk_p9[@yofpE|\nn/VV$u/z'? mۊ_Lo[HGbtbnBД4kĜdU ƒm Reǂ<8.dCCu3` %ջ3Ś+5LؔQm l:&PS\rCU?>{~lj妔Zqd'A*M]R)ɽm5E=_F+zĈVN+jQXiA&j>_ک>isE, ?sX$(3܂H+`lVzpm6 ܁=m3|8L߻z]O[D-1OKoگF_sw5nx_{)lmLd@XB #MX :Ϩ-t5+*QOtLhNGB@9}Ǩ {P.O"⡳^.]#v]HfڝǷ;ep2w,"k;ywdSQ;^Q./! |C/`@ "nanjL,{,ke; (WJg?:Z z>kq6jD~p%sJ>H h IǤ,]_x>>琙/&OT&YUIS45`]=Kے!7:EN}@?< AyΟ4man$ UOϩ` 2ZWBAɗlL9ŗpYO  Y$OWUEa!paU!]ʍ[3͕da U) MYX>"ߔAԞȎFa,QY6XU Te0B-( \)ҖSd&n,,Ja(߇| V߇Ի[JÉ1"7Bʇ2ҝ3~m] TEd#l#-QyAu#@ ="=ޣ TY?v@YF[-$EvC>[DDV$N\d!GHQaHG^H^IIfmn $*LLfTMedP RΤ8# @>0 MzV\QFR.R6SueeAJ>s%HN䤩M U|[ݣYՐυS(H:eWeZZB&WxFd&]i)%LWQckeVx@S(ߏENYeoff|?T(bϥ`&]svsޡȍg`i 'K' yDqfV|׉Ugp`amgp1[`l gJVXrmH%VXFmQteuAuvdY[,_x[9NZ腒eeMHdGYr#6Z m U'Vӑ@L~WWh=W}m i>hQdTAɐ QEPނiL|@nM@yi@iMgz*e@ *:jzeM&'3 Lj>< ɧc@ jlMXS Xߔ j**++j%+66**I(f" ~+++++ޥݨ^F]Fƫ+,VƶȽh0r"(V^,fn,v~,ȆȎ,ɖɞ,ʖl`ªH:lNĬެl,*lNzLƄLU>-*,4J-Z^-׊՚ Vv\dmo-BmѶlplm}m* 2-Юm9n&U׎rޡ&nm.,5*䂭Ӿ-f ֺͭ .ꦮ.붮."E.VH./ήWԮ[mN m/Pn+rWjr+:Th/nzjEvL)BoFRV䉩f* zZSosߊoW>pEp@Np7o_00cfb 0G / p$ ܰVC0170Ϭgb qϰ RG] Wdoۢ_M,0o1Ev^}1$We{p1[qֱ11 ! ̽qN1&I#% %N' &gR.A-r0r72)G&cQ~2߄+2q2+k)۲(q sL|}Mbe1 5Wd3@2N<""+3##lqE)N#uz-KX1jg8W2*>?[0󓴥]3)ii "`PABCdՙ}jAUu3;UA>uR,>"gL>rw9( ,/hMgt4B#̂Qr\DέyӖҁ:٦بҗZYy5:ugjj9;@pa5 `OP%pt$v.uOtP+QW?Ga4 ,@Lc7- 4L,.Ajji Bh#g&JgƩB#<@$?pwp4+,m[jɜ!B[5mI7QdnXu-f4tvf~L3`h iCk ucv7n7B-6q?8?wTcr XOW0vPLjBBPv0wh806TB縎w#,T60x{s f((|r䒿sr)u85F.w&׉|CSp|x88 ''sǙLxŽz vrxHdbi9_Bb8@[ƣSCo:?4B܂ecc?AJRC^$]Vx?pr=XДSIV4ZzngUn%hvPz k:קi|{cdWo': 7qú7ûtz 7[OiPu5Ä+8o78;ɯ :oCTS[uz1ؖmAlyRQUmb; -ȉ]*!F X_H9N7~)PS<ٯŷAk|>^DŞ78︡'ߺe$,*=?8v7"o(9 w:{~q'q':7[LAUX7{ 4P[ ]UR2S"V>gj$HӖ;ao\9O//(>䫶oxvlS{7os跿Kx˓w(iO;iOD?3HaB 6tTS9_5$PdH#I4yeFtUZQl x)hPAˀehRK6ujTSĖeզ 6<4KРkٶq"*56e^{G1/ߘ3]sgO1Bt)|Um`Qtt+}ZU[48 -Ri׶}i%?lf3pW7ظpٹg>#|JҦÇVGqwl7{?(: 4 <@~aA 3PB/!N[Ke$MET4ŐH|`OLqEy<>Po=[&o?${jLfJDPAr`g:,L/ADHDtq9Ug$Q wsE;WH (0Ut ]TQ4R&( CM;RJ]6CR6FBRUEbuQWCUQYA5 [UW\H 2*Hd]f]'EGZFu[HǟfEt\l(0%Tx]5Ux[7Vzk7W|{=t9 ԁ.S V`O֖ԁ Wx^^W]tB)gU^ ri%nbskfswg{x֋x鍛鏣w~:t ZzҚj%l "^N첽&lao-[<$p {X@AђX5߼-~9>ztFKh5^'knoOw߇g񪉽g$6*_~(cU|HЙݗIy~OI9$(d(IQ_mPa3?,Ea5C)I dd CbGʑ3>eC1TB&I! (RĒ EtaR0az,6sO)ˣ2D3NƉ$bYx$kI#F NQ)E|l?l(ƀ)qTdC(:n"1n !IA6i'2R)cD$%cIN d''IuR8odhfIᑔOi`Z<LpQ LQehG/}9=[*љlfĤIjxC0:$+ T%e̦[.^>ɛq(nk皤Y/ [S`T` D)ZQ^*l h[ tzH)SRUBbq9eQbƥ9)LR$(Qi)S4)Tj@UII~0n', IsfZVq\ݚ,R>a+vYV6~zUPڜBA( -i{?2QlhH&TYcy3fOy(WԴ&>U+v*قGDƖZm̓.qm[:eP're\2W/פn{]t⯻v W^g8P"몷/Ub&-U}t_=o`5~i20xr!cQ/"@`BP@o"<⒄ p0a3ʙH4YTbX4Gϧ Y rpSZeb_1*#ɾ$H^b2BKOfYHr3,!)L!˨r 2.XH/f1gT-ZDk[@Vj8aK}EbO^3_V'Ez x_Ԑ:ۙ 6Y@ >Y$y g-Bۺ&)0x:RCz+\Y)cpq\Q@XkBgd T(h,bSBKZmmv;IZ'`I֞,c:hD-$5Q`떨bjEUш[BIgfV"GNN P46mH΋r:q)0RX 3*x >;"]7fY*-/ȯ;MYD )}FZR 4?& '8aHWl:" @rz+~Ꮗ+@7_6\$6!28XL`_ ٤:Ww7n_:׻Nҽk~ 蠯\RN*N/TA/؂O %-ph"C  p *˦Ք#MѺo,B؂^'#BNȂloxm=-$-I00MP/ش4RH^:/p%4J"^"֢֜,^Mhb‚t` <b-ƌPGjm,w'?C 0.0 # n!ܐb$jA.>k 0hު/ b ¬/L2y6q#M 05b,PY.P$T! /dHˌ2Bt"2O2,M yb % e2P$j"-Z%֑P x2m $:~1(!@7Vp!Z08ʌ^M2.<"#k}8#5$E244$1ב * Pՠ߼&AYFQ/8("Q <1QQ"r" Va 1# %L.PMٖ-c4f%;"~mE>r(˷22$ [mm*mo3+&a1 NXR[:TaAYؔ*8\ 8us=L cl X 95 $$P;@Q1 9>o!pf >@DFϽwҝ}!x*~=oc=)E}! N~U!%Y~bdVi~W Eؐ i]ޥe+{} 6 "!nꝞRc^/f~Q:}qs~Qv~]^m^ [~Q^I~M32X^~^WrF_cddЩ"_9:D5; 9_=A_֮E!>/? >$*T [Bralv!f $x>0ބ$sOFdNOOHdt@_ן__Q"qx]_;x`A 1CmfH0C%rl#Ñ$Kyʕ,[\p'-cɌ;9YŒ`F5>w\SQIqyTͿ56 6ر S<6ڵjc 7ZTN7޽| 8hW7,!)W̜;5+7 -ݩV=>ٳA=--WS'ċ?<̛Ɂ2( ddٴ1mіw~m?o`j@t?3@W!r'VEHIGya{5"s!g\ b._?H,B8"I!Ha)*>vţ ih(F֊0^e18cA&َNAI%\EY%fT更ZSٛz'U2Ru}Ev-6drF'ghT%zh-ݩ}~ T%88xq#JZz)gjᥬz٫r R|H%W 䭸Z>;߬rꨯ~ii4dz`lbUNi]l ,m,EJm,gƆڶU$̢ [lnH x8a/󫮿p*pp 'H# T|1eEg ߺr"_\ilq˛*缳[L^q+h3B.mJ*԰{/TWЕW'jL׷0 l!4^^(!mҙ߀ŕ es9 j̒3ĩ(u\$x# :tdʧm| b[PoL:gW),y_o;5r^K# o>^13xAn;얯6-3{SWG3М$@^vj-ޱb۟&x zk Nuvz+(f#0L[`A z܂ ׈Ok $FIvhI^(@LS"B0z sE#旀MfX5@0v<9 iJcB~IMpc+ Dm !Y l~$h,i/}uj.(iʳ?EM6^sK.KrldʣrtLX9/x%`w|@Wes R& wS CPQxk'2AN&,gXKJ~6@-kD6TjXܪ-so&4KqͺemnpOLV*CЬh w] dqQTe R&״ekە!:B"+x Vp %񆪼wYNDb{!]0 -_T B" B>-(!0|إ. JB!kyEGgdxc>`e'޲,.=Pd(빛5Ѓ ]-dA-=Ζ?e@v#D zoœ+{.5&2%89 k!{ii͢ `o9 n5N  MS{)NCQsiK뢄䮷%`XZq{o'e2^Mp{[@*sw!0t?8@|Rӫ@,ǂqpb3_{!L~v{y?\5l  lR}ѧSj&zɵuvo ȇY~mS;}w 0Bwne:mHvq0 xm'<07 =x޶]?p]RVT ~iC=!} [@{ia|'?pg>mx׮>?[curki旴f_Wt{|R "uxh]80|f{P#Zt3`@%wTې~Ar3ڰy%xB@,p /8d~286\ Z~&|B`d@$hX98Y{'DVa"pGń~@8VX`niXXk#]腫׆уMhtX@_zx HxqJ}20 H.~]@_ `H/[Gk~/P H'(vy@@8 n|Ȋ7(WA Hh0 `؊zruz`"=}S` Do` טڰH~8؍K8-Ꮑ@p D0WFUq0 0V`Woe@@x% "h)4)7y:`bǓ!`ADi'հ Z/y19sP c00Me:[fa@Г biH+p⸖іo u`>n`EUPhPG`+Ɇ|%)n P\@d%bUU G@YI$`Sɖ9雜éڅbɜ 99*ɝI}i\@ b `@( ppYy)R\{Vz:Bn@&*:f93J)ZjI A`@ v`r | eP'+JiɥW )>JAX0 hlptjx|Z~*jeiZʒV^Z<?Zjimq:uzy}ڢI7' :zک ::jڥ:I*)@j rꩿU Iɘ媬˚ #a Jrګ j0 ߉/®:=zܚRʢ5jU!RڰJ-kۊjTڱ :{[?X?{Jc*zJɐ#P۳>[.ʰ^ ֚jڭ 7m; Wv `b Lkj/z Y`.om?;;ZzG:e˟"-SJZ_{K˺3k+ 붠tɸx[:|MK Ruizϫt@`NںÛٽK7 Ƽ9kA:o  b0[}^% u@"`BPZY  ۿ}B˵ L#%|uj{ 2L) ™FD H.BP`—K137lXٮz\^`\ge ImOQXq" hz m 6R%@.05 ^6,.[w {ɚɞ ʢ,-B, 0Bɹe "Fm*- <Nƭ= A˵\Tw`%͚@,k(ٛȩ5]Lg %@6R|K=WtЋǬݦ]ˬ%вc<<<hj v0r@ʦʫ;ҡ@p(mҖҙLGK]MMƬސjVŀZ.{}EM$v 6B@ Mf-p = @4 \Ւ"ώ|׀-PLȥ ג͗Rv\ׯ`g|uU #M혖=^,˽Lۼ- -`3`X =[:p[.2ۛ0/*@Tܔz-Ci=[||Ӫ}ܑ(=ޭ:λʾK~loM[J{2o}FM=x4β˫@0V*`˨K:8>R^װM,B`];hc۷*p mF A΅0Yp#pJ&- e` 9 J7P&&POU_-p H `|@`k J B-0>LP ә Ijg.%SOF^j\U/`` Mn 10@n[}~/W>"o 9.n }p V7ƒ7fҤOB >|D-^ĘQF=~HH%MDir~ʓG! W,#.]t"D) >ʔ / &)e_Ys_jQuR^}X`El³`ԣ'Μ9ƌe"3tǔ.O"rLǃtI?pOŠAx`$M}խ_/ ˘3kR`rΝ=ZhMajիYvvlٳi*Ks.a;D0Ad-{鱙$̲1@gㅡ@5Xs 6h 7x6Cns(A!$R#\&*O'P J8p L ,+}h,bk/H=O?|$)2ibC|p0L\5tdjCA\8;LKOYgH I̜<@$m-/fXH2PHKFӿ:ݺDm0Z7\q 4"PD`&cJ$J*uM Ez8謋SqTUGl9[oDžX\[]% @ d4,iWаC9 P2H]^I+V3x8b:u\B-J*]HsЀOADyx<@2n!ᙁ 98U>fF\ȉNB BIĎqj/^d6C{}ֆ-KOvoAȁ yI.'$͝sEtLP+ " uVvcvܷnqȮ^%r1\tIwzYݒ7h׋w1ߍx{>)/tR@z7xt &8#DR`$ȳQ~]IЇ?׸xHa,AFda,t]찇@cFD DX(Сx-tJmؼφY[A|1ӄ8 5 HcP6q3?40R4.я %,h`ȇ?pNAE@ @ @t(7`p(cV}hv$> JjVO$ce@'[%4vXβe$5Px&&e0H>@g^ќ5?($kvRa!t( )d|`D+3H&JD$ PA ف UHCQ~A QU2/J>4z k$TR8( t*Cad a؁XhYTe? `+qt:)$RְtrP_CXHV 0U9X#&_yVAa(QdI B0pp‘ GWkc@$@Xv׻Il8n{[˪e@q+ׅ2؇?J0D@>]-DAҭXZ/#.*H 6} /LZ".4p(^InX0@@%'"8ŵ30)9pA'b@ElZCM ސ3C{D<%k8D%X@lewe9[y<H`gpGp#,߄(zsԢ̐x [6F TҺd~G1vQ?i;u]J48u#jձ)8`kNLG Tp06 1mPrY!zM/Wt\!ag1$60!udvOx`-~ۉF! =}pOef>+~o8|I4>oC X;yԃP|Tw<=CesA۷1[:v9Su$.Roz(ycryLH8ӊ7 +'R; Mf6|{U=f]mO-^﩯ƽŧ%:r4c7n|3枀#$<?;;?!ܓ9$ JþK?#;(IZ 1@sAJB˻4ؔzDDB=240t,;?3$d-:\GAAS-(BM." ؃"$1,(4)4: xE@8|+C8":4 ; T-v CEHN\.<&|=B3ABAl]MDmG<?<>KPD,b<؆Zt[,E>DTBU+$P@%@0FŦZF\]E-jFMN8m Ho AErAƛFVDFvNG xQ|D>$GKCS`DȽ XHaF(\"F^MH6 }D t Hɀɥ18Ipq= H,2{$ÇķF;R&#0DT͏(Ѭ 4ʕ(b0MM$IHլ8P$hM@$LM f@9M;C8PgX9ãMJWN"4C;| ^LL8()h ͈8Xυ(r]|F 4r[PpĂJP 17c؂`08h@4O}0!R  Rsy.LRQ-PGQQ R"5#$U҆&EKEBȃ+M8A3@8&* 7xb8?ɛф=:JՈ170S@TB%TCETFuT>@TKm8MHQ [].Rx&3L8SݽEJTVe֍=UY7U\]_ GbmCI8fݓJ(N/Gn56N0DB.84~݋QW>hWx&CLWD|W؈؉؊؋،؍؎؏Yc2يU-%Aٔ--0ي `/a -ȋ%3͋(1P1Z:HڦY-HxىxZ%Yګ (ٮZ3[؂-ٝ큚p=[- h[ pɽY@݂ ](ȋ5[܉8\Eܗ݂e -(ܻ-ˉY0]3ǃ 3`Ø%0ݴ]/岴eŵ^U [Y-Z:֕؝mڧ4e-\ޯe EZU`ˍY:@`^ ܤ 2^ ݿ]D4UZ`Z1Y-uMZa6a_=bX %\}Y1a:5`$}Y%"b8b `uUY X-;\-^?`l]}`DE^uZ=eOZaۊ(͈[1Hگ]۟xey`Kfbped&^ffnZ-YhfV3fjak/"cnNogg(Zs 6nZ1(2[w^Mxyv|ĵmd3^m,h\Fb⒈n<^ eZKi3Pƅc]Ki`Vcq amꬽ(ZZ>jj_0壆Gi߬jeݼbdbkxA\r΋Hnڵn닀aNeu軎ż^/k6FVfvdžȖɦʶ&6FVfv C٦ڶr0VAVfvn^Vfo.o\no,xo6Zoo7p-pwgo_mp n mGAnnn/p6 I/HnAHq+Wn/HAOqr/@rqXwr,%*$@r/6)JVGQ_p2?N$2sr*!XR0`9.,D`*Qx/s#.|HHIсD`+,3o,OP!SXBGɇJQs,uDTWsgiGa#$`8I[_nRTxTWus'qv\[7OWo{OY|?YLg\'qbA0H'/0v$/_?wq6JwXp0qc`0.r5Ahc0gP_5wzmsc$0t@qGnC4Ё.{y 373p_z'.8|r<{ }no W7}VE}Շ} g֯׏w٧+}w %~gFo~mn ;PKEs+!PK%j?OEBPS/img/haovw023.gif~GIF89a ~~~lll pppUUUMMM^^^yyy<<>>tttirezzz$$$(((000|||̇vvvnnndMȄ,,,222999ddd888\\\hhhXXXRRRCCCe}]bbbyxnHHH444stq<:;@@@򀀀JHI;;;666??/Ϗ輼踿_Ҳ㽽777ooSAAA//#ϛOO;ߧwݵk󻦥00'00+zWWVYaaacccIgggffa312][\???534}}}555iii^\]YYYoooIGH333ZYZKKK{{{SSSsss___mmmxvwOOOwwwɗšqqq ||y]]]ֿXWXuuueob!,  H*\ȰÇ#JHŋ3jȱǏ CIɓ(S\ɲ˗0cʜI&D2@"LW <$%͇a|\a`9n!sT"Nʴu:{S/½_Y~7_}eZd^A xeg=XnxF`QVa!AH18iG8Pɹwkd+"~8"vPH曖%X;mEgRI%e¹߀z &dXtg|Z9rpf3Ѷr2{yj~ hbE"n@/¥fn*`fJ@&:Zr̎n]aEkTZuYYtjzڷW=۞[b֟k,BeVd~ 2/' 7G,WoR<w q",l8@-DmhRZ1Pg'sXg]4]1dmhl͟IY(t׽6ۆ$|`.xD{mXNR܈77'l+>$9土mHw.zِꃟ .n `'^69/ |qv%NNGd3r1G9[@#x\ L >|B7 6@'.(A60@$Â,0dD!`'2Up`j8 CEz@a 4,@vGds_@=>! ʧwp`>W ?q@k?=y|#Ч>~?8aG/)hA jIhB. ih@NfCI6qGLbD(JVĢ/1wIt(o}b>aC$ TN;'L [ΰ7 Fnl{C0DbQ,65b2ٰ"N,qic+IXn_b/Hf2x,E;6Ea8HR= B4Ǭ]GػNKa7ٶ-Z,fT;;nWS73lk3G0l g:؛nid$nlMoD&t= kDx!A+w!cFxA.|Q >6C eOSxe]Y&z_ pl6ڴ dV͵i;΅۽XZ@? ]LlMzf9-]ny{Sx.O 2s5OŝZrdK;D}nj*fwc|t[mo}fp彾Ӈ{kqI-oRkrC]הagMmAOKV3#wMN{ZF}iΫZ`ExWNVڊG#Շ-/J{17d7uG|WcK~}f~̵jx^vh&}7{V{q}7u{ yYg'| d T0CN%(G ~g5yVpQk{w'36Hl&j=gfR̗U8xׁWy+'gw݇www䧀v~׀SQuh\tGy*Wwܷyfn~K,؆;rA7t!pHwۧyVWXw((~wV~肘|Xtxۆcݖr@{yU('MXqO؊hw(~s}gh|_aX2Tbv8Q>wGuXH¨X`{h،vhmȃ8'ww#XWIwznYb/H 9~|ΈGxv}"Heh[8uo!َx`>CHHg({wH?YAeH;'xQs[9]jha؋8݈8nhzz9\[e6hy#7VԘ|腛HG)8~9Y|{6ي@c } wzҪ)Q`} ` 7 H+ @g`K?10{pg@= +PÐI  1  vˊW 3({pz۾;9jhjjy pq1" a0"| ,.(<e0\/< 8,%UvF|HJLNP? &XZH|VB8Eb^~g}d,^^`燮R3~ǰjgTz^j}.>N) >^2Q nx㢿&>N{`>qO%!+2aN32o/oǐ)$E~2/Z:<>105,1g<N{ `ɳ#1m.gE-Z-[a8n=_CKvxz|/J31aU`M > G~{,QO/J: gPP@N_RsP03 p@iYP|1(R(.` ,T? y0r} ]O.@ 3@ Oj sKphlx%*Ǘ,C!5n# XI)UdK1RlM9uӃ~$e%Z+m9j߆!jVi2 j5PߜC.  4D ޡwY22 ޡ\6sph%l\BnK,M\ϩUܻ `FҚq8uh^Z)߲s  !(8>:oc\^#s@_V(d~I-3u ~?jl@3r 5R͢@~@nv]Vg&H%J5lղi&FsW-cQY~46_U8٣Pteب*'B7&&Y/nOdb5޸UYuE syg=XAzh# cXFz%NiC]fgZh4=+ ge0lV{mR%FJni߶{pjbgqwq!c0n1\s# q"}tȵr u)QgoM|<'5hvіswZY^hW޿I柗ާfO~ OIxw!^zP|#fչgo""MP0M kTЂ`D"(,=Y $,ɂ &@D@~ IfD,9zCQ lPÀXj\fE&[8Ee*Mbyeo`G~3.qe"D:a#GA+$gIN|zi(Ġ`e+[R̔줡j0* =te/aH :]pLd"sI8X0q/|K_a@81 \b:/OڽR4- ^_nI:n2?= Qְ5z׽qa,c[[j.M2TӦg*vmqP@mD{tvM0v7ݮwJ:{wܐ<)^pւr c^G&8v$yUf'>72jx92j8 >h|[L"(ۖr^n7%]y  !x|DyV`Ma:>wDUF5Ȏr˼'PZݾSC{ i#@{, XB(uGEB3 / 0UxAcvÂ/rH=J2DC6c?C Hc"9zȅ*{ȿ;&@@CA # @$AdD7Z6(zțK)PzTp`tp?Lꓷ+d !fs JLGywd؄IɌIɱ* hl}~ ojE8> to5d-(:ʮʯJ\QP$H!kh0\(G 4Hkd0D J8aHQIصfeh@tuIK K˲$KpVwz(x8KZˢ|ȤԱ<$$Ȕ/zbjg$Z̶4 Ha%@(!x"[`ULMlƤ+i̗DIMFN\Hypau=Dꔶ H+XPpp##Ђ8 rO<, ,;oxR X\|N|@S^|_c7͌SU *٪ˉS9͈(#5 (ZH 0ZDZ=[h*9қuZ=,h[z۠۹\ҩ[ۚư }Z}6ܛ@ܶ;J8c*m]u)\}lC]܅G}C] ^^]]-^uˍ]X5\ l4]B]ϥ1XӼ۳=H2X]_m_ٝ5^}߆p^_``]D޼٫F^'=Y#Πm- a*_ɝ6V>`evEa^`~*|-? BML`-+6X(*b+b,b-b.b(a[lsǁ1(8c1c4v5n6^4nxcƉc8c9n$G?4&>"^ ] J P"Pr@MR(v00_uWF?dIЁV-MW;Ն% PXajgVNX`[r܄Q>RY\F@VGfc؆aȆk@@@Z[^dѹ+-\c?|zgh}"ffg&hf1ff\\SwDxgz=d N( .\iG Ehpeg}Ze/ة~LjOh^#~?NgU(ȇЇtthwz6Eِ.XDFi\(~dvh- EM%X&e_fa&fc&犵VץƮ%)kmfogqfkfw6Nf3k竕Fy^4~FNvlUkk,ݓ6bΎϖNfl&&5i*&VdC؆6ڮ mjxhyT񓤒09djQDo! r@AGF%j*9+,&:ޢHz)F]fUBVdE[鱃VVؕ0Kq馹+) SWb죷 (jģM,iDuB[X"(;HH~$3РY#[VTq *NXF.$tD&E^@vqK %Wg]^1q%>4c dNҐʽR/1}wH"@IBY[o8Ik) Tsg z_Ϫ~Ryˏ뱻;aYSG$O#mѲ2f?7lYE c70{ȾcDFW`C=!NF$b'n㇌b@|w0yB6P\y!Gx@D=Ԇ!2 B6Q8sz@Ѐc%}) <`#?B e(@HprgrQV]' v2ӝExd˃@@-d#1 T\q $$ĐTD1C%!ZROERV*ZhWLf$5: >gw`(?j$,$H;.$#yfÒd"7Y?Cj3E>Ө5> ].E6@dg62w$D0b> da@27f`YndZX¡RmԔbi CDg"%?"@O (C/P d E3QjRC,rw uJ=yZ~y8 b ^|c9zN]>Wաr>(6*1敲HA<"ܴPm2-(u#^)KY,`)ðjLrձ̓d+@A.yBUI I(e/6Is]lxg*g>v|i`*zE("OWuB޶պͣ-"kZN1!X^fq8 $bЭ(Bz*_^a(Aۿ J~|MoKdi5xJV r\F6{_%T>EQכ!OoC\)xQy~+d8A.rʒog[ GYU:kyE1.#t=x=nSVnYO{!Gs$잜vgji 5To`J_SM/1Jg^;u0/{^omqW/g| Ee/?3_Q˃VuhWg<(souIoTm3??G}1B6 T'ߟ%t &I35-`i2Uy21E,p:4A%=aAeAK`?,FN,V2,Q^(߿bƆ^,ɖɞ,ʦʮ,˚,I~lHlz,,--&.-6. X^6GT-\-b-W^hpmnD~ZעlڪHXFTe-V.`---Uy.n#*n2UF.N..Enn碮On1jr ž.O. ɮjFWHB-/6>/FN/F/oUoPOV/.U/o^!oˮ/R,b/Ph/P|oˆnomi.of,z#~RFO0K DV0yod5gOD [ cp : o# pT0]M!q61nӢ?G1P\,V1y#f$o$q͞1o*q/#1gpq11^1H1!w!0"c#/a!Gr5MV _ C2'VE&!#1)k&22Ur2 r,'.b+cr0b,3rH (+2@s/0%C?:s.[3,22c23 6oN8s4256$.s117IpXf^zjO}G1_iVԣb:_+A{B8'./IE0Q C7udθ%JEeg\\ڬU!מrZ\*D o%6(!eiP2qY).54ϴvX[1tC]1,[tr/#Y t!A?L7uWtG,B(0z*C* 71C4TA|z>DCyo~7X=` QLwᷓwe!ُ >48bj 2w(*Dux?`Yzy} I@y7{W{u^˷?H[oJmzsu,X'[)*5sGHz15TA\>Xa7A]z&ӅU9~]`UXm&ǭ'yVJEXW4*jZKvjrz9 Wz7o9w|4:C`7|Cnl!Dw)8[Wz*A,6m]nl6o5>F>hT66|@y6ty{YVw{Y{LÞTm2Wc UZD`? /r?xvs?'y:[w!Dg;V_Ǧzow4;i?7FL{ベOUr877ԸkdzGHz׵۶ϓo>au"EbQvգ9>* _Sh\PAI#O b|fB|~u<{mm"m_Л{||W w{PzuB,A*~>~ww|7gyysyz}U{<_X?IaGQ9 =m?? Yh`!C @[ezX5)X!)>W?ίxþ7? 4HJ5p ,>l9x, 2,ˁ0BOz {$.%0Ei ;ތs4WLŴL2G$g?kWP#QPOJ+m#%J-4;6%O?П>SS5O1<"S6 uS[ R]R_ a!Xb(hM׀RJjl ˲W'u5SrQR51wM5 /'y,dou\`.vd7}tv-ՓDtU[mؤ-$|wW~CwdKdS^f-}R2\Жm\v^exc]W&yjFj6RD 6{[\A;mf[m}vnzIo p6'p(/ _\.6(悶E v&˿$6;of$۠q][1)Gx7q!x'khrbs *)?_+B{ԭ!(M3 Bb3DfqAL`Q 怄@4LdT6x1|X)էQrhAN vgňG$.8 곁,tH2D3%׃"X*,>9cоP82&id7. 1! Ȗ1c#} ,2J2
"r6V/? a4];9z eXRk]A H3ύ>ME#R>'U;RU)OkO) *|V27 X|aXZVU(Yտ\YT8BUGj^+8- Kk׋Еu;;hXCub*Uduzp];z6K. V$j V=nZ Rni -Aes?Dv)̠ !qX˅4y Sf U&G) ~bx/zii.,˩F<-0*@<?Ԑkd { G  Z F v`Ղn7*T݁RBդ0`с 0):mKHf>^6u!^}G'Q0-hBfKaOOY0~ѳ6d*|ŠtNuU[-%@CZPQh!1^wC,;d)ѓt܋qhl.)Ra4/+39:,4r̹<~3wB{T`9{ߴvS y)S$Ḧ<M˺eļ @ FlAZ! % ^mn؊؄1*Mxo |obD$-4,d.x&n ʹ4 8$onZΈtP>.Ϣb0؎ a`)#6 ؈"7@) +NA @1^/ +QNTJ z0 P,дB4"o/Rn:.PB,p -,6!f# *c m-BБ)̖ Hg|(4$>XJBMb/9ykBʸmKOALxm# b )t #!ӌ2@Qb)䇌Pb{:)i+l&ϸ  XaCQ{"6 Pc'nx:$RrN "H(Mb(uKM㾮n(,l (b" " x&#k-G-1dq%钪 S%%Э|8 R82S373;3j bƄK1S17$@'$x̢2'+-mF7eb$ͻ\Bb&!382-ֶ>;V@;;LxK #,J!XAJR$VxBU3UQI; b;iM6D"v j.) `5tO" lxhE؎7$L./nR2:)T'>.x^$b; (c;ݕ.5=:lLo@QA'S{CDk60X G W!Y-nSK',OL7,4H&ʦ^- Y4,z%-Ha `QhAN.,5 SbPjScM `TcB.@vub|x1g6(i3cv l4r0$ ܮZR_­4kvAؚCgj@Zb5P6vR  ^")@s-@YsC)F"q 9vp=Ȱ@ҋ$~6h o® 9L31t,@{R0]rɢM"AZ ;LW-,OiW^?4mՖymu>1zi%fMI._ Ou$,u*K !*`*~VOaٸCws` ̌ڎMYUT ֖ms /7 r'rWArX@ZA m-`[)$nv0MVB!eO$6Gλ8SCȜp0f'2҅ B%@at1ҠDg8<6 ߈X s 1Jy+ f KuscNf'Bc'w$ü+ذX:0|"c)L5"WV*8Q,*Jj4kD6ҕgͪF ~76-[>=˙ 280+5GCj|_oW6ESDۙ)@˪8;u), }PŒ!stM  2`/(vO41ƶ'nu¥ @;+ƶqz꛿[4"! $p[1q!N;I.'xMbf^mbSBdžgk%n\v\DZ נyȓqy"'ɝ|ɍ<!Z՛>Ԡ"Cn$SbQOM"a\ˢI g bŐ|ʕrəGpʧ?%<|чY]!7%efXf5X>Nj:jH˳";OT$b=%h%l}q}?EA}ש6EJ=X(F=ّQ$-ҳ=eT9+s+]C]t,Ϻi7]= ka= S^R]%j$\ACfAm:-䣐Z"d3Y^C^-QpOBHr~Q7k d^闞^꧞~/ŒUMa4D:EB>T> $B>>!d  {~ `!%PlQ_3?DKc/!+/3_7;?S ֛˹wa1"w Z_^_8"_{__ߠ݋չ@b k#%j.t?{dҬ'Gz(wGt&rb  ދ Q—Vn k衎gܗ3޹w‹ǂT5'mcq[/X{[;r.OzH0ҭzg,p.fb! oR)x!!A1yQEj1\q&vT_&Q$2`&ۂ R B'r߆8"[lE\Afb*"ffB"#sF?r!\s Y1.X@lQƙvfi٥dM>Zi Xi(%$8dVƝtךhiW4D-C^AȈG)ih?౨!RB"[h1SUlOf*NQ>t+W<*MYN7*r4qE޺j_?){>8nV~fA:G%kƛ/W /L !Q즻n12|&A$ H 4BDqaF8aW@{E {2w Va,j,DB{^AӁ1hZkG~I}L7eVe1|)%$1k]خؑOd X  q1-,D DqaC}-#(ثkIs޶C DnO2"6,TbQXE+کZ31?#M3wB\zƒ1I#96zcFG1c @R  ɻ02d$-II<2!;ILQ&Kʓ2d#W) n.L S.;,;ղDݝ~yFdEI7Sx/HsԔ&4x0PM}`d-x#ߥ@zzz nx7, ʃ! 2Я=yTJw#0(pV;\W=G`vvG.e8Bـ<SɽZ2# `rJ.R:aq|_@9|I:szU8ąc-R =a/`(sRfA$. iZGﻃIҘ&kzj~2$K}X7 a36R k۪ xjEۚ,Hr;^75[,U>rkhg .7i_s+6 R|ӝB|SGija-`}i{"ǾTQͼR1nӘt!.TR<9q lGqY"وNh^H9M(suK QHUTn_44=ߌ~koBW*[ߛ7"PC/@}zbϮG);˭ ([xz3@("5=#A{C H1n0p, qCS}_I} e,B?f,^g@D>r|,C !|`u7}?~}~~g[p"KtX~ `s{avǀvFP4^O^%"@U7`|'w'f7퇂*h" U`4h 7<h{E0be% v` b  ` @USHdu5yX \@txc.BwMlR8Su8VSzM (`~Lib@ c=NNNPDu x=X>Fzhd}hh8xдHRx٠( X؅xǍP֏DaHlxXP a{sp@ iꠑ  u(yոFaZI'X p0yy=Бq"I&hX~`/(dI69h;=O r k nz d@s#Y'HP'7BQh p@@fjɖOrIv!N9RiC~\Iɓb9eyimq9uyyٔ|腇Y؈EȘ =)iɛOIĉ`_=y^ɐYl閛ٛ {ٌ},HșYy?ќ7_ 9y閻əLɟY 7l0ws6: iۉN~ YXV9]٘IܙPɡ :I8 )-Zy)6)l0ڣ$D9 :^0*)Nz7":!t&ɠ\:ehj>lڦnDqȞ)Yza*LyJ:aΩ[]J J*dڟù zG ):ȧZ~ Iďzy(*ʨK:jْ:c:ƪ~4皠jGzګݩʪU!8v?'Jɬ٨ZKUP R'>ʭ>ڰEj*ڤʮ k ڰ,`۝([ڱa K zc պ By8۴P˟>ۧA[@WkZlV*ڬFZzbwq 4:˫dK l[nrt+Ky;j{{+mkꉨ ;ZKKy.@[KF6 x۸I:|p9Ļz5Pp@D۵ t@{x @cJ*k ˾* kd0?{D P:+ pȱkE\  L+ȫ0dܷ[~,¬kz \pʄ @ @i Y ,lPli@ i y#@@'#I@6$@D θ 0:l{`xl8 YX$ܾ{LC(0ȺH irkoI\ K K0;W9k4Dl=pĶ1p1aF6|r̈0C'IP +L; t^P]S΂°|ԇ1 J 4x}|[ l ̓X VV 9Z`Ѽ =Q_6bwӔFaT0H30Q!I G Jo` <'LIkmo-q `xג׀-؄ .0Lj _8:] >:pٝ١ϣ= u 0P-вB|W EF] L=}%(M<ߣW ܍ @-P-MPS]u } B0"ÆIMOK'I˖\<d\ͼ% !PNu^@&~vO^>9 P^Pa;  U} ϜJ <s}YH^S+JOTi\Şf&lЃ0hjɞx؁ I# hP0Pp) l xn>Ijv5+yfMnX o.v2, \.g0.:ˀ[o? %!#((T*4/Ү$ϳ% D<0:om9 7˽{<0 0p pU|@@9麼0dR_M?0< e/}gM;[b.H!p eVzP @p h8lyЛP@i '1M7 iP'`+@P O/Y?? i @ v? O{_]A)QC P8 "$"I-ׂ_ oyD8qʤIsiڴ2qÙSN=}TPEETRMr_ Ea;v,c 0X*dbB**̐qcJvbz(Ut a5o>EXbWeUW|@o@TQFpR Ӎ1h&%jsG>SAUWuO@i yR{V|>.<;‘GO# whZ:z b~H_> w+1 *0ap#LAk .H @LbD׻HD|4 ~O/a-p $2Ё * !C>IH„'XV1BΦbn<`FpC,9AwN4! &iAuDŽ0b C8찇d"шA2hpJtc(ǿl0G6Lf$qpTG~@"e.G2,`!wSqFl$ٸ9U[겊/Ei@RL%WLH ,EXšgvxEPnS<47Jdrt&:K8oӝ6{YO`rS>g8ӘGd:MELiH2Ohf"O5|fF:ot"mBE,|ѡh"%:Ί2qLa'&ԩO IkS4*=fKĀԒR ՛鴤 iTD2u*PKNXɺWJT%!jƕ(L*h zk:UAum+8r^4U' ;Dִ} "wVSA%fҮ/d i6ٿV֧kM[Y ׭zvPZ6~5eu8sMlmApbUonVם\aU:A`.xK袵> *2+{;V׾j-/l5ޢ)&WXmt`Nd!a [UCWK_JalFSfpJlb/YRÅpzXn@Ď{ܤ2 *_o[L^%ng_ a<׿EI|=I@=Z1]5PsAX%`';˘,ocw@6]\Gid@K'Ay؀?"yDM.}~0 !Na^pE'=~^Hט ՞0@u<3Φ!?R_uv@kuCQu7|pGD<ó؞Ggq}B48c>;d^`m=oz 9Pzcg@ $%E(17 g@^v Ol7@z@lPZd 5装#Q >*M#+@/Ї @4Oz0 u('Nh :x[AL[;l&l(*,.B12<4lh .#DGH>%yL>( P$(hQl9zY8JZ1D:( O ERƈN@EVtE==E[ܓ75I "Q 8l@nD-TxjbIX*d.DCKEgtGx8FjF:FmnpGH(slEG7w|KHL.h$H(!(MP?,JCȏt`H=xj$jIHAHəɚɛɜɝɞɟʠʡȂ2p dʟ+Ȃt8SJJ( ؂-J긂-ȉ(0HJl-2J<˭LJ܀ (K˽􁭌L0@K20ʭL,֭\܂ؕ%5EUeuU EEUeu߃$_e&6FV] n`Wa` VFVa*aU^>vEaa0a!aa b"V%`#>b b/b B*h/%-*&b'~)24؂Fxc8~cc@ωc݂F c0b<)ނ?a3>LB$`7c „,6IQ/)N/V1bNNc)dTE~a*aЂ F(KЂ$HhIF *`fg`Hdc*H,-/$ff*嶁yXnQLXEeLc[eFhHFbK_;Ϲdf&6@`Re_@d2ւXUi&nF^)e[bKfaρh1[,0,m.q.犀>.i5hy{>}iS*xj& yhb@/8/aj~ah)~hiJbkKi*abK6-66b"&-.fl' @e4/?/pfb_`4-mϮO$b`dNl"6ľn9nHDŎmLb&&^`oofoFn^ooDo4&oo7?Wdp I q;PKPK%j?OEBPS/planned.htm Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Planned Downtime

The script content on this page is for navigation purposes only and does not alter the content in any way.

4 Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Planned Downtime

Planned downtime can be just as disruptive to operations as unplanned downtime. This holds especially true for global enterprises that must support users in multiple time zones, or for those that must provide Internet access to customers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

In the past, planned downtime was necessary to perform the following activities:

  • Periodic maintenance—such as patching or reconfiguring the system to update a database, application, operating system, middleware, or network

  • New deployments—such as to perform major upgrades or new rollouts of the hardware, database, application, operating system, middleware, or network

Section 4.1 summarizes Oracle's high availability solutions that prevent, tolerate, and reduce downtime for all types of planned maintenance.

4.1 Oracle High Availability Solutions and Recovery Times for Planned Downtime

Oracle provides high availability solutions to prevent, tolerate, and reduce downtime for all types of planned maintenance. Table 4-1 describes the various Oracle high availability solutions for planned downtime, along with the outage time that can be attained with each solution. In all cases, Oracle recommends that you extensively test all procedures before conducting planned maintenance operations. Also, see Table 7-5 for a summary of the attainable recovery times for all types of planned downtime for each Oracle high availability architecture

Table 4-1 Oracle High Availability Solutions for Planned Downtime

Maintenance TypeOracle Recommended SolutionSolution DescriptionOutage Time

Operating system and hardware upgrades

Oracle Real Application Clusters and Oracle Clusterware, or Oracle RAC One Node (for single-instance Oracle RAC databases)

Section 4.1.1

No downtime

Oracle interim patches

Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)

Section 4.1.3

No downtimeFoot 1 

Oracle Clusterware upgrades and patches

Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC One Node (for single-instance Oracle RAC databases)

Section 4.1.4

No downtime

Oracle ASM upgrades

Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Section 4.1.5

No downtime

Storage migrationFoot 2 

Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Section 4.1.6

No downtime

Migrating to Exadata Storage

Oracle MAA best practices discussed in the "Best Practices for Migrating to Oracle Exadata Storage Server" presentationFoot 3 

Section 4.1.7

Outage time depends on solution chosen

Upgrading Exadata Storage

The Exadata Patch Manager

Section 4.1.8

No downtime

Migrating a single-instance database to Oracle RAC

Oracle Clusterware

Section 4.1.1

No downtime

Migrating to Oracle ASM or migrating a single-instance database to Oracle RAC

Oracle Data Guard

Section 4.1.2

Seconds to minutes

Patch set and database upgrades

Oracle Data Guard using SQL Apply

Section 4.1.9

Seconds to minutes

Oracle interim patches, Oracle clusterware upgrades and patches, Oracle ASM upgrades, Operating System and Hardware Upgrades

Oracle Data Guard Standby-First Patch Apply

"Oracle Patch Assurance - Data Guard Standby-First Patch Apply" in My Oracle Support note at

Seconds to minutes

Platform migration across Windows and Linux platforms and other select platformsFoot 4 

Oracle Data Guard

Section 4.1.9

Seconds to minutes

Platform migration across the same endian format platforms

Transportable database

Section 4.1.10

Minutes to hours

Platform migration across different endian format platforms

Transportable tablespace

Section 4.1.11


Patch set and database upgrades, platform migration, rolling upgrades, and when different character sets are required

Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Streams

Section 4.1.9, Section 4.1.10, Section 4.1.11, and Section 4.5

Seconds to minutes

Application upgrades

Online Application Maintenance and Upgrades

Section 4.5

No downtime

Footnote 1 Patches that cannot be applied by performing a rolling upgrade can be applied with the MINIMIZE_DOWNTIME option of the OPatch utility to reduce the availability impact of the patch application.

Footnote 2 An example is migration from traditional storage to low-cost storage.

Footnote 3  Available on the Oracle MAA Web site at

Footnote 4 See My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetalink) Note 413484.1 at

See Also:

4.1.1 Operating System Upgrades and Hardware Upgrades

Using Oracle RAC is the recommended solution for avoiding downtime during system and hardware upgrades. For a single-instance Oracle RAC database, you can use Oracle RAC One Node.

If you cannot perform the upgrade using Oracle RAC or Oracle RAC One Node, then the recommended solution is to use Oracle Data Guard and physical standby databases as described in Section 4.1.2. Alternatively, you can use cold cluster failover with Oracle Clusterware as described in Section 4.1.4.

The following list provides a high-level overview of the steps when upgrading using Oracle RAC:

  1. Perform the following prerequisite checks:

    • Ensure that the planned maintenance can be performed in a rolling fashion from an operating system perspective.

    • Ensure that the database and clusterware versions are certified with the new system and hardware changes.

  2. Stop the application service if the application service runs on more than one instance in the cluster. If the application service runs on only the instance being upgraded, then relocate the service to another node in the cluster.

    Stopping the application service implicitly redirects connections off of the destination instance when using fast application notification (FAN).

  3. Shut down destination instance or instances with the IMMEDIATE option.

  4. Shut down and disable Oracle Clusterware.

    Disabling Oracle Clusterware prevents it from starting automatically.

  5. Perform maintenance.

  6. Enable and start Oracle Clusterware.

    This step implicitly starts the database instances.

  7. Start the application service.

    This step implicitly redirects connections to the destination instance when using FAN.

  8. Repeat all steps on the next node.

Also, see your operating system-specific Oracle Real Application Clusters installation guide.

4.1.2 System and Cluster Upgrades and Migrations Using Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Data Guard and physical standby databases are the recommended solution for performing system and cluster upgrades that you cannot upgrade using Oracle RAC rolling upgrades. Oracle Data Guard is also recommended for migrations to Oracle ASM, Oracle RAC, 64-bit systems, Windows to Linux or Linux to Windows, or the same processor architecture platforms. For example:

In general, you first upgrade the physical standby database and then perform an Oracle Data Guard switchover to the physical standby database.

4.1.3 Oracle Database Patches

Oracle patches to database software are usually applied to implement known fixes for software problems, or to apply diagnostic patches to gather information about a problem. Plan to apply patches during a scheduled maintenance outage.

To avoid downtime when applying Oracle database patches, perform rolling patch upgrades using Oracle RAC. You can apply approximately 90% of the new patches using Oracle RAC. Oracle provides the capability to perform rolling patch upgrades with Oracle RAC with little or no database downtime using the OPatch command-line utility. If it is not possible to use Oracle RAC, then use Oracle Data Guard and physical standby databases. See Section 4.1.2 for more information.

There are several types of patches including:

  • Interim patch

    A single patch created to provide a specific fix between the release of patch sets.

  • Bundle patch

    A collection of patches that is issued between patch sets. A patch bundle is usually cumulative. Microsoft Windows bug fixes for the Database are generally issued in a patch bundle (as opposed to an interim patch).

  • Patch Set Update (PSU)

    A quarterly patch that contains the most critical fixes for the applicable product (including security fixes), allowing customers to apply one patch to avoid many problems.

  • Critical Patch Update (CPU)

    A collection of high-priority fixes (usually for security issues) once a quarter. CPUs are cumulative with respect to prior security fixes but may contain other fixes in order to address patch conflicts with non-security patches (i.e. reduce the need for merge requests).

  • Diagnostic patch

    A patch created specifically to diagnose a problem and not to fix a bug.

An Oracle RAC rolling upgrade enables all but one of the instances of the Oracle RAC installation to be available during the scheduled outage, further reducing the impact on the application downtime required for scheduled outages. The Oracle OPatch utility enables you to apply the patch successively to the different instances in an Oracle RAC installation.

Performing a rolling upgrade is possible only for patches that are certified for rolling upgrades. Online Patching

Online patches are a special type of interim patch or diagnostic patch that you can apply while the instance remains online. The only time an interim or diagnostic patch should be applied in an online manner is when:

  • The patch README indicates that it can be applied in an online manner.

  • The patch needs to be applied urgently and database instances cannot be shutdown to apply the regular (offline) version of the patch.

You can perform online patching with any Oracle database using the OPatch command-line utility.

Also, use the following considerations when performing online patching:

  • Oracle provides qualified interim and diagnostic patches as combo patches, which contain both an online patch and an offline patch for the same bug fix.

    Thus, you can apply the online patch initially to avoid unplanned downtime. However, because online patches have a memory overhead, you should roll back the online patch and apply the offline patch during scheduled downtime.

  • Applying an online patch increases memory consumption on the system because each Oracle process uses more memory from the Program Global Area (PGA) during the patch application. Consider memory requirements before you begin applying an online patch. Each online patch is unique, and the memory requirements are patch-specific. Apply the patch on your test system first so that you can assess the effect of the online patch on your production system and estimate any additional memory usage.

See Also:

4.1.9 Patch Set and Database Upgrades

Oracle Data Guard using SQL Apply is the recommended solution for performing patch set and database upgrades with minimal downtime. Section describes this solution. If the source database is using data types not natively supported by SQL Apply, you can use Extended Datatype Support (EDS) to accommodate several more advanced data types.

If the source database is using a software version not supported by SQL Apply rolling upgrade (earlier than Oracle Database release or using EDS cannot sufficiently resolve SQL Apply data type conflicts, then consider using Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)Foot 1 , transportable tablespace, or Oracle GoldenGate:

Do not use Oracle RAC to perform rolling upgrades of patch sets. Also, see your operating system-specific Oracle Real Application Clusters installation guide.

See Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for more information and for help choosing the database upgrade method appropriate for your configuration. Performing Database Upgrades Using Oracle Data Guard and SQL Apply

The following list describes the high-level upgrade steps:

  1. Upgrade logical standby database to the new release and evaluate the change.

  2. Ensure that SQL Apply has applied all redo data to the logical standby database.

  3. Disconnect applications.

  4. Perform an Oracle Data Guard switchover.

  5. Reconnect applications to the new primary database.

  6. Shut down the original primary database (now the logical standby database).

  7. Execute database software upgrade steps on the new standby database.

  8. Restart the standby database and allow recovery to synchronize.

  9. Optionally, perform an Oracle Data Guard switchover to return to the original database.

Consider the following information when performing patch set and database upgrades.

See Also: Performing Database Upgrades Using Transportable Tablespace

If you cannot use SQL Apply because of data type conflicts, and testing shows that upgrading with DBUA cannot meet uptime requirements, then consider using the transportable tablespace solution to upgrade your database.

To use the transportable tablespace feature to upgrade an Oracle database:

  1. Install Oracle Database software on the destination system and perform the initial steps on the source database to prepare for the transport process.

  2. Prepare the source and destination databases:

    1. Gather information from the source database.

    2. Create the destination database with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA).

    3. Prepare the destination database for Oracle Data Pump usage and to accept the tablespaces being transported.

  3. Transport the user tablespaces:

    1. Ready the source database for transport by disconnecting users and restricting access to the source database, making all user tablespaces READ ONLY, and capturing sequence starting values from the source database.

    2. Transport the user tablespaces.

  4. Verify that the destination database is complete and functional, and then back up the destination database.

Consider the following information when using transportable tablespace: Performing Database Upgrades Using Oracle GoldenGate

The configuration in Figure 4-1 shows how to configure Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Data Guard to minimize downtime and risk for planned outages, such as for any upgrades and migrations that are not supported by an Oracle Data Guard database rolling upgrade. For example, this might include migrating to a different hardware architecture and operating system, or performing application upgrades that modify database objects. In this configuration, the physical standby databases provide disaster protection to prevent downtime or data loss before, during, and after the migration. This configuration also avoids any performance impact or operational risk by isolating the production database from any work required to perform the migration.

Oracle GoldenGate replication from the standby database (in the top right of Figure 4-1), to the new production database (bottom right), requires Oracle GoldenGate Archive Log Mode. If the requirements for Archive Log Mode cannot be met, then replicate directly from the original production database (represented by the database in the top left corner).

These requirements are achieved by creating a parallel environment on the new platform. Depending upon the type of migration planned, instantiating the new primary database may be as simple as restoring a backup of the existing standby database. For more complex migrations it may be necessary to use other Oracle technologies to instantiate the new primary database, such as Oracle Transportable Technologies or Oracle Data Pump. Once instantiated, any additional changes are then implemented on what will become the new production system. When all changes have been implemented, a new physical standby database is created to provide continuos data protection after cutover. Oracle GoldenGate heterogeneous replication (previously configured), is then used to synchronize the new production system with all transactions that had occurred on the old system while the new environment was being implemented. When synchronization is complete, production is ready for cutover to the new environment. There is also the option of using Oracle GoldenGate heterogeneous replication after the cutover to keep the old environment synchronized with the new production system for a period of time - to provide a fast fall back option should any unanticipated problems arise.

4.1.10 Platform Migration Across the Same Endian Format Platforms

Consider the following approaches when you perform platform migrations across the same endian format platforms: Platform Migration Using Transportable Database

Use transportable database for platform migration only when cross-platform physical standby database or logical standby database is not supported for the platform combination in questionFoot 2 .

For example, to move from Windows x86-64 to Linux x86-64, it is best to use a cross-platform standby database instead of transportable database. There is less downtime (only the time it takes to switch over) and it is possible to run the standby database on the new platform temporarily to ensure that everything is working as planned.

The high-level steps to perform a platform migration using transportable database (with destination system conversion) are as follows:

  1. Place the source database in read-only mode.

  2. Run the RMAN CONVERT DATABASE command.

  3. Move files to the destination system.

  4. Run the RMAN-generated script to convert data files with undo data to destination platform format.

  5. Run the RMAN-generated script to complete the migration.

When using the transportable database solution, the downtime required for a platform migration is determined by the time needed to:

  • Place the source database in read-only mode

  • Convert data files that contain UNDO to the new platform format (data files without UNDO do not require conversion)

  • Transfer all data files from the source system to the destination system

    You can significantly minimize this time by using a storage infrastructure that can make the data files available to the destination system without physically moving the files.

  • Invalidate and recompile all PL/SQL using SQL scripts utlirp.sql and utlrp.sql

For more information, see the "Platform Migration Using Transportable Database" white paper available at Platform Migration Using Oracle GoldenGate

Oracle GoldenGate enable replication of updates between multiple databases, independent of Oracle platform or database release. Therefore, Oracle GoldenGate may provide the fastest approach for database upgrades and platform migration.

Oracle GoldenGate provide database support for a wide variety of datatypes, but does not provide native support for data movement of some datatypes. However, you can work around datatype restrictions by using Extended Datatype Support (EDS), you can take advantage of the flexibility of Oracle GoldenGate to accommodate several more advanced datatypes

A PL/SQL package, EXTENDED_DATATYPE_SUPPORT (EDS), is available to generate the appropriate database objects to accomplish this workaround. The EXTENDED_DATATYPE_SUPPORT package is available for download as an attachment to this article. The downloaded file (available from My Oracle Support Note 556742.1:1) contains a Readme file and SQL files to load in the database.

The EDS package generates workaround scripts to enable Oracle GoldenGate support on tables with the following data types:

  • Object column with simple object types

  • Object column with nested object types

  • Varray

  • Spatial type SDO_GEOMETRY

  • XMLType

After installing the EDS package, you can query the EDS_SUPPORTED view to identify the list of tables with datatypes unsupported natively by Oracle GoldenGate that can be supported with EDS.

Oracle GoldenGate implementations are very flexible and can be customized, and thus may require additional effort for configuration, testing, and administration.

To perform a platform migration with Oracle GoldenGate:

  1. Set up the Oracle GoldenGate environment on the source database.

  2. Instantiate the replica database by copying data from the source database to the new destination database.

  3. Set up the Oracle GoldenGate environment on the destination database.

  4. Enable Oracle GoldenGate to propagate all changes made on the source database to the destination database to completely synchronize the destination database with the source.

  5. Connect users to the destination database and shut down the source database.

  6. Remove the Oracle GoldenGate configuration.

See Also:

4.1.11 Platform Migration Across Different Endian Format Platforms

Consider the following approaches when performing platform migrations on different endian format platforms:

The following high-level steps describe how to migrate a database to a new platform using transportable tablespace:

  1. Create a new, empty database on the destination platform.

  2. Import objects required for transport operations from the source database into the destination database.

  3. Export transportable metadata for all user tablespaces from the source database.

  4. Transfer data files for user tablespaces to the destination system.

  5. Use RMAN to convert the data files to the endian format of the destination system.

  6. Import transportable metadata for all user tablespaces into the destination database.

  7. Import the remaining database objects and metadata (that were not moved by the transport operation) from the source database into the destination database.


If the destination database is being moved to a new location (for example, to a new data center) during the migration, then create a physical standby database from the original primary database co-located with the destination database. After an Oracle Data Guard switchover, transport the tablespaces from the source to the destination without incurring the file transfer time as part of the downtime.

See Also:

4.2 Dynamic Resource Provisioning

For system and database changes, use the dynamic resource provisioning features that are discussed in the following sections:

4.2.1 Dynamic Reconfiguration of the Database

Oracle continues to broaden support for dynamic reconfiguration of the database, enabling it to adapt to changes in hardware demands without any service interruptions. Oracle Database dynamically accommodates various changes to hardware and database configurations by providing the ability to:

These capabilities provide no-cost system changes and capacity on-demand provisioning, both of which are fundamental requirements of enterprise grid computing.

4.2.2 Automatic Tuning of Memory Management

Two memory management initialization parameters, MEMORY_TARGET and MEMORY_MAX_TARGET, enable automatic management of the System Global Area (SGA), Program Global Area (PGA), and other memory required to run Oracle Database.

MEMORY_MAX_TARGET specifies the maximum value to which MEMORY_TARGET can grow dynamically.

Oracle Database uses a noncentralized policy to free and acquire memory in each subcomponent of the SGA and the PGA. Oracle Database automatically tunes memory by prompting the operating system to transfer granules of memory from less needy to more needy components. The granularity of the memory transfer is dependent on the current free memory and the amount of memory the operating system requires to maintain a basic level of service.


Automatic memory management with the MEMORY_TARGET and MEMORY_MAX_TARGET initialization parameters is supported on Linux, Windows, Solaris, HP-UX, and AIX. See Oracle Database Concepts and the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about all supported platforms.

4.3 Online Reorganization and Redefinition

One way to enhance availability and manageability is to allow user access to the database during a data reorganization operation. The Online Reorganization and Redefinition feature in Oracle Database offers administrators significant flexibility to modify the physical attributes of a table and transform both data and table structure while allowing user access to the database. This capability improves data availability, query performance, response time, and disk space usage. All of these are important in a mission-critical environment and make the application upgrade process easier, safer, and faster.

The Online Reorganization and Redefinition architecture provides the following benefits:

  • Online table reorganization and redefinition:

    • Change any physical attribute of the table online, including moving the table to a new location, partitioning the table, and converting the table from one organization (such as heap-organized) to another (such as index-organized).

    • Change many logical attributes such as column names, types, and sizes. Columns can be added, deleted, or merged. However, you cannot modify the primary key of the table.

  • Online index operations:

    • Create indexes online and analyze them simultaneously. You can also use online repair of the physical guess component of logical rowids (used in secondary indexes and in the mapping table for index-organized tables).

    • Reorganize an index-organized table and secondary indexes online to eliminate the reorganization maintenance window. Secondary indexes support efficient use of block hints (physical guesses). You can also perform online repair of invalid physical guesses of logical rowids stored in secondary indexes on an index-organized table.

    • Reorganize an index-organized table or table partition without rebuilding its secondary indexes, resulting in a short reorganization maintenance window.

  • Online moves of partitioned tables

  • Online reorganization support for advanced queues, clustered tables, materialized views, and abstract data types (objects)

  • Fast ADD COLUMN operations with default value (does not need to update all rows to a default value)

  • Speedier application migration and testing with Invisible Indexes:

    • Speeds up migration with explicit hints, then drops when finished

    • Prevents premature use of newly created indexes

    • Tests effects of DROP INDEX, making the index visible if needed, thus there is no need for an index rebuild

  • Online index builds with no pause to perform DML operations (no exclusive DML locks are required)

  • No recompilation of dependent objects when online redefinition does not logically affect objects (for example, when columns are added to tables, or when procedures are added to packages)

  • Easier table DDL operations online (there is an option to wait for active DML operations instead of stopping)

  • Support for redefinition of tables that have materialized views or materialized view logs

The ability to modify table physical attributes and transform both data and table structure has been available since the Oracle8i release. Table 4-3 provides a comprehensive table of data reorganization capabilities.

Table 4-3 New Data Reorganization Capabilities by Release

ActionOracle 9iOracle Database 10g Release 1Oracle Database 10g Release 2Oracle Database 11g

Online Reorganization using the package DBMS_REDEFINITION

Modify table storage parameters

Move the table to a different tablespace

Add support for parallel queries

Add or drop partitioning support

Re-create the table to avoid fragmentation

Change from a table to an Index-Organized Table, or vice-versa

Add or drop a column

Transform a column using a function

Clones grants, constraints, and triggers

Convert a LONG to a LOB

Reorganize using a unique key

Specify columns to order table by

Reorganize a single partition

Advanced queue and clustered tables

Table containing an ADT

Retain and clone statistics

Clone check and not null constraints

Copies dependent objects for nested tables

Table with materialized view logs or materialized views

No recompilation of dependent objects when redefinition does not logically affect objects

Reclaiming Unused Space

Not applicable

Use the SHRINK SPACE clause on the following statements:





Not applicable

Not applicable

Index Create Online

CREATE INDEX emp.ename.idx ON emp(ename) ONLINE;

  • Parallel operations supported

  • Partitions supported

  • All index types except cluster

Not applicable

Not applicable

DML lock-free online index creation, allowing transparent creation with no dependency on workload

Index Coalesce Online


  • Parallel operations supported

  • Partitions supported

  • All index types

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Index-Organized Table Move Online


  • Parallel operations not supported

  • Partitions supported

  • Index-Organized Table only

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

4.4 Transportable Technologies

For database migration to a new platform, use the transportable technology features. Transportable technologies provides transportable database and transportable tablespace:

See Also:

4.5 Online Application Maintenance and Upgrades

For application changes, use the features described in the following list that can significantly reduce (or eliminate) the application downtime required to make changes to an application's database objects:

4.5.1 Edition-Based Redefinition

Edition-based redefinition allows you to upgrade the database component of an application while the application is in use, thereby minimizing or eliminating down time. Your changes do not affect users of the application who continue to run the unchanged application until you make the upgraded application available to all users.

In favorable cases, rollover is possible. The pre-upgrade and the post-upgrade editions can be used concurrently so that sessions that were started before the post-upgrade edition was published can continue to use the pre-upgrade edition until they are terminated naturally while new sessions use the post-upgrade edition. In less favorable cases, all pre-upgrade sessions must be terminated before new sessions can be allowed to use the post-upgrade edition. In such cases, the application suffers a small amount of downtime.

The following sections describe the Editions, Editioning Views, and Crossedition Triggers features of edition-based redefinition. For more information, see the Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide.

Footnote Legend

Footnote 1: DBUA incurs downtime. The amount of downtime is dependent on a number of factors. See Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for additional considerations when choosing DBUA as an upgrade option. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for instructions on using DBUA to upgrade Oracle Database software.
Footnote 2: Beginning with Oracle Database 11g, the primary and standby systems in an Oracle Data Guard configuration can have different CPU architectures, operating systems (for example, Windows and Linux), operating system binaries (32-bit and 64-bit), and Oracle Database binaries (32-bit and 64-bit). For the latest capabilities and restrictions, see My Oracle Support note 413484.1 at
Footnote 3: See the Exadata white paper "Best Practices for Migrating to Oracle Exadata Storage Server" at
PKglkPK%j?OEBPS/title.htm Oracle Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Oracle® Database

High Availability Overview

11g Release 2 (11.2)


August 2011

Oracle Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2)


Copyright © 2005, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Primary Authors: Virginia Beecher, Viv Schupmann, Janet Stern

Contributors: Ahmed Abbas, Lance Ashdown, Andrew Babb, Tammy Bednar, Peter Belknap, Janet Blowney, Larry Carpenter, Immanuel Chan, Tim Chien, Donna Cooksey, Tulika Das, Mark Dilman, Ray Dutcher, Richard Exley, Craig Foch, Ameet Kini, Frank Kobylanski, Bryn Llewellyn, Barb Lundhild, Rahim Mau, Patricia McElroy, Joe Meeks, Markus Michalewicz, Valarie Moore, Dan Norris, Michael Nowak, Darryl Presley, Ashish Ray, Mark Scardina, Viv Schupmann, Jia Shi, Michael T. Smith, Vinay Srihari, Hubert Sun, Lawrence To, Douglas Utzig, James Viscusi, Tak Wang, Shari Yamaguchi

This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.

The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.

If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:

U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject to the restrictions and license terms set forth in the applicable Government contract, and, to the extent applicable by the terms of the Government contract, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle America, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.

This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications that may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure its safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software or hardware in dangerous applications.

Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD, Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.

This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.

PK %q[PK%j?OEBPS/preface.htm Preface


This book introduces you to Oracle best practices for deploying a highly available database environment. It provides an overview of high availability and helps you to determine your high availability requirements. It describes the Oracle Database products and features that are designed to support high availability and describes the primary database architectures that can help your business achieve high availability.

This preface contains these topics:


This book is intended for chief technology officers, information technology architects, database administrators, system administrators, network administrators, and application administrators who perform the following tasks:

  • Plan data centers

  • Implement data center policies

  • Maintain high availability systems

  • Plan and build high availability solutions

Documentation Accessibility

For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at

Access to Oracle Support

Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit or visit if you are hearing impaired.

Related Documents

Knowledge of Oracle Database, Oracle RAC, and Oracle Data Guard concepts and terminology is required to understand the configuration and implementation details described in this book. For more information, see the Oracle Database documentation set. These books may be of particular interest:

Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle. See Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information about using these schemas.

Also, you can download the Oracle MAA best practice white papers at


The following text conventions are used in this document:

boldfaceBoldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italicItalic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for which you supply particular values.
monospaceMonospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.

PKL8PK%j?OEBPS/content.opf4& Oracle® Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2) en-us E17157-08 Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation Oracle® Database High Availability Overview, 11g Release 2 (11.2) 2011-08-23T14:1:33Z Introduces Oracle best practices for deploying a highly available environment, helps you determine your availability requirements, and describes the database architectures that can help your business achieve high availability. PKX{9&4&PK%j?OEBPS/glossary.htmB) Glossary


lost write

A lost write is another form of data corruption that can occur when an I/O subsystem acknowledges the completion of the block write, while in fact the write I/O did not occur in the persistent storage. No error is reported by the I/O subsystem back to Oracle Database.

PKkLG)B)PK%j?!OEBPS/dcommon/O_signature_clr.JPG"(JFIF``C    $.' ",#(7),01444'9=82<.342C  2!!22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222" }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (?O '~MQ$Vz;OlJi8L%\]UFjޙ%ԯS;rA]5ފ<׈]j7Ouyq$z'TQuw7Ŀ KX߁M2=S'TQt?.5w'97;~pq=" ~k?`'9q6 E|yayM^Om'fkC&<5x' ?A?Zx'jß={=SßM gVC.5+Hd֪xc^)Җufz{Cީ|D Vkznq|+Xa+{50rx{|OG.OϞ~f/ xxX[2H )c+#jpUOZYX\=SG ߨC|K@;_߆'e?LT?]:?>w ڔ`D^So~xo[Ӡ3i7B:Q8 Vc-ďoi:FM292~y_*_闱YN\Fr=xZ3鳎OwW_QEzW~c]REeaSM}}Hӏ4&.E]u=gMѠ+mF`rNn$w9gMa꺢nTuhf2Xv>އ a(Û6߭?<=>z'TQuw7Ŀ KX߁M2=S'TQt?.5Kko\.8S$TOX߀Gw?Zx汴X)C7~.i6(Щ=+4{mGӭ¸-]&'t_kV*I<1)4thtIsqpQJ+> \m^[aJ5)ny:4o&QEnyAEPEEss 72,PDۢ׃K W{Wjr+wگ iM/;pd?~&?@;7E4gv8 $l'z'TQuw7Ŀ Gֱ=ɿ&G?. iR(5W*$|?w᫼gkmIbHe/_t>tg%y.l}N5[]+Mk0ĠeHdPrsst'UiC,y8`V%9ZIia|ܪvi מYG,o}+kk{YbyIeb*sAtի82zWoEK5z*o-eo;n(P u-I)4Š(HQEQEQEQEhz(X/Đ?}Bk˩ ݏrk0]4>8XzV? }6$}d^F>nU K ?Bտk_9׾x~w'ߞ  uDŽtL ؈5c-E/"|_Oo.IH쐍=i*Iw5(ںw?t5s.)+tQ2dUt5Vĺ.jZ"@IRrZƅY4ߡ_;}ų(KyQf1Aǵt?sZg+?F5_oQR&Dg߿]6FuRD u>ڿxl7?IT8'shj^=.=J1rj1Wl$얲cPx;E,p$֟ˏkw qg"45(ǛkV/=+ũ)bYl~K#˝J_כ5&\F'I#8/|wʾ_Xj Q:os^T1.M_|TO.;?_  jF?g N 8nA2F%i =qW,G=5OU u8]Rq?wr'˻S+۾.ܼ 87Q^elo/T*?L|ۚ<%<,/v_OKs B5f/29n0=zqQq(ª=VX@*J(э(f5qJN_EVǞQEOuoѕOuoa5}gO?:߂8Wא|cڽ~]N&O( (<]>͠@VQ=^~U ̴m&\խ5i:}|}r~9՝f}_>'vVֲ$~^f30^in{\_.O F8to}?${φ|#x^#^n~w=~k~?'KRtO.㌡h![3Zu*ٷճ(ԟ]z_/W1(ԟ]v~g|Yq<ז0 ; b8֮s,w9\?uEyStKaª@\,)) (!EPEPEPEPEPzѧts{v>C/"N6`d*J2gGӧWqBq_1ZuΓ\X]r?=Ey88Mp&pKtO-"wR2 K^-Z< \c>V0^@O7x2WFjs<׻kZ(<Т(OFw/6$1[:ޯԯ#q~4|,LVPem=@=YLUxӃV}AUbcUB.Ds5*kٸAeG>PJxt͝ b88?*$~@ׯD VkraiJs}Q.20x&mXξ,Z]“A-J#`+-E/"<]\a'tZGy.(|lދ~gMK OZdxDŽU9T6ϯ^<Ϡt5CZ]].t۫S=s`ڳ%8iVK:nqe+#<.T6U>zWoy3^I {F?J~=G}k)K$$;$de8*G Uӟ4Ocºw}|]4=ݣ\x$ʠms?q^ipw\"ȿPs^Z Q_0GڼU.t}ROM[G#]8wٞ ӫ87}Cgw vHȩBM55vof =A_٭`Ygx[6 P,5}>蚊(0(+?>+?> k|TuXq6_ +szk :u_ Z߶Ak_U}Jc2u/1[_»ݸG41-bሬ۴}}Eȹפ_c?5gi @cL\L<68hF_Ih>X4K7UТ sMj =J7CKo>Օ5s:߀t ~ηaٿ?|gdL8+gG%o?x`دOqȱwc¨&TW_V_aI=dpG!wu۞սZ1yL50$(l3(:~'ַo A}a3N*[0ǭ HKQV}G@֜$ 9of$ArNqUOgË05#m?D)^_h//5_/<?4}Jį+G"p`ƒFF "a"E|ժOC&xCRz OBtX>XE*O>tdqAJ +,WxP!CYpQ HQzDHP)T njJM2ꔀJ2T0d#+I:<жk 'ꤱF AB @@nh Wz' H|-7f\A#yNR5 /PM09u UjćT|q~Yq@&0YZAPa`EzI /$AD Al!AAal 2H@$ PVAB&c*ؠ p @% p-`@b`uBa l&`3Ap8槖X~ vX$Eh`.JhAepA\"Bl, :Hk;PKx[?:PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/oracle-logo.jpgvJFIFC    $.' ",#(7),01444'9=82<.342C  2!!22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222'7" }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (QEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQE!KEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEzE7V%ȣOΏ9??:a"\fSrğjAsKJ:nOzO=}E1-I)3(QEQEQEQEQEQEQE֝Hza<["2"pO#f8M[RL(,?g93QSZ uy"lx4h`O!LŏʨXZvq& c՚]+: ǵ@+J]tQ]~[[eϸ (]6A&>ܫ~+כzmZ^(<57KsHf妬Ϧmnẁ&F!:-`b\/(tF*Bֳ ~V{WxxfCnMvF=;5_,6%S>}cQQjsOO5=)Ot [W9 /{^tyNg#ЄGsֿ1-4ooTZ?K Gc+oyڙoNuh^iSo5{\ܹ3Yos}$.nQ-~n,-zr~-|K4R"8a{]^;I<ȤL5"EԤP7_j>OoK;**K[fym3ii^#wcC'IIkIp$󿉵|CtĈpW¹l{9>⪦׺*ͯj.LfGߍԁw] |WW18>w.ӯ! VӃ :#1~ +މ=;5c__b@W@ +^]ևՃ7 n&g2I8Lw7uҭ$"&"b eZ":8)D'%{}5{; w]iu;_dLʳ4R-,2H6>½HLKܹR ~foZKZ࿷1[oZ7׫Z7R¢?«'y?A}C_iG5s_~^ J5?œ tp]X/c'r%eܺA|4ծ-Ե+ْe1M38Ǯ `|Kյ OVڅu;"d56, X5kYR<̭CiطXԮ];Oy)OcWj֩}=܅s۸QZ*<~%뺃ȶp f~Bðzb\ݳzW*y{=[ C/Ak oXCkt_s}{'y?AmCjޓ{ WRV7r. g~Q"7&͹+c<=,dJ1V߁=T)TR՜*N4 ^Bڥ%B+=@fE5ka}ędܤFH^i1k\Sgdk> ֤aOM\_\T)8靠㡮3ģR: jj,pk/K!t,=ϯZ6(((((((49 xn_kLk&f9sK`zx{{y8H 8b4>ÇНE|7v(z/]k7IxM}8!ycZRQ pKVr(RPEr?^}'ðh{x+ՀLW154cK@Ng C)rr9+c:׹b Жf*s^ fKS7^} *{zq_@8# pF~ [VPe(nw0MW=3#kȵz晨cy PpG#W:%drMh]3HH<\]ԁ|_W HHҡb}P>k {ZErxMX@8C&qskLۙOnO^sCk7ql2XCw5VG.S~H8=(s1~cV5z %v|U2QF=NoW]ո?<`~׮}=ӬfԵ,=;"~Iy7K#g{ñJ?5$y` zz@-~m7mG宝Gٱ>G&K#]؃y1$$t>wqjstX.b̐{Wej)Dxfc:8)=$y|L`xV8ߙ~E)HkwW$J0uʟk>6Sgp~;4֌W+חc"=|ř9bc5> *rg {~cj1rnI#G|8v4wĿhFb><^ pJLm[Dl1;Vx5IZ:1*p)إ1ZbAK(1ׅ|S&5{^ KG^5r>;X׻K^? s fk^8O/"J)3K]N)iL?5!ƾq:G_=X- i,vi2N3 |03Qas ! 7}kZU781M,->e;@Qz T(GK(ah(((((((Y[×j2F}o־oYYq $+]%$ v^rϭ`nax,ZEuWSܽ,g%~"MrsrY~Ҿ"Fت;8{ѰxYEfP^;WPwqbB:c?zp<7;SBfZ)dϛ; 7s^>}⍱x?Bix^#hf,*P9S{w[]GF?1Z_nG~]kk)9Sc5Ո<<6J-ϛ}xUi>ux#ţc'{ᛲq?Oo?x&mѱ'#^t)ϲbb0 F«kIVmVsv@}kҡ!ˍUTtxO̧]ORb|2yԵk܊{sPIc_?ħ:Ig)=Z~' "\M2VSSMyLsl⺿U~"C7\hz_ Rs$~? TAi<lO*>U}+'f>7_K N s8g1^CeКÿE ;{+Y\ O5|Y{/o+ LVcO;7Zx-Ek&dpzbӱ+TaB0gNy׭ 3^c T\$⫫?F33?t._Q~Nln:U/Ceb1-im WʸQM+VpafR3d׫é|Aү-q*I P7:y&]hX^Fbtpܩ?|Wu󭏤ʫxJ3ߴm"(uqA}j.+?S wV ~ [B&<^U?rϜ_OH\'.;|.%pw/ZZG'1j(#0UT` Wzw}>_*9m>󑓀F?EL3"zpubzΕ$+0܉&3zڶ+jyr1QE ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (UIdC0EZm+]Y6^![ ԯsmܶ捆?+me+ZE29)B[;я*wGxsK7;5w)}gH~.Ɣx?X\ߚ}A@tQ(:ͧ|Iq(CT?v[sKG+*רqҍck <#Ljα5݈`8cXP6T5i.K!xX*p&ќZǓϘ7 *oƽ:wlຈ:Q5yIEA/2*2jAҐe}k%K$N9R2?7ýKMV!{W9\PA+c4w` Wx=Ze\X{}yXI Ү!aOÎ{]Qx)#D@9E:*NJ}b|Z>_k7:d$z >&Vv󃏽WlR:RqJfGإd9Tm(ҝEtO}1O[xxEYt8,3v bFF )ǙrPNE8=O#V*Cc𹾾&l&cmCh<.P{ʦ&ۣY+Gxs~k5$> ӥPquŽўZt~Tl>Q.g> %k#ú:Kn'&{[yWQGqF}AЅ׮/}<;VYZa$wQg!$;_ $NKS}“_{MY|w7G!"\JtRy+贾d|o/;5jz_6fHwk<ѰJ#]kAȎ J =YNu%dxRwwbEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQE'fLQZ(1F)hQ@X1KEQE-Q@ 1KE3h=iPb(((1GjZ(-ʹRPbR@ 1KE7`bڒyS0(-&)P+ ڎԴP11F)h&:LRmQ@Q@Š(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((,RmuM. I-nBvskƭON%I4/# W|T)d~V K2KR҆9N+ixNku)$, 2deIAEPEORմn5MBp%8'ƀ.QQ<7V\[J6 dGjJ((+jZ7ln4BvFfRda]ǂILy$3I$I'Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@>#mfw}6|j (}c?a<#wo@Eyx?h?ڿh~4VݛՑnq^@Q@WIuӬ[{[Cp][r9(((((((((((((((((((;IaXTyZ襯?iEK^O'UZܞn巸9 I]H#WϞ%MgIf$''r Aclğ30YM=BҀ=>1kj{BҬ1nyd8 y#6ko-MfM,!;ZdHHySֽSY9m^H!|˟(W'vsä_<͢ݤov^"A#,Anj|?Aӧ6 yv8e` Ě'z >)b՘;X_ яy J s1䎞' *E-hk7^>6ϙsCq@W?ym忷iɥ3Gy#:+C o?xzi&Nkg.X !<2+.?:E/OF>٧i-2F@O|xdw1I_DŽ(8Rv(iEKQk+k˦[RB…86 jO;IaXT|2:$}^i\ʉ웉fܻc'`q@r-'ŞL])n}ʅW #JMzyǽPgs̟Zlo #{l6HUτگ¿NlN)v'=:P/?5.%|@9Y6EQs)\Iߍ# ycw(VLvNnj_)ޥ[8ffdh$aB$LpqE.4K޳L&b-e rK%;o溅ıxCψ+<Ȫ30ڮpcEW$3cg0W|2~<z߂#fmTΥjnk ;^ʛ`F6(((((((((((((((((h'cRנxI熿k񯂴hzp+Z ˃Xc{zW k5@x6sMPE4qyh)PNNH 4mGƟ5Om<.r7`nX swʰ=f#=ǟ5ަT*sP(`x`Hmmⷷ8`GjQ@PtX~֤xTS\&Hyf钡}_f ໱#< MB㑊g/gZyV$`a d o~ 5o-+ цJeH'  Uk.c0j x!58vpiڼQHʤ_.Ez ̣'jxOJVF+#(U²6(UŽ3{WJ43S6Ka (gtqoe z*Fè `25/5'>T l|&9^Y{zdn1?k6w:rZݥ0ycRWT`[8kg/gZyV$`a d >x.m4O*a"Gpk}Ч*8bc{א\`C0kqC]ލZFaZ0 TUlo>>u)ZCqdDW pW 8IiEK]GhZ߃t};NOl#Eces޵ 95M۬ n wy wXBngO7VEJ$E `(g/W.?۟3vgvcs?hsKԵ y%G1g]I<2Q1 Q03sגzq]>LfZ6&ޥK;vcu64t\G.nw MNVc5ozxzC3XJ̗$ݹH RpGs\>"enC)9?1y\p8G.X! Hu=XMy~x+_Ik>'5$~!VU? 䓓Q{_<=#Wۺ \.V 6*A #h([}\h>s}|/쎋s1޻ +ٗftqq?Mnϵ66n6|jkeo{5?txF{r"2yPrYTyjh>s}|/쎋s1޻ 4/ÒSWPi7\!rYK9X 0,sVkZݔB< 7˻zA7Mq4VuEy%( os\ߎm Ֆccojvmi{YۛsR8RS@$P**)+M20>q%(QHzS8G-/7}^LpːȻRO$q@|7y¾?Ə i-my*((((((((((((((((((G[֤ KT Zf$UԱy s@V?IgZk:kHꧽlPEPEPEPEq}~2GDu39(?_`ֶgDF͹_]QEQEQEQEy#ǟ ޘW,s\0P9PgDϚSp*90/| pݍ,dI1!Pǎs̶BvA,}$f/ŝǛ̱;ht@GLy>[qo,sA*H2AG9  x@:wdd$deX0p} lO<6\K0DF dOk>ߎ84A["(q%g|6v;&9f wNuwk] ?IveI@Y~/B$yc]gN0HFzžvX- \#@*r=Ec |n(yD~X qz2IZ-֡ Z世InnY ^HP@$XѾ)'_RN{D9!I*C1$aG'һ fXj~цX4vѧp } \j~ $.y}nvKI=(@| y-RC|C!ĀIMwFy9<ָ;IaXT,ZWAG<+=O<5`_ x]-c\up,J@X s1'?xkV)kOnj/%IJKsw0ewG>ZB8$ƍO:v>$HTȪ# 9>W͟4SΌ5ֈ;n`ǽNSny'uu3sjXp2I@/Nƿi^}:}䖳x1RL ӭx|oEޡwign*܌!'#7 pGigNO i᳟޶_smߌ#mꞙҼx F7m6y` r?ih3OjiO@gG?4O7' 1~0zgJ'to뗟dQ e$ 'ʼ_[{ͺ} ;VU 23F}|⥮ |}'O|:2JDNBD;02Q'۪xƚ?o%I.23v,9hޝ= [IEv2nO 9U,m:?.$NPNjQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEy_ƍJmFM˪kH-Ž{m;nPs'e&gV<d$d,]|Y=Amo]&fh]!;֞~POy@*WsKK]{T7X\+ Ax>ay'g5| Cx6Fnqbb o:'$^W_Z> WVtKa<$C!(T)[8bz4۽/Y'qne% "1ONr>QӾg x~IMS2̪XąH}z$事N[H:n8?.\g5#MxY5M^i-g-({Pk'=[i-ϕn[npqc85 =oNPnj[F;[YVas/π[qltn巸9 I]H#W5 Hm.Sk!V]@υ<7^ڜhZڤLWʔ { O<Rן?OhwS3~#hY;W!c\uT!+a[KM.iiFz@̊H ?|koV~O4 8<9O>({K>Lp̝d]syO> Լy[]/KKkeRp6oZj؟[|w 881^yx-q٭+H0S-GhZ7|hzAqiY&7&09x]6) J.F cž[Z[/DlgmN4i-mR&+JpJq=z?xkV)kZ;E?_e쐱:*\ۊn|0׋-ϦV#M= fs ہfE$rN` 󿅟p5+J=>:ΣAo SI #8n .MǶKK)Xa߁Uzz|2nZ/?Xsc7ۼ/퍞fsW{M̭oF/Xsc|3n^1[;WP/? =C߈?kqy [&Ņ_bFWL۵zO [붞ķ^G˱\v@{G[uIٛbDK9tX$e:>1~ j9ݠr+af,j_ET-w+.5v59K|/_/͖ '| i~Gt"_,6?*uQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQT-[MѭT-,`g]L)lXqhc wxJ;!9 8Prp?lPEPEPEPEPEPE>kj6v|$[qGOQ@QEQEQEQEQEy==oXid-V]JF#Oݐ6?xAK}sQ@U{=N; .dɠHA# QEUhg}y^ټyyۿo]=3V((((((((((((((((((((|xGq\[.9(gʌ~xo~%]_^_OIyqc9m4*R?/M2x7@gϝpROaTQ׌qk g'u 9ӭg)q Ke+ 㨬?4c O$M~rTondG ?x7GdG|'SO7l{K+;@@Q^ '^:LT{Fsg#b#zA<7V\[J6 dGhJ+ u-q}hۼ!;?uL }[qo,sA*H2AG9 +Í?osns[;ח_.k3F ]ͺeyV@@QTmJF.FK0 E,@8OA F}oior,[wۇ-{濤5S<;upbӮ QO$`Cvw}χV x%ϕ%IRC6U#NbW/Yuj%FXsy#۱99#NyXnyx_񕞡uXⷝ3H@98lɠI, ˟?^y~_g8z?MRk˃n%n$K1*\1hOA(('|S5/xWPyN|HeHN[wCIG$:Dt|CI@\|'k0ǥM EKuf{nJX2]m6gv TA8gWu8_}@|],~bLrQ20eYw!`' W3bMӭ|OQ {(UlaE XcE|i8E5![m' 2%pOg8b((((((((((((((((('5K-4xP2rpoxxn⸷9$l]H #_1CHmYxxtt=ddA m't}+4Ķ̑8 kN@=wį 6ϙtwntؑOl9;$q ?As}_M m<8 #`>|)_Mk^$ܛbrTw9Ǡ/>j?>> ;21\Ԙ$t<>;j[۴3{cu%ج@;~V3gp et, sRcӨ DnƧn`ُbm`LZRƓݍS-{t_DZRf ryݜ>}j0ywZj1F#ʞIvuWS9keo{56fmagkkC n'j(FO'>kdWO|ϲ[3c;Apz>35My I\$NU #1PI=&េu. '>C% (HJ2Aym"h%BG"WR0AvF ;r ʌ%w `Be\Ծkͺu+ìwV*#8$gצ1O+7^W2f.Ѭ]KdiDh/m/ZM&KkuHcP{x(U%*7#_f]My!Y#>z80 "9\7@M3kwei=@$P N@XY|A h:.;\,H`i'𑟠? [@ЮiU$%1)`ı=h5O+V]zlnfc"$ne2y @Fui'EYeqI$; F9pÿj(<;hWpgt /saURg5W5|ykV="[q@)+ 0<€ (<ow:> !пJ$?|a_hu?y4vȯ|^x'>0w,tV:|=ۤgI7cj+ 0i~ԵekRQ0v (=q@wNƿi_@WԼaៈzߊ^?~/O+̕dQ6s{߂IxFTޅ:\4Kmt[sU;SXy#mFx yg#Itv( u^zW>jopңɁ1T•' 1!Vqɾ9!7Jcp]$eF q >|mfI7IsGgv?Vf<}I<((((((((((((((((((((5[u['g.]3g ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (<M𶩪Ug:|MaBy-NC GrPQ@Q@uoż9#`FApA椠((ƺMf ƋukflNr .@~S{⷏[i +{]R)nĭ~%OVW≶ %Kѝ#,72Hp((((((((((((((((>ږ[/P8ѤbTV߇[ۭ"3lށq iEK]ᧇ.%"I$`!RI'4^+oi~2QnGvBf2=x6:74\AQ+8o'yᵷX$/$0UE$xs@Q^65}RMl\/G73P8ې$^?4u M;?/tqhp$*% nIe?}_?̿4ۧ֠('KYiiC}@X'hvr_bALK`L[8bpHQ\?/t9%0Sڗ;lt'[kpNF9ፏk1Ӿm N2Im‰ #py OU>:]xM0&[Ҹ4q`d?GI{ jvR8((vq03@@oĝKº΍^kZnڪͲ00Te"j(_ /5^7Cb1sr ' .W s]ҵ"< $~P.Fs@p2I+<9z֚K,be e#0#8$s@QExzOz'4͵Am P`l`w8#-G?40&E KU;Xe ;#;$rjD!ĎF(#;HHcZkHm.yUP28jW/b/0٤dv+y{Q@xMoXo"eۏG,BM^#dn(p8RsȨJ}3N˵JPw ^v$̒*3ԯA@ɤ5n4VX(PNn|GwGÐEkXo<`p$2;H<_7x\网~˰9#Ȕ088潢iO_@P7]sZдhe&\-q)!b, J~<]"~|I{ 0UD3%mf*]=0>)+ ( \|B-4oOu\( @22v3}@<^o 6K'Vo`DFOCI ~$x#|Ca-{]ņx9;|Du[K;|E̒p@&O]ƹ/=ܲ;&a⟅McN?}=yz`K%Hdj|9GWjQڒ3JS Y^ Ak[{h# dM/˶'sQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEw?±k׀l5; N^OX79#9$u~O4 @' *E-yOg}᫭6 ~i@B(H2#1SqƟ_O.F!'h9I$Hs<ѡO +ZFX+.c{zT~E˿ xJ -eћon~eT98>YSZwD,Gg0g }ѹԊ<5 t5C!#.oc(@-99iO^P:5n,F+` 5/?3H5 ,-.|iJ cC/$U> txgMehpb}?[ $lhi6u>u{y\JjA\8'c)𧍴z=;6R"EsFӴWc2`y<{ kjjz6ln$@X<73^. 6q=ܑh8R>w\^IɼAK>Dr _'p .{nzxn/^]?:z;K[gXqfc^f_kWqy¯n97,,)l0r@b3Oj^-֞~iZ6TculwhnO|)y O|ķpBby1)Qz'~ %I$WǾ0waF;w?AxxStb0$&DXJL@az}Vcivs͝oTAAW MXƉ˫\]FB qL ?> x{_𿂦wm%m߱ m3g9x|'oi&KceB#̎@ ˇ࿆ %"@ْw(QrcR(CW|<~ O-SOn#\a-"H!pmU8b+᣼@sCh( x,#;[ud9OzؠO3IK*8wl !h(o◃|9OEYn 9T A̿4ۧ֯+~6Odv3wSn^~#մXϻ˗c&T#@?8_ۏ{Gs=;׆|c\7-t=p7/qko7 $'L#na t#ӪMu6!֊|oW`A >d.N`ҴK4hdQ'E̒rI MnkWP=cf#/1#( eo{"<ey$EW;//?]IOe 8¶(OЩ&,l,8- ;!1.I' 8$ƬQ@-'MmT/WBl3k/OЩ& (/Mփ\5Ɨi3i-mR&+pJq=XԴ7Y[}SO\:u ʡF@`FpHϹP{ =2;; H--c`FIŽI' oSUԘ4Q+b  jFk/Dlgd(ZڤLW { Ԣ<neg@z~Vi+ G-d.<9X[z. KT*cnf$f'Ա'xqZPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPPK)R6ivvPK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/feedbck2.gif GIF89a1֔kRsBc)Jk9Z1R1,@IE1ӘÀ4Fq߰$aAXBqh@ܧI!$gp-fG*ed`/KRht4604buQAq:22ZJO,XfVjbH# & -, kJ>kpG4"$ r| >S4Ђ"S 1%R:ȝ 8;PKPz PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/rightnav.gif&GIF89a1ֽ筽ޭƔkZZk{Bc{,@ ) l)- $CҠҀ ! D1 #:aS( c4B0 AC8 ְ9!%MLj Z * ctypJBa H t>#Sb(clhU!/;xP` (Jj"M6 ;PK枰pkPK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/larrow.gif#GIF87a絵ƌֵƽ{{ss֜ƔZZ{{{{ZZssZZccJJJJRRBBJJJJ991111))!!{,@pH,Ȥrl:ШtpHc`  өb[.64*1$#"%+ ( E' n7Ȇ(,҅(L@(Q$\x 8=6 'נ9tJ&"[Epljt p#ѣHb :f F`A =l|;&9lDP2ncH R `qtp!dȐYH›+?$4mBA9 i@@ ]@ꃤFxAD*^Ŵ#,(ε  $H}F.xf,BD Z;PK1FAPK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/conticon.gif^GIF87a!!!)))111999BBBJJJRRRZZZccckkksss{{{ZRR޽{{ssskkkcccZ991ccRZZBBJJZck)19ZcsBJZ19J!k{k)Z1RZs1!B)!J91{k{)J!B!B911)k{cs!1s!9)s!9!B!k)k1c!)Z!R{9BJcckZZcBBJ99B119{{!!)BBRBBZ!))999R99Z!!999c1!9!)19B1)!B9R,  oua\h2SYPa aowwxYi 9SwyyxxyYSd $'^qYȵYvh ч,/?g{н.J5fe{ڶyY#%/}‚e,Z|pAܠ `KYx,ĉ&@iX9|`p ]lR1khٜ'E 6ÅB0J;t X b RP(*MÄ!2cLhPC <0Ⴁ  $4!B 6lHC%<1e H 4p" L`P!/,m*1F`#D0D^!AO@..(``_؅QWK>_*OY0J@pw'tVh;PKp*c^PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/feedback.gif7GIF89a'%(hp|fdx?AN5:dfeDGHɾTdQc`g*6DC\?ؘ||{;=E6JUՄfeA= >@,4`H.|`a (Q 9:&[|ځ,4p Y&BDb,!2@, $wPA'ܠǃ@CO~/d.`I @8ArHx9H75j L 3B/` P#qD*s 3A:3,H70P,R@ p!(F oԥ D;"0 ,6QBRɄHhI@@VDLCk8@NBBL2&pClA?DAk%$`I2 #Q+l7 "=&dL&PRSLIP)PɼirqМ'N8[_}w;PK-PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/oracle-small.JPG8JFIF``ExifII*C    $.' ",#(7),01444'9=82<.342C  2!!22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222'7" }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (QEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQE!KEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEzE7Ԃ̗4DztSԙ9ZQҀEPEPEPEPEPEPEPM=iԍP Gii c*yF 1׆@\&o!QY00_rlgV;)DGhCq7~..p&1c:u֫{fI>fJL$}BBP?JRWc<^j+χ5b[hֿ- 5_j?POkeQ^hֿ1L^ H ?Qi?z?+_xɔŪ\썽O]χ>)xxV/s)e6MI7*ߊޛv֗2J,;~E4yi3[nI`Ѱe9@zXF*W +]7QJ$$=&`a۾?]N T䏟'X)Ɣkf:j |>NBWzYx0t!* _KkoTZ?K Gc+UyڹgNuh^iSo5{\ܹ3Yos}.>if FqR5\/TӮ#]HS0DKu{($"2xִ{SBJ8=}Y=.|Tsц2UЫ%.InaegKo z ݎ3ֹxxwM&2S%';+I',kW&-"_¿_ Vq^ܫ6pfT2RV A^6RKetto^[{w\jPZ@ޢN4/XN#\42j\(z'j =~-I#:q[Eh|X:sp* bifp$TspZ-}NM*B-bb&*xUr#*$M|QWY ~p~- fTED6O.#$m+t$˙H"Gk=t9r娮Y? CzE[/*-{c*[w~o_?%ƔxZ:/5𨴟q}/]22p qD\H"K]ZMKR&\C3zĽ[PJm]AS)Ia^km M@dК)fT[ijW*hnu Ͳiw/bkExG£@f?Zu.s0(<`0ֹoxOaDx\zT-^ѧʧ_1+CP/p[w 9~U^[U<[tĽwPv[yzD1W='u$Oeak[^ |Gk2xv#2?¹TkSݕ| rݞ[Vi _Kz*{\c(Ck_܏|?u jVڔ6f t?3nmZ6f%QAjJf9Rq _j7Z-y.pG$Xb]0')[_k;$̭?&"0FOew7 z-cIX岛;$u=\an$ zmrILu uٞ% _1xcUW%dtÀx885Y^gn;}ӭ)場QEQ@Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@!4xPm3w*]b`F_931˜[ן+(> E ly;<;MF-qst+}DH @YKlLmؤciN<|]IU)Lw(8t9FS(=>og<\Z~u_+X1ylsj'eՃ*U3`C!N9Q_WܱhKc93^ua>H ƕGk=8~e#_?{ǀe-[2ٔ7;=&K挑5zsLdx(e8#{1wS+ΝVkXq9>&yஏh$zq^0~/j@:/«Vnce$$uoPp}MC{$-akH@ɫ1O !8R9s5ԦYmϧ'OUṡ5T,!Ԛ+s#1Veo=[)g>#< s)ƽُA^䠮ωFUj(ǩ|N3Jڷ睁ϱuږZYGOTsI<&drav?A^_f׻B$,O__ԿC`it{6>G׈C~&$y؎v1q9Sc1fH[ѽ>,gG'0'@Vw,BO [#>ﱺg5ΒFVD%Yr:O5 Tu+O멃]ی38Ze}R&ѝ_xzc1DXgس;<,_,{ƽY'AS#oF.M#~cBuEx7G+Y)(5q+GCV;qF+CLQ)qEC&6z𿊘z}?&w=+)??&\g{;V??׻xGœdٿ׼-Nc')3K]N)iLTӿCdb7Q^a N sd>Fz[0S^s'Zi 77D}kWus ab~~H(>.fif9,~|Jk;YN3H8Y(t6Q݉k͇_÷Z+2߄&[ +Tr^藺97~c܎=[f1RrBǓ^kEMhxYVm<[џ6| kqbѱ| YA{G8p?\UM7Z66 g1U1igU69 u5Pƪ:VVZC=[@ҹ¨$kSmɳО\vFz~i3^a Osŧυ9Q}_3 όO{/wgoet39 vO2ea;Ύ7$U#?k+Ek&dpzbӱ+TaB0gN{[N7Gי}U7&@?>Fz~E!a@s ?'67XxO*!?qi]֏TQN@tI+\^s8l0)2k!!iW8F$(yOּT.k,/#1:}8uT˾+5=O/`IW G֯b.-<= HOm;~so~hW5+kS8s.zwE| ?4ӿw/K N 9?j(#0UT` Wzw}:_*9m>󑓀F?ELzv=8q:=WgJ`nDr Zе<ֹ](Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@Q@ 'IdC0EYJVcMty_~u+Sw-aO n<[YJgL#6i g5ЖDZ14cʝ!!\/M}/_AYR__>oC? _?7_G#RERW쏞KB}JxGSkǕA pƱơP m]hwB7U$Zq M95"3q1ioATߚ{g.t uu2k=;h#YB= fgS :TdLԃ!44mFK{Hrd^7oz|BVr<{)6AXգV»|>*/hS܏z͆OM=Εq (s|s׊LKQI :9NJ)P+!ʣoAF>+=@I}"x/}۠1aנc¹4emC:>p_xWKX` >R3_S½èųp3޺u3N e یbmͺ<_ mnݮ1Op?Gm)Qb%N585'%Ahs\6yw!"&Ɨ._wk)}GP;Z!#\"< *oƾ\)}N>"լ/~]Lg}pBG X?<zZ#x69S=6) jzx=y9O&>+e!!? ?s~k5Gʏ)?*ce7Ox~k5􇔾Q/e7/Ԑ#3OgNC0] ;_FiRl>Q.g>!%k#ú:Kn'&}?U@\pџPtp)v<{_i}Oվֲ3XIYIx~b<D?(=_JXH=bbi=Oh?_ C_O)}oW쏜? %Ƶ;-RYFi`wۭ{ϖZMtQ$"c_+ԃx1*0b;ԕ݋ESQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQEQZ(1F)h1K@XLRE&9P (bf{RӨ&)PEPEPbԴPGKZ(iإbn(:A%S0(-&)P+ ڎԴP11F)h&:LRmQ@Q@Š(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((PKje88PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/cpyr.htm Oracle Legal Notices

Oracle Legal Notices

Copyright Notice

Copyright © 1994-2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

License Restrictions Warranty/Consequential Damages Disclaimer

This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.

Warranty Disclaimer

The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.

Restricted Rights Notice

If this software or related documentation is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:

U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject to the restrictions and license terms set forth in the applicable Government contract, and, to the extent applicable by the terms of the Government contract, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle USA, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.

Hazardous Applications Notice

This software is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications which may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure the safe use of this software. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software in dangerous applications.

Trademark Notice

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Third-Party Content, Products, and Services Disclaimer

This software and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.

Oracle Logo

PK?PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/contbig.gif`GIF87a!!!111999BBBJJJRRRccckkksss{{{skk{{ZRRRJJƽ{sZRJRJB91)kcZB9)sskZRJ1޽ƽ{{ssskkkcƵZZRccZRRJJJB{BB9991ssckkZccR))!RRB!!JJ1))99!11ƌ)1R)k֔)s1RZJR{BJs9R1J!11J1J9k{csZk!1J!)cBR9J1B)91B!cRs{!)s!){1B!k!s!{ksksckckZc9B)1!)!)BJ9B1919έƌ!!)JJcZZ{!!!1RR{JJsBBkJJ{!!9BB{1!!J9)!!Z!!c1!!kR!!s9Z!BckJs)19!!c!!ZRZ,H rrxB(Kh" DժuICiи@S z$G3TTʖ&7!f b`D 0!A  k,>SO[!\ *_t  Exr%*_}!#U #4 & ֩3|b]L ]t b+Da&R_2lEٱZ`aC)/яmvUkS r(-iPE Vv_{z GLt\2s!F A#葡JY r|AA,hB}q|B`du }00(䡆<pb,G+oB C0p/x$…– ]7 @2HFc ) @AD \0 LHG',(A` `@SC)_" PH`}Y+_|1.K8pAKMA @?3҄$[JPA)+NH I ,@8G0/@R T,`pF8Ѓ)$^$ DDTDlA@ s;PKPK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/bp_layout.css# @charset "utf-8"; /* bp_layout.css Copyright 2007, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. */ body { margin: 0ex; padding: 0ex; } h1 { display: none; } #FOOTER { border-top: #0d4988 solid 10px; background-color: inherit; color: #e4edf3; clear: both; } #FOOTER p { font-size: 80%; margin-top: 0em; margin-left: 1em; } #FOOTER a { background-color: inherit; color: gray; } #LEFTCOLUMN { float: left; width: 50%; } #RIGHTCOLUMN { float: right; width: 50%; clear: right; /* IE hack */ } #LEFTCOLUMN div.portlet { margin-left: 2ex; margin-right: 1ex; } #RIGHTCOLUMN div.portlet { margin-left: 1ex; margin-right: 2ex; } div.portlet { margin: 2ex 1ex; padding-left: 0.5em; padding-right: 0.5em; border: 1px #bcc solid; background-color: #f6f6ff; color: black; } div.portlet h2 { margin-top: 0.5ex; margin-bottom: 0ex; font-size: 110%; } div.portlet p { margin-top: 0ex; } div.portlet ul { list-style-type: none; padding-left: 0em; margin-left: 0em; /* IE Hack */ } div.portlet li { text-align: right; } div.portlet li cite { font-style: normal; float: left; } div.portlet li a { margin: 0px 0.2ex; padding: 0px 0.2ex; font-size: 95%; } #NAME { margin: 0em; padding: 0em; position: relative; top: 0.6ex; left: 10px; width: 80%; } #PRODUCT { font-size: 180%; } #LIBRARY { color: #0b3d73; background: inherit; font-size: 180%; font-family: serif; } #RELEASE { position: absolute; top: 28px; font-size: 80%; font-weight: bold; } #TOOLS { list-style-type: none; position: absolute; top: 1ex; right: 2em; margin: 0em; padding: 0em; background: inherit; color: black; } #TOOLS a { background: inherit; color: black; } #NAV { float: left; width: 96%; margin: 3ex 0em 0ex 0em; padding: 2ex 0em 0ex 4%; /* Avoiding horizontal scroll bars. */ list-style-type: none; background: transparent url(../gifs/nav_bg.gif) repeat-x bottom; } #NAV li { float: left; margin: 0ex 0.1em 0ex 0em; padding: 0ex 0em 0ex 0em; } #NAV li a { display: block; margin: 0em; padding: 3px 0.7em; border-top: 1px solid gray; border-right: 1px solid gray; border-bottom: none; border-left: 1px solid gray; background-color: #a6b3c8; color: #333; } #SUBNAV { float: right; width: 96%; margin: 0ex 0em 0ex 0em; padding: 0.1ex 4% 0.2ex 0em; /* Avoiding horizontal scroll bars. */ list-style-type: none; background-color: #0d4988; color: #e4edf3; } #SUBNAV li { float: right; } #SUBNAV li a { display: block; margin: 0em; padding: 0ex 0.5em; background-color: inherit; color: #e4edf3; } #SIMPLESEARCH { position: absolute; top: 5ex; right: 1em; } #CONTENT { clear: both; } #NAV a:hover, #PORTAL_1 #OVERVIEW a, #PORTAL_2 #OVERVIEW a, #PORTAL_3 #OVERVIEW a, #PORTAL_4 #ADMINISTRATION a, #PORTAL_5 #DEVELOPMENT a, #PORTAL_6 #DEVELOPMENT a, #PORTAL_7 #DEVELOPMENT a, #PORTAL_11 #INSTALLATION a, #PORTAL_15 #ADMINISTRATION a, #PORTAL_16 #ADMINISTRATION a { background-color: #0d4988; color: #e4edf3; padding-bottom: 4px; border-color: gray; } #SUBNAV a:hover, #PORTAL_2 #SEARCH a, #PORTAL_3 #BOOKS a, #PORTAL_6 #WAREHOUSING a, #PORTAL_7 #UNSTRUCTURED a, #PORTAL_15 #INTEGRATION a, #PORTAL_16 #GRID a { position: relative; top: 2px; background-color: white; color: #0a4e89; } PK3( # PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/rarrow.gif/GIF87a絵ƌֵƽ{{ss֜ƔZZ{{{{ZZssZZccJJJJRRBBJJJJ991111))!!{,@pH,Ȥrl:ШLlԸ NCqWEd)#34vwwpN|0yhX!'+-[F 'n5 H $/14w3% C .90" qF 7&E "D mnB|,c96) I @0BW{ᢦdN p!5"D`0 T 0-]ʜ$;PKJV^PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/prodbig.gif GIF87a!!!)))111BBBZZZsss{{ZRRcZZ!!1!91)JB9B9)kkcJJB991ssc絽Zcc!!{祽BZc!9B!c{!)c{9{Z{{cZB1)sJk{{Z{kBsZJ91)Z{!{BcsRsBc{9ZZk甽kBkR!BZ9c)JJc{!))BZks{BcR{JsBk9k)Zck!!BZ1k!ZcRBZcZJkBk1Z9c!R!c9kZRZRBZ9{99!R1{99R{1!1)c1J)1B!BJRkk{ƽ絵ތkk絵RRs{{{{JJsssBBkkk!!9ss{{ZZssccJJZZRRccRRZZ))cBBJJ99JJ!!c11991199Z11!c!!))Z!!!1BRck{)!cJBkZRZ,HP)XRÇEZ֬4jJ0 @ "8pYҴESY3CƊ@*U:lY0_0#  5tX1E: C_xޘeKT p { display: none; } /* Class Selectors */ .ProductTitle { font-family: sans-serif; } .BookTitle { font-family: sans-serif; } .VersionNumber { font-family: sans-serif; } .PrintDate { font-family: sans-serif; font-size: small; } .PartNumber { font-family: sans-serif; font-size: small; } PKeӺ1,PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/indxicon.gifGIF87a!!!)))111999BBBJJJRRRZZZccckkksss{{{{s{sks,@pH,Ȥrl:Ш@Tx0CѠThDL q@(4L8C IrF   rM Dd aa CśfiiB PC9PA`S=gH B QDp1Ap)R"X3aƒC<₋0po 4P iU$4<… fe@kAC(oBݻL;PK#PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/doclib.gif GIF89a1֭Μ{kc{JsBc9Zs1Jk,@Iv 5a-5-vasEnq0& ҈VF[|O @@48۪pM(7*X(ƙjo0Fq|uHu9(dK@ @Y ! mFt,gNh% NN@ F˿lN du_g%;PKY@ PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/help.gif!GIF89a1εֵ֜֜{kZsBc{,@ )sƠTQ$8(4ʔ%ŌCK$A HP`$h8ŒSd+ɡ\ H@%' 6M HO3SJM /:Zi[7 \( R9r ERI%  N=aq   qƦs *q-n/Sqj D XZ;PKއ{&!PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/uarrow.gif/GIF89aJJss{{{ތJJﭭ{{BB{{ZZJJ11RR1199ΥJJssƵ!!ZZƽ޽Όcc))ZZֵƥ!% Imported from GIF image: arrtop.gif,JJss{{{ތJJﭭ{{BB{{ZZJJ11RR1199ΥJJssƵ!!ZZƽ޽Όcc))ZZֵƥ@pH,Ȥrl: "bJ56avEz5ᡠRYc`%))'5Vq &zq 25p]i +3-]s *,0}K )8N){N )2Kà);JéoFԴJܽҔėzI $7oFt2(0b  l< ꑈ53=Z]'yuLG*)g^!8C?-6(29K"Ĩ0Яl;U+K9^u2,@@ (\Ȱ Ë $P`lj 8x I$4H *(@͉0dа8tA  DсSP v"TUH PhP"Y1bxDǕ̧_=$I /& .)+ 60D)bB~=0#'& *D+l1MG CL1&+D`.1qVG ( "D2QL,p.;u. |r$p+5qBNl<TzB"\9e0u )@D,¹ 2@C~KU 'L6a9 /;<`P!D#Tal6XTYhn[p]݅ 7}B a&AƮe{EɲƮiEp#G}D#xTIzGFǂEc^q}) Y# (tۮNeGL*@/%UB:&k0{ &SdDnBQ^("@q #` @1B4i@ aNȅ@[\B >e007V[N(vpyFe Gb/&|aHZj@""~ӎ)t ? $ EQ.սJ$C,l]A `8A o B C?8cyA @Nz|`:`~7-G|yQ AqA6OzPbZ`>~#8=./edGA2nrBYR@ W h'j4p'!k 00 MT RNF6̙ m` (7%ꑀ;PKl-OJPK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/index.gifGIF89a1޵ΥΥ{sc{BZs,@IM" AD B0 3.R~[D"0, ]ШpRNC  /& H&[%7TM/`vS+-+ q D go@" 4o'Uxcxcc&k/ qp zUm(UHDDJBGMԃ;PK(PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/bookbig.gif +GIF89a$!!!)))111999BBBJJJRRRZZZccckkksss{{{skkB991)))!!B11))1!JB9B9!!cZ9ƭƽssk{ZZRccZRRJJJBBB9c!!ν)1)k{s絽ƌkssֽZccJRRBJJ{9BB)11)99!!))11!!k!JZ!)RcJccBcs)1c)JZ!BR!)BZ)99J!Rk9!c11B)Z{)9Bkc1kB9BZ!Z{9Rs)Jkksk9kB1s1Jk9Rƥc{k9s)Z{1k91)s1Rk)Jc1J!))BZ!1k{csc{)19B!)Bcsc{ksc{kZs!RkJkJkքc{9Zks{ck9R)Bks9R9R1J!)Z1B!)c)9)99BR19kksBBJcc{ccBBZ))9kk!!199c11ZBB{9!!R!!Z!!c))!!kR!!s!!BcksRZ1c9B)R91c1)Z!R9B9k1)RcZ{)!1B9JB9B)!)J9B!& Imported from GIF image: bookbig.gif,$!!!)))111999BBBJJJRRRZZZccckkksss{{{skkB991)))!!B11))1!JB9B9!!cZ9ƭƽssk{ZZRccZRRJJJBBB9c!!ν)1)k{s絽ƌkssֽZccJRRBJJ{9BB)11)99!!))11!!k!JZ!)RcJccBcs)1c)JZ!BR!)BZ)99J!Rk9!c11B)Z{)9Bkc1kB9BZ!Z{9Rs)Jkksk9kB1s1Jk9Rƥc{k9s)Z{1k91)s1Rk)Jc1J!))BZ!1k{csc{)19B!)Bcsc{ksc{kZs!RkJkJkքc{9Zks{ck9R)Bks9R9R1J!)Z1B!)c)9)99BR19kksBBJcc{ccBBZ))9kk!!199c11ZBB{9!!R!!Z!!c))!!kR!!s!!BcksRZ1c9B)R91c1)Z!R9B9k1)RcZ{)!1B9JB9B)!)J9BH`\Ȑ:pظа"A6DBH,V@Dڹ'G"v Æ ܥ;n;!;>xAܽ[G.\rQC wr}BŊQ A9ᾑ#5Y0VȒj0l-GqF>ZpM rb ;=.ސW-WѻWo ha!}~ْ ; t 53 :\ 4PcD,0 4*_l0K3-`l.j!c Aa|2L4/1C`@@md;(H*80L0L(h*҇҆o#N84pC (xO@ A)J6rVlF r  fry†$r_pl5xhA+@A=F rGU a 1х4s&H Bdzt x#H%Rr (Ѐ7P`#Rщ'x" #0`@~i `HA'Tk?3!$`-A@1l"P LhʖRG&8A`0DcBH sq@AXB4@&yQhPAppxCQ(rBW00@DP1E?@lP1%T` 0 WB~nQ@;PKGC PK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/darbbook.cssPKPK%j?OEBPS/dcommon/booklist.gifGIF89a1޵֥΄kZ{Jk1Rs!BZ)B),@I9Z͓Ca % Dz8Ȁ0FZЌ0P !x8!eL8aWȠFD(~@p+rMS|ӛR$ v "Z:]ZJJEc{*=AP  BiA ']j4$*   & 9q sMiO?jQ = , YFg4.778c&$c%9;PKː5PK%j?OEBPS/unplanned.htm Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Unplanned Downtime

The script content on this page is for navigation purposes only and does not alter the content in any way.

3 Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Unplanned Downtime

Oracle Database offers an integrated suite of high availability solutions that increase availability and eliminate or minimize both planned and unplanned downtime. These solutions help enterprises maintain business continuity 24 hours a day, seven days a week. However, the Oracle high availability solutions go beyond reducing downtime by providing solutions to increase system utilization on the primary and secondary systems and to help improve overall performance, scalability, and manageability.

Oracle provides the following features for high availability for unplanned downtime:

Also, Chapter 4, "Oracle Database High Availability Solutions for Planned Downtime" provides a summary of the key high availability solutions that address different types of planned downtime along with the recovery time for each solution.

See Also:

3.1 Oracle High Availability Solutions and Recovery for Unplanned Downtime

Oracle Database provides high availability solutions to prevent and reduce downtime for all types of unplanned failures.

Table 3-1 describes the various Oracle high availability solutions for unplanned downtime. The table shows how the features discussed in Section 3.2 through Section 3.21 can be used to address various causes of unplanned downtime. Where several Oracle solutions are listed, the MAA recommended solution is indicated in the Oracle Solution column.

Also, see Table 7-4 for a summary of the attainable recovery times for all types of unplanned downtime for each Oracle high availability architecture.

Table 3-1 Outage Types and Oracle High Availability Solutions for Unplanned Downtime

Outage ScopeOracle SolutionBenefits

Site Failures

Oracle Data Guard (MAA recommended)

  • Fast-start failover and FAN with integrated Oracle clients

  • Physical replica, high performance, supports all data types

Site Failures

Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Streams

  • Flexible active-active high availability solutionFoot 1 

Site Failures

Recovery Manager

Computer Failures

Oracle Real Application Clusters and Oracle Clusterware (MAA recommended)

  • Automatic recovery of failed nodes and instances

  • Fast application notification (FAN) with integrated Oracle client failover

Computer Failures

Oracle RAC One Node

  • Always-on single-instance database services

  • Better database availability than traditional cold failover solutions

  • Consolidation of database servers

Computer Failures

Fast-Start Fault Recovery

  • Tunable and predictable cache recovery from computer failures

Computer Failures

Oracle Data Guard

  • Fast-start failover and FAN with integrated Oracle clients

Computer Failures

Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Streams

  • Facilitates creation of a local or remote copy of a production database that can be used to resume processing upon failure

Storage Failures

Oracle Automatic Storage Management (MAA recommended)

  • Mirroring and online automatic rebalancing places redundant copies of the data in separate failure groups.

Storage Failures

Oracle Data Guard (MAA recommended)

  • Fast-start failover and FAN with integrated Oracle clients

Storage Failures

Recovery Manager with Fast Recovery Area and Oracle Secure Backup

  • Fully managed database recovery and managed disk and tape backups

Storage Failures

Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Streams

  • Processing resumes on the (local or remote) online replica copy of the production database

Data Corruption

Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software (Exadata Cell) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (MAA recommended)

  • If Oracle ASM detects a corruption and has a good mirror, Oracle ASM returns the good block and repairs the corruption during a subsequent write I/O

  • Exadata Cell is the most comprehensive solution, to prevent corruptions from being written to disk

Data Corruption

Corruption Prevention, Detection, and Repair (MAA recommended)

Database initialization settings such as DB_BLOCK_CHECKING, DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM, and DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT

  • Different levels of block corruption prevention and detection at the database level

Data Corruption

Data Recovery Advisor and Recovery Manager with Fast Recovery Area (MAA recommended)

  • Data Recovery Advisor automatically detects data corruptions and recommends the best recovery plan.

  • RMAN online block-media recovery time is faster because RMAN can use flashback logs to restore a more current copy of the data block for recovery.

Data Corruption

Oracle Data Guard (MAA recommended)

  • Repair primary data blocks in real time by fetching a good version from a physical standby database

  • Fast-start failover and FAN with integrated Oracle clients

Data Corruption

Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Streams

  • Processing resumes on the (local or remote) online replica copy of the production database

Human Errors

Oracle Security Features

  • Restrict access as prevention

Human Errors

Oracle Flashback Technology

  • Fine-grained and database-wide rewind capability

Human Errors


  • Redo log analysis

Lost writes

Oracle Data Guard, Recovery Manager, and the DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT initialization parameter

  • DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT initialization parameter provides lost write detection.

  • If a lost write that occurred on the primary database is detected either by the physical standby database or during media recovery of the primary database, recovery is stopped to preserve the consistency of the database. However, failing over to the standby database using Oracle Data Guard will result in some data loss.

  • If a lost write is detected on the standby database, you can restore the affected file and restart Redo Apply if the lost write is isolated and the hardware problem is corrected.

    Note: Lost writes can corrupt the entire database, which may require that you rebuild the affected database after resolving the hardware issue.

Lost writes

Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software (Exadata Cell)

  • Detection and prevention of stray or misdirected writes to another data file.

  • For the most comprehensive lost write protection, use Oracle Data Guard and set the DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT parameter (to TYPICAL or FULL) on both the primary and standby databases

Hangs or slow down

Oracle Database and Oracle Enterprise Manager

  • Oracle Database automatically monitors for database hangs and attempts to resolve them.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager or a customized application heartbeat can be configured to detect application or response time slowdown and react to these SLA breaches.

    For example, you can configure the Enterprise Manager Beacon to monitor and detect application response times. Then, after a certain threshold expires, Enterprise Manager can call the Oracle Data Guard DBMS_DG.INITIATE_FS_FAILOVER PL/SQL procedure to initiate a failover. See the section about "Application Initiated Fast-Start Failover" in Oracle Data Guard Broker.

Footnote 1 Effective when conflicts can be avoided or managed by applications. Active-active configurations usually require data conflicts to be avoided or at least managed by the application. Thus, active-active architecture for real-time replication is more suitable for custom applications.

3.4 Oracle Real Application Clusters and Oracle Clusterware

Oracle RAC and Oracle Clusterware allow Oracle Database to run any packaged or custom application across a set of clustered servers. This capability provides the highest levels of availability and the most flexible scalability. If a clustered server fails, then Oracle Database continues running on the surviving servers. When more processing power is needed, you can add another server without interrupting access to data.

Oracle RAC enables multiple instances that are linked by an interconnect to share access to an Oracle database. In an Oracle RAC environment, Oracle Database runs on two or more systems in a cluster while concurrently accessing a single shared database. The result is a single database system that spans multiple hardware systems, enabling Oracle RAC to provide high availability and redundancy during failures in the cluster. Oracle RAC accommodates all system types, from read-only data warehouse systems to update-intensive online transaction processing (OLTP) systems.

Oracle Clusterware is software that, when installed on servers running the same operating system, enables the servers to be bound together to operate as if they are one server, and manages the availability of user applications and Oracle databases. Oracle Clusterware also provides all of the features required for cluster management, including node membership, group services, global resource management, and high availability functions:

  • For high availability, you can place Oracle databases (single-instance or Oracle RAC databases), and user applications (Oracle and non-Oracle) under the management and protection of Oracle Clusterware so that the databases and applications restart when a process fails or so that a failover to another node occurs after a node failure.

  • For cluster management, Oracle Clusterware presents multiple independent servers as if they are a single-system image or one virtual server. This single virtual server is preserved across the cluster for all management operations, enabling administrators to perform installations, configurations, backups, upgrades, and monitoring functions. Then, Oracle Clusterware automatically distributes the execution of these management functions to the appropriate nodes in the cluster.

Oracle Clusterware is a requirement for using Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware is the only clusterware that you need for most platforms on which Oracle RAC operates. Although Oracle Database continues to support third-party clusterware products on specified platforms, using Oracle Clusterware provides these main benefits:

  • Dispenses with proprietary vendor clusterware

  • Uses an integrated software stack from Oracle that provides disk management with Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) to data management with Oracle Database and Oracle RAC

In addition, Oracle Database features, such as Oracle Service, use the underlying Oracle Clusterware mechanisms to provide their capabilities.

Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware components: a voting disk to record node membership information and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to record cluster configuration information. The voting disk and the OCR must reside on shared storage. Oracle Clusterware requires that each node be connected to a private network over a private interconnect.

For more information, see Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide.

3.4.1 Benefits of Using Oracle Clusterware

Oracle Clusterware provides the following benefits:

For more information, see Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.

3.4.2 Benefits of Using Oracle Real Application Clusters and Oracle Clusterware

Together, Oracle RAC and Oracle Clusterware provide all of the Oracle Clusterware benefits listed in Section 3.4.1 plus the following benefits:

3.5 Oracle RAC One Node

Oracle Real Application Clusters One Node (Oracle RAC One Node) is a single instance of an Oracle RAC database that runs on one node in a cluster. This feature allows you to consolidate many databases into one cluster with minimal overhead, protecting them from both planned and unplanned downtime. The consolidated databases reap the high availability benefits of failover protection, online rolling patch application, and rolling upgrades for the operating system and Oracle Clusterware.

Oracle RAC One Node enables better availability than cold failover for single-instance databases because of the Oracle technology called online database relocation, which intelligently migrates database instances and connections to other cluster nodes for high availability and load balancing. Online database relocation is performed using the Server Control Utility (SRVCTL).

Oracle RAC One Node provides the following:

  • Always available single-instance database services

  • Built-in cluster failover for high availability

  • Live migration of instances across servers

  • Online rolling patches and rolling upgrades for single-instance databases

  • Online upgrade from single-instance to multi-instance Oracle RAC

  • Better consolidation for database servers

  • Enhanced server virtualization

  • Lower cost development and test platform for full Oracle RAC

  • Relocation of Oracle RAC primary and standby databases configured with Oracle Data Guard (This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (

It also facilitates the consolidation of database storage, standardizes your database environment, and, when necessary, enables you to transition to a full, multiple-instance Oracle RAC database without downtime or disruption.

For more information, see Section 7.1.3.

3.6 Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Data Guard ensures high availability, data protection, and disaster recovery for enterprise data. Oracle Data Guard provides a comprehensive set of services that create, maintain, manage, and monitor one or more standby databases to enable Oracle databases to survive disasters and data corruptions. Oracle Data Guard maintains standby databases as transactionally consistent copies of the primary (production) database. Then, if the primary database becomes unavailable because of a planned or an unplanned outage, Oracle Data Guard can switch any standby database to the primary role, minimizing the downtime associated with the outage. Oracle Data Guard can be used with traditional backup, restoration, and cluster techniques to provide a high level of data protection and data availability.With Oracle Data Guard, administrators can optionally improve primary database performance by off-loading resource-intensive backup and reporting operations to standby systems.

A Oracle Data Guard configuration consists of one primary database and one or more standby databases. A primary database can be either a single-instance Oracle database or an Oracle RAC database. Using a backup copy of the primary database, you can create up to 30 standby databases and incorporate them in a Oracle Data Guard configuration. After the database is created, Oracle Data Guard automatically maintains each standby database by transmitting redo data from the primary database and then applying the redo data to the standby database.

Similar to a primary database, a standby database can be either a single-instance Oracle database or an Oracle RAC database.

A standby database can be a physical standby database, a snapshot standby database, a logical standby database, a transient logical standby database, or Oracle Active Data Guard. An Oracle Data Guard configuration can include any combination of these types of standby databases.

Benefits of Using Oracle Data Guard

Oracle Data Guard provides the following overall benefits:

3.6.1 Physical Standby Databases

A physical standby database provides a physically identical copy of the primary database, with data files that are identical to the primary database. The database schemas, including indexes, are the same. A physical standby database is kept synchronized with the primary database, through Redo Apply, which recovers the redo data received from the primary database and applies the redo data to the physical standby database.

You can employ a physical standby database for business purposes other than disaster recovery. For example, you can:

  • Convert a physical standby database to a logical standby database.

Benefits of Physical Standby Databases

Physical standby databases provide the following overall benefits:

3.6.2 Oracle Active Data Guard

Oracle Active Data Guard is Oracle's strategic feature for data protection and disaster recovery for the Oracle database.

Oracle Active Data Guard, which is an option built on the infrastructure of Oracle Data Guard, allows a physical standby database to be open read-only while changes are applied to it from the primary database. This enables read-only applications to use the physical standby with minimal latency between the data on the standby database and that on the primary database, even while processing very high transaction volumes at the primary database. This is sometimes referred to as real-time query.


The "real-time query" feature of Oracle Active Data Guard enables a physical standby database to be opened read-only while Redo Apply is active. Oracle Active Data Guard is packaged as a separate database option for Oracle Enterprise Edition. It requires a license for production database and all of the physical standby databases that are used for the Oracle Active Data Guard option.

An Oracle Active Data Guard standby database is used for automatic repair of data corruptions detected by the primary database, transparent to the application. In the event of an unplanned outage on the primary database, high availability is maintained by quickly failing over to the standby database. An Active Data Guard standby database can also be used to off-load fast incremental backups from the primary database given that it is a block-for-block physical replica of the primary.

Benefits of Oracle Active Data Guard

Oracle Active Data Guard provides the following overall benefits:

  • Makes productive use of existing physical standby databases

  • Improves primary database performance by offloading processing to the standby database

  • Improves backup performance by offloading fast incremental backups from the primary database to an active standby

  • Allows the active standby to automatically repair block corruptions detected at the primary database, transparent to the user and application (and vice versa)

  • Provides real-time data access for reporting

  • Provides real-time data for Business Intelligence, EPM, and Oracle Exadata

  • Offers flexible options to scale read performance while still maintaining disaster recovery, through Reader Farms (see

3.6.3 Transient Logical Standby Databases

A transient logical standby database allows you to reuse your current physical standby database by temporarily converting it to a logical standby on which to perform a rolling database upgrade, incurring minimal downtime.

The MAA recommended best practice for performing rolling database upgrades is to use a transient logical standby database and a Bourne shell script (developed by Oracle) that automates database rolling upgrades to new Oracle patch sets or full database releases. The database rolling upgrade is performed using an existing Data Guard physical standby database and the transient logical standby rolling upgrade process.

The Bourne shell script, named physru, greatly reduces the complexity of executing a rolling database upgrade by automating most of the upgrade steps. The script provides many benefits including the ability to handle upgrades for both Oracle RAC and single-instance database. Although the physru script automates upgrade tasks, it is subject to the same prerequisites and limitations as the manual process for executing a transient logical database rolling upgrade. For example, you may need to implement Extended Data Type Support (EDS) to accommodate advanced data types.

See Also:

The following MAA best practices white papers:
  • "Database Rolling Upgrades Made Easy by Using a Data Guard Physical Standby Database" for step-by-step instructions to perform a rolling upgrade with a transient logical standby database and the physru script

  • "Database Rolling Upgrades Using Transient Logical Standby: Oracle Data Guard 11g" and in particular see the "General Restrictions" and "Confirm Data Type Support" sections for a complete understanding of the prerequisites, limitations, and requirements

  • "Extended Datatype Support (EDS) for Oracle Data Guard SQL Apply and Oracle Streams" to learn how to accommodate data types that are not natively supported by logical standby databases

These white papers are available on the MAA Web site at

Benefits of a Transient Logical Standby Database

Transient logical standby databases provide the following overall benefits:

  • It allows you to apply and test changes on a completely separate system and database prior to switching the production application and clients over to the upgraded system.

  • It greatly improves availability by eliminating planned downtime required for many of the usual tasks associated with a conventional database upgrade, including PL/SQL recompilation.

  • It employs existing physical standby databases for database rolling upgrades; there is no additional storage or effort required to deploy a separate logical standby database for the sole purpose of a rolling upgrade.

  • It requires executing only a single catalog upgrade to migrate both primary and standby databases to a new Oracle release.

  • It allows for additional validation of the upgrade and the system before switching applications and clients to the new environment.

  • When the upgrade process is complete, the primary database and physical standby database are both running the new Oracle release.

See Also:

3.6.4 Snapshot Standby Databases

A snapshot standby database is a physical standby database that you temporarily convert into an updatable standby database. You can use snapshot standby databases as clones or test databases to validate new functionality and new releases, and when finished you then convert the database back into a physical standby. While running in the snapshot standby database role, it continues to receive and queue redo data so that data protection and the RPO are not sacrificed.

A snapshot standby database receives and archives redo data from the primary database—protecting data on the primary database at all times—but the snapshot standby database does not apply redo data from the primary database while the standby is open for read/write access. Thus, the snapshot standby typically diverges from the primary database over time. Redo Apply does not apply the redo data until you convert the snapshot standby database back into a physical standby database, and all local updates that were made to the snapshot standby database are discarded. Although the local updates to the snapshot standby database cause additional divergence, the data in the primary database is fully protected by the redo log that is located at the standby site.

With a single command, you can revert a snapshot standby to a physical standby database, at which time the changes made to the snapshot standby state are discarded, and Redo Apply automatically resynchronizes the physical standby database with the primary database using the redo data that was archived.

Benefits of Snapshot Standby Databases

Snapshot standby databases provide the following overall benefits:

  • Inherit all the attributes of a physical standby database

  • Can be open for read/write I/O and can process transactions independent of the primary database

  • Protect the primary database the entire time it is open for read-write I/O

  • Allow you to issue a single command to convert a snapshot standby back to a synchronized physical standby database

  • Provide an ideal test system, especially when combined with Oracle Real Application Testing

3.6.5 Logical Standby Databases

A logical standby database contains the same logical information as the primary database, although the physical organization and structure of the data can be different. The logical standby database is kept synchronized with the primary database through SQL Apply, which transforms the redo data received from the primary database into SQL statements and then executes the SQL statements on the standby database.

Benefits of Logical Standby Databases

Logical standby databases provide the following overall benefits:

3.7 Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Streams

Oracle GoldenGate is Oracle's strategic product for data distribution and data integration. It is a high-performance software application that uses log-based bidirectional data replication for real-time capture, transformation, routing, and delivery of database transactions across heterogeneous systems. Oracle GoldenGate helps you achieve continuous availability and real-time integration for your mission-critical data. It is described in more detail in Section 3.7.1.

Oracle Streams is also a very flexible and powerful database replication feature that Oracle will continue to support but will not make major enhancements in future releases. You can continue to use an existing Oracle Streams deployment to maximize your return on investment. However, you should consider Oracle GoldenGate as the long-term replication strategy for your organization. See the Oracle Database 2 Day + Data Replication and Integration Guide, Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration, and the Oracle Streams Replication Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Streams data replication and integration.

Oracle GoldenGate will be enhanced with many of the best capabilities of Oracle Streams to create a best-of-both worlds information distribution solution.

3.7.1 About Oracle GoldenGate

Oracle GoldenGate is an asynchronous, log-based, real-time data replication product that moves high volumes of transactional data in real-time across heterogeneous database, hardware, and operating system environments with minimal impact.

A typical environment includes a capture, pump and delivery process. Each of these processes can run on most of the popular operating systems and databases, including Oracle Database and non-Oracle databases. All or a portion of the data may be replicated, and the data within any of these processes may be manipulated for not only heterogeneous environments but also different database schemas. Oracle GoldenGate supports multimaster replication, hub-and-spoke deployment, and data transformation. Thus, Oracle GoldenGate enables you to ensure that your critical systems are operational 24/7, and the associated data is distributed across the enterprise to optimize decision making.

Oracle GoldenGate is also an excellent method to minimize downtime during planned maintenance, including application and database upgrades, in addition to platform migrations.

Benefits of Oracle GoldenGate

Oracle GoldenGate optimizes real-time information access and availability because it:

  • Supports replication involving a heterogeneous mix of Oracle Database and non-Oracle databases

  • Maintains continuous availability to mission-critical systems:

    • Disaster recovery and data protection

      Creates and maintains an immediate failover site with up-to-the-minute data to minimize recovery time for mission-critical systems.

    • Zero downtime operations

      Enables uninterrupted business operations during system upgrades, migration, and maintenance activities.

    • Data distribution

      Synchronizes data for distributed applications in real time for improved availability and scalability.

    • Query offloading

      Ensures high performance for production systems while still supporting necessary read-only activities by replicating data between heterogeneous sources and targets.

  • Enables real-time data integration across the enterprise:

    • Real-time data warehousing

      Provides continuous, real-time capture and delivery of the most recent change data between OLTP systems and the data warehouse.

    • Operational reporting

      Off loads reporting activity from the production database to lower-cost secondary systems that have current data for real-time reporting.

    • Operational data integration

      Integrates operational data between OLTP systems in real time.

3.7.2 Using Oracle GoldenGate with Oracle Active Data Guard

Oracle Golden Gate and Oracle Active Data Guard are strategic capabilities within Oracle's software portfolio and are complementary to each other. When used together, Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle Active Data Guard offer a unique data protection and information distribution solution not offered by any other product.


Oracle GoldenGate is an Oracle product sold independently of the Oracle Database for Oracle and third-party database management systems. It is available for both Oracle Database Enterprise Edition and Oracle Database Standard Edition. A license for Oracle GoldenGate includes a license for Oracle Active Data Guard.

While these features generally fall into the category of replication technologies, each has a very different area of focus:

Depending on the business situation:

  • Choose Oracle Active Data Guard for a simple, high-performance, drop-in solution for disaster recovery, data protection, and high availability for the entire Oracle database.

  • Choose Oracle GoldenGate to set up a data distribution and data synchronization solution through this Oracle-Oracle replication configuration, or a more flexible multimaster HA solution.

Figure 3-1 shows a configuration in which an Oracle Data Guard physical standby database provides optimal data protection and offloads read-only workload from the primary database. It also provides for heterogeneous replication of various subsets of the production database to multiple target databases. Rather than host Oracle GoldenGate replication on the production database, the Oracle GoldenGate capture process is offloaded to the physical standby database where changes are captured from archived redo logs and replicated, without necessitating overhead for Oracle GoldenGate processing on the production system.

Oracle GoldenGate is also an excellent method to minimize downtime during planned maintenance, including application and database upgrades and platform migrations.

See Also:

  • Section for information about using Oracle GoldenGate to perform database upgrades

  • Section for information about using Oracle GoldenGate to perform platform migrations

3.8 Oracle Flashback Technology

Flashback technology provides a set of features to switch between views of the data as it existed at different points in time. Using flashback features, you can query past versions of schema objects and historical data. You can also perform change analysis and self-service repair to recover from logical corruption while the database is online.

Flashback technology provides a SQL interface to quickly analyze and repair human errors. Flashback technology provides fine-grained analysis and repair for localized damage such as deleting the wrong customer order. Flashback technology also enables correction of more widespread damage, yet does it quickly to avoid long downtime. Flashback technology is unique to Oracle Database and supports recovery at all levels including row, transaction, table, tablespace, and database.

Most of the flashback features use undo data, whereas other features (such as Flashback Database and Block Media Recovery) use flashback logs:

The following sections describes the Flashback features:

3.8.1 Oracle Flashback Query

Oracle Flashback Query provides the ability to view the data as it existed in the past by using the Automatic Undo Management system to obtain metadata and historical data for transactions. Undo data is persistent and survives a database malfunction or shutdown. The unique features of Flashback Query not only provide the ability to query previous versions of tables, they also provide a powerful mechanism to recover from erroneous operations.

Uses of Flashback Query include:

  • Recovering lost data or undoing incorrect, committed changes. For example, rows that have been deleted or updated can be immediately repaired even after they have been committed.

  • Comparing current data with the corresponding data at some time in the past. For example, by using a daily report that shows the changes in data from yesterday, it is possible to compare individual rows of table data, or find intersections or unions of sets of rows.

  • Checking the state of transactional data at a particular time, such as verifying the account balance on a certain day.

  • Simplifying application design by removing the need to store certain types of temporal data. By using a Flashback Query, it is possible to retrieve past data directly from the database.

  • Applying packaged applications, such as report generation tools, to past data.

  • Providing self-service error correction for an application, enabling users to undo and correct their errors.

For more information, see the Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide.