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Programming Interfaces Guide     Oracle Solaris 11.1 Information Library
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Document Information


1.  Memory and CPU Management

2.  Session Description Protocol API

3.  Process Scheduler

4.  Locality Group APIs

5.  Input/Output Interfaces

6.  Interprocess Communication

7.  Socket Interfaces

Overview of Sockets

Socket Libraries

Socket Types

Interface Sets

Socket Basics

Socket Creation

Binding Local Names

Connection Establishment

Connection Errors

Data Transfer

Closing Sockets

Connecting Stream Sockets

Input/Output Multiplexing

Datagram Sockets

Standard Routines

Host and Service Names

Host Names - hostent

Network Names - netent

Protocol Names - protoent

Service Names - servent

Other Routines

Client-Server Programs

Sockets and Servers

Sockets and Clients

Connectionless Servers

Advanced Socket Topics

Out-of-Band Data

Nonblocking Sockets

Asynchronous Socket I/O

Interrupt-Driven Socket I/O

Signals and Process Group ID

Selecting Specific Protocols

Address Binding

Socket Options

inetd Daemon

Broadcasting and Determining Network Configuration

Using Multicast

Sending IPv4 Multicast Datagrams

Receiving IPv4 Multicast Datagrams

Sending IPv6 Multicast Datagrams

Receiving IPv6 Multicast Datagrams

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

SCTP Stack Implementation

SCTP Socket Interfaces













Branched-off Association

Code Examples of SCTP Use

8.  Programming With XTI and TLI

9.  Packet Filtering Hooks

10.  Transport Selection and Name-to-Address Mapping

11.  Real-time Programming and Administration

12.  The Oracle Solaris ABI and ABI Tools

A.  UNIX Domain Sockets


Overview of Sockets

Sockets have been an integral part of SunOS releases since 1981. A socket is an endpoint of communication to which a name can be bound. A socket has a type and an associated process. Sockets were designed to implement the client-server model for interprocess communication where:

Sockets make network protocols available while behaving like UNIX files. Applications create sockets as sockets are needed. Sockets work with the close(2), read(2), write(2), ioctl(2), and fcntl(2) interfaces. The operating system differentiates between the file descriptors for files and the file descriptors for sockets.

Socket Libraries

The socket interface routines are in a library that must be linked with the application. The library is contained in /usr/lib with the rest of the system service libraries. Use for dynamic linking.

Socket Types

Socket types define the communication properties that are visible to a user. The Internet family sockets provide access to the TCP/IP transport protocols. The Internet family is identified by the value AF_INET6, for sockets that can communicate over both IPv6 and IPv4. The value AF_INET is also supported for source compatibility with old applications and for raw access to IPv4.

The SunOS environment supports four types of sockets:

See Selecting Specific Protocols for further information.

Interface Sets

The SunOS 5.11 platform provides two sets of socket interfaces. The BSD socket interfaces are provided and, since SunOS version 5.7, the XNS 5 (UNIX03) socket interfaces are also provided. The XNS 5 interfaces differ slightly from the BSD interfaces.

The XNS 5 socket interfaces are documented in the following man pages:

The traditional BSD Socket behavior is documented in the corresponding 3N man pages. In addition, the following new interfaces have been added to section 3N:

See the standards(5) man page for information on building applications that use the XNS 5 (UNIX03) socket interface.