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Application Packaging Developer's Guide     Oracle Solaris 10 1/13 Information Library
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Document Information

Preface

1.  Designing a Package

2.  Building a Package

The Process of Building a Package (Task Map)

Package Environment Variables

General Rules on Using Environment Variables

Package Environment Variables Summary

Creating a pkginfo File

Defining a Package Instance

Defining a Package Abbreviation (PKG)

Specifying a Package Architecture (ARCH)

Specifying a Package Instruction Set Architecture (SUNW_ISA)

Specifying a Package Version (VERSION)

Defining a Package Name (NAME)

Defining a Package Category (CATEGORY)

How to Create a pkginfo File

Organizing a Package's Contents

How to Organize a Package's Contents

Creating a prototype File

Format of the prototype File

The ftype Field

The class Field

The path Field

Collectively Relocatable Objects

Individually Relocatable Objects

Parametric Path Names

A Brief Word on an Object's Source and Destination Locations

The mode Field

The owner Field

The group Field

Creating a prototype File From Scratch

Example--Creating a prototype File With the pkgproto Command

Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created With the pkgproto Command

Creating Object Entries With File Types v, e, x, and i

Using Multiple Class Definitions

Example--Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created Using the pkgproto Command

Adding Functionality to a prototype File

Defining Additional Objects to Be Created at Install Time

Creating Links at Install Time

Distributing Packages Over Multiple Volumes

Nesting prototype Files

Setting Default Values for the mode, owner, and group Fields

Providing a Search Path for the pkgmk Command

Setting Environment Variables

How to Create a prototype File by Using the pkgproto Command

Building a Package

Using the Simplest pkgmk Command

The pkgmap File

How to Build a Package

3.  Enhancing the Functionality of a Package (Tasks)

4.  Verifying and Transferring a Package

5.  Case Studies of Package Creation

6.  Advanced Techniques for Creating Packages

Glossary

Index

Creating a prototype File

The prototype file is an ASCII file used to specify information about the objects in a package. Each entry in the prototype file describes a single object, such as a data file, directory, source file, or executable object. Entries in a prototype file consist of several fields of information separated by white space. Note that the fields must appear in a specific order. Comment lines begin with a pound sign (#) and are ignored.

You can create a prototype file with a text editor or by using the pkgproto command. When you first create this file, it is probably easier to do so with the pkgproto command, because it creates the file based on the directory hierarchy you created previously. If you have not organized your files as described in Organizing a Package's Contents, you have the cumbersome task of creating the prototype file from scratch with your favorite text editor.

Format of the prototype File

Here is the format for each line in the prototype file:

partftypeclasspathmajorminormodeownergroup
part
Is an optional, numeric field that enables you to group package objects into parts. The default value is part 1.
ftype
Is a one-character field that specifies the object's type. See The ftype Field.
class
Is the installation class to which the object belongs. See The class Field.
path
Is the absolute or relative path name indicating where the package object will reside on the target system. See The path Field.
major
Is the major device number for block or character special devices.
minor
Is the minor device number for block or character special devices.
mode
Is the octal mode of the object (for example, 0644). See The mode Field.
owner
Is the owner of the object (for example, bin or root). See The owner Field.
group
Is the group to which the object belongs (for example, bin or sys). See The group Field.

Usually, only the ftype, class, path, mode, owner, and group fields are defined. These fields are described in the following sections. See the prototype(4) man page for additional information on these fields.

The ftype Field

The ftype, or file type, field is a one-character field that specifies a package object's file type. Valid file types are described in the following table

Table 2-3 Valid File Types in the prototype File

File type field value
File Type Description
f
Standard executable file or data file
e
File to be edited upon installation or removal (may be shared by several packages)
v
Volatile file (whose contents are expected to change, such as a log file)
d
Directory
x
Exclusive directory accessible only by this package (may contain unregistered logs or database information)
l
Linked file
p
Named pipe
c
Character special device
b
Block special device
i
Information file or installation script
s
Symbolic link

The class Field

The class field names the class to which an object belongs. Using classes is an optional package design feature. This feature is discussed in detail in Writing Class Action Scripts.

If you do not use classes, an object belongs to the none class. When you execute the pkgmk command to build your package, the command inserts the CLASSES=none parameter in the pkginfo file. Files with file type i must have a blank class field.

The path Field

The path field is used to define where the package object will reside on the target system. You may indicate the location with either an absolute path name (for example, /usr/bin/mail) or a relative path name (for example, bin/mail). Using an absolute path name means that the object's location on the target system is defined by the package and cannot be changed. Package objects with relative path names indicate that the object is relocatable.

A relocatable object does not need an absolute path location on the target system. Instead, the object's location is determined during the installation process.

All or some of a package's objects can be defined as relocatable. Before writing any installation scripts or creating the prototype file, decide if package objects will have fixed locations (such as start-up scripts in /etc) or be relocatable .

There are two kinds of relocatable objects, collectively relocatable and individually relocatable.

Collectively Relocatable Objects

Collectively relocatable objects are located relative to a common installation base called the base directory. A base directory is defined in the pkginfo file, using the BASEDIR parameter. For example, a relocatable object in the prototype file named tests/generic requires that the pkginfo file define the default BASEDIR parameter. For example:

BASEDIR=/opt

This example means that when the object is installed, it will be located in the /opt/tests/generic directory.


Note - The /opt directory is the only directory to which software that is not part of the base Oracle Solaris software may be delivered.


Use collectively relocatable objects whenever possible. In general, the major part of a package can be relocatable with a few files (such as files in /etc or /var) specified as absolute. However, if a package contains many different relocations, consider dividing the package into multiple packages with distinct BASEDIR values in their pkginfo files.

Individually Relocatable Objects

Individually relocatable objects are not restricted to the same directory location as collectively relocatable objects. To define an individually relocatable object, you need to specify an install variable in the path field in the prototype file. After specifying the install variable, create a request script to prompt the installer for the relocatable base directory, or a checkinstall script to determine the path name from file system data. For more information on request scripts, see Writing a request Script and for information on checkinstall scripts, see How to Gather File System Data.


Caution

Caution - Individually relocatable objects are difficult to manage. Use of individually relocatable objects might result in widely scattered package components that are difficult to isolate when installing multiple versions or architectures of the package. Use collectively relocatable objects whenever possible.


Parametric Path Names

A parametric path name is a path name that includes a variable specification. For example, /opt/$PKGINST/filename is a parametric path name because of the $PKGINST variable specification. A default value for the variable specification must be defined in the pkginfo file. The value may then be changed by a request script or a checkinstall script.

A variable specification in a path must begin or end the path name, or be bounded by slashes (/). Valid parametric path names take the following form:

$PARAM/tests
tests/$PARAM/generic
/tests/$PARAM

The variable specification, once defined, may cause the path to be evaluated as absolute or relocatable. In the following example, the prototype file contains this entry:

f none $DIRLOC/tests/generic

The pkginfo file contains this entry:

DIRLOC=/myopt

The path name $DIRLOC/tests/generic evaluates to the absolute path name /myopt/tests/generic, regardless of whether the BASEDIR parameter is set in the pkginfo file.

In this example, the prototype file is identical to the one in the previous example and the pkginfo file contains the following entries:

DIRLOC=firstcut
BASEDIR=/opt

The path name $DIRLOC/tests/generic will evaluate to the relocatable path name /opt/firstcut/tests/generic.

For more information on parametric path names, see Using Parametric Base Directories.

A Brief Word on an Object's Source and Destination Locations

The path field in the prototype file defines where the object will be located on the target system. Specify the present location of the package's objects in the prototype file if their directory structure does not mimic the intended structure on the target system. See Organizing a Package's Contents for more information on structuring objects in a package.

If your development area is not structured in the same way that you want your package structured, you can use the path1=path2 format in the path field. In this format, path1 is the location the object should have on the target system, and path2 is the location the object has on your system.

You can also use the path1=path2 path name format with path1 as a relocatable object name and path2 as a full path name to that object on your system.


Note - path1 may not contain undefined build variables, but may contain undefined install variables. path2 may not contain any undefined variables, although both build variables and install variables may be used. For information on the difference between install variables and build variables, see Package Environment Variables.


Links must use the path1= path2 format because they are created by the pkgadd command. As a general rule, path2 of a link should never be absolute, but should instead be relative to the directory portion of path1.

An option to using the path1=path2 format is to use the !search command. For more information, see Providing a Search Path for the pkgmk Command.

The mode Field

The mode field may contain an octal number, a question mark (?), or a variable specification. An octal number specifies the mode of the object when it is installed on the target system. A ? means that the mode will be unchanged as the object is installed, implying that the object of the same name already exists on the target system.

A variable specification of the form $mode, where the first letter of the variable must be a lowercase letter, means that this field will be set as the package is built. Note that this variable must be defined at build time in either the prototype file or as an option to the pkgmk command. For information on the difference between install variables and build variables, see Package Environment Variables.

Files with file type i (information file), l (hard link), and s (symbolic link) should leave this field blank.

The owner Field

The owner field may contain a user name, a question mark (?), or a variable specification. A user name has a maximum of 14 characters and should be a name that already exists on the target system (such as bin or root). A ? means that the owner will be unchanged as the object is installed, implying that the object of the same name already exists on the target system.

A variable specification can be of the form $Owner or $owner, where the first letter of the variable is either an uppercase letter or a lowercase letter. If the variable begins with a lowercase letter, it must be defined as the package is built, either in the prototype file or as an option to the pkgmk command. If the variable begins with an uppercase letter, the variable specification will be inserted into the pkginfo file as a default value, and may be redefined at install time by a request script. For information on the difference between install variables and build variables, see Package Environment Variables.

Files with file type i (information file) and lb (hard link) should leave this field blank.

The group Field

The group field may contain a group name, a question mark (?), or a variable specification. A group name has a maximum of 14 characters and should be a name that already exists on the target system (such as, bin or sys). A ? means that the group will be unchanged as the object is installed, implying that the object of the same name already exists on the target system.

A variable specification can be of the form $Group or $group, where the first letter of the variable is either an uppercase letter or a lowercase letter. If the variable begins with a lowercase letter, it must be defined as the package is built, either in the prototype file or as an option to the pkgmk command. If the variable begins with an uppercase letter, the variable specification will be inserted into the pkginfo file as a default value, and may be redefined at install time by a request script. For information on the difference between install variables and build variables, see Package Environment Variables.

Files with file type i (information file) and l (hard link) should leave this field blank.

Creating a prototype File From Scratch

If you want to create a prototype file from scratch, you can do so with your favorite text editor, adding one entry per package object. See Format of the prototype File and the prototype(4) man page for more information on the format of this file. However, after you have defined each package object, you might want to include some of the features described in Adding Functionality to a prototype File.

Example—Creating a prototype File With the pkgproto Command

You can use the pkgproto command to build a basic prototype file, as long as you have organized your package directory structure as described in Organizing a Package's Contents. For example, using the sample directory structure and pkginfo file described in previous sections, the commands for creating the prototype file are as follows:

$ cd /home/jane
$ pkgproto ./SUNWcadap > InfoFiles/prototype

The prototype file looks like the following:

d none SUNWcadap 0755 jane staff
d none SUNWcadap/demo 0755 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/demo/file1 0555 jane staff
d none SUNWcadap/srcfiles 0755 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/srcfiles/file5 0555 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/srcfiles/file6 0555 jane staff
d none SUNWcadap/lib 0755 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/lib/file2 0644 jane staff
d none SUNWcadap/man 0755 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/man/windex 0644 jane staff
d none SUNWcadap/man/man1 0755 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/man/man1/file4.1 0444 jane staff
f none SUNWcadap/man/man1/file3.1 0444 jane staff

Note - The actual owner and group of the person building the package is recorded by the pkgproto command. A good technique is to use the chown -R and the chgrp -R commands, setting the owner and group as intended before running the pkgproto command.


This example prototype file is not complete. See the following section for information on completing this file.

Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created With the pkgproto Command

Although the pkgproto command is useful in creating an initial prototype file, it does not create entries for every package object that needs to be defined. This command does not make complete entries. The pkgproto command does not do any of the following:

Creating Object Entries With File Types v, e, x, and i

At the very least, you need to modify the prototype file to add objects with file type i. If you stored your information files and installation scripts in the first level of your package directory (for example, /home/jane/SUNWcadap/pkginfo), then an entry in the prototype file would look like the following:

i pkginfo

If you did not store your information files and installation scripts in the first level of your package directory, then you need to specify their source location. For example:

i pkginfo=/home/jane/InfoFiles/pkginfo

Or, you can use the !search command to specify the location for the pkgmk command to look when building the package. See Providing a Search Path for the pkgmk Command for more information.

To add entries for objects with file types v, e, and x, follow the format described in Format of the prototype File, or refer to the prototype(4) man page.


Note - Remember to always assign a class to files with a file type of e (editable) and have an associated class action script for that class. Otherwise, the files will be removed during package removal, even if the path name is shared with other packages.


Using Multiple Class Definitions

If you use the pkgproto command to create your basic prototype file, you can assign all the package objects to the none class or to one, specific class. As shown in Example--Creating a prototype File With the pkgproto Command, the basic pkgproto command assigns all objects to the none class. To assign all objects to a specific class, you can use the -c option. For example:

$ pkgproto -c classname /home/jane/SUNWcadap > /home/jane/InfoFiles/prototype

If you use multiple classes, you might need to manually edit the prototype file and modify the class field for each object. If you use classes, you also need to define the CLASSES parameter in the pkginfo file and write class action scripts. Using classes is an optional feature and is discussed in detail in Writing Class Action Scripts.

Example—Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created Using the pkgproto Command

Given the prototype file created by the pkgproto command in Example--Creating a prototype File With the pkgproto Command, several modifications need to be made.

Adding Functionality to a prototype File

Besides defining every package object in the prototype file, you can also do the following:

See the following sections for information on making these changes.

Defining Additional Objects to Be Created at Install Time

You can use the prototype file to define objects that are not actually delivered on the installation medium. During installation, using the pkgadd command, these objects are created with the required file types, if they do not already exist at the time of installation.

To specify that an object be created on the target system, add an entry for it in the prototype file with the appropriate file type.

For example, if you want a directory created on the target system, but do not want to deliver it on the installation medium, add the following entry for the directory in the prototype file:

d none /directory 0644 root other

If you want to create an empty file on the target system, an entry for the file in the prototype file might look like the following:

f none filename=/dev/null 0644 bin bin

The only objects that must be delivered on the installation medium are regular files and edit scripts (file types e, v, f) and the directories required to contain them. Any additional objects are created without reference to the delivered objects, directories, named pipes, devices, hard links, and symbolic links.

Creating Links at Install Time

To create links during package installation, define the following in the prototype file entry for the linked object:

Relative links would be specified in this manner whether the package is installed as absolute or relocatable.

Distributing Packages Over Multiple Volumes

When you build your package with the pkgmk command, the command performs the calculations and actions necessary to organize a multiple volume package. A multiple volume package is called a segmented package.

However, you can use the optional part field in the prototype file to define which part you want an object to be located. A number in this field overrides the pkgmk command and forces the placement of the component into the part given in the field. Note that a one-to-one correspondence exists between parts and volumes for removable media formatted as file systems. If the volumes are preassigned by the developer, the pkgmk command issues an error if there is insufficient space on any volume.

Nesting prototype Files

You can create multiple prototype files and then include them by using the !include command in the prototype file. You might want to nest files for easier maintenance.

In the following example there are three prototype files. The main file (prototype) is being edited. The other two files (proto2 and proto3) are being included.

!include /source-dir/proto2
!include /source-dir/proto3

Setting Default Values for the mode, owner, and group Fields

To set default values for the mode, owner, and group fields for specific package objects, you can insert the !default command into the prototype file. For example:

!default 0644 root other

Note - The !default command's range starts from where it is inserted and extends to the end of the file. The command's range does not span to included files.


However, for directories (file type d) and editable files (file type e) that you know exist on target systems (like /usr or /etc/vfstab), make sure that the mode, owner, and group fields in the prototype file are set to question marks (?). That way you will not destroy existing settings that a site administrator may have modified.

Providing a Search Path for the pkgmk Command

If the source location for package objects is different than their destination location, and you do not want to use the path1=path2 format as described in A Brief Word on an Object's Source and Destination Locations, then you can use the !search command in the prototype file.

For example, if you created a directory, pkgfiles, in your home directory, and it contains all of your information files and installation scripts, you can specify that this directory be searched when the package is built with the pkgmk command.

The command in the prototype file would look like the following:

!search /home-dir/pkgfiles

Note - Search requests do not span to included files. In addition, a search is limited to the specific directories listed and does not search recursively.


Setting Environment Variables

You can also add commands to the prototype file of the form !PARAM=value. Commands of this form define variables in the current environment. If you have multiple prototype files, the scope of this command is local to the prototype file where it is defined.

The variable PARAM can begin with either a lowercase letter or an uppercase letter. If the value of the PARAM variable is not known at build time, the pkgmk command aborts with an error. For more information on the difference between build variables and install variables, see Package Environment Variables.

How to Create a prototype File by Using the pkgproto Command


Note - It is easier to create information files and installation scripts before you create a prototype file. However, this order is not required. You can always edit the prototype file after changing your package contents. For more information on information files and installation scripts, see Chapter 3, Enhancing the Functionality of a Package (Tasks).


  1. Determine which package objects will be absolute and which package objects will be relocatable, if not done already.

    For information that will help you complete this step, see The path Field.

  2. Organize your package's objects to mimic their location on the target system.

    If you already organized your packages as described in Organizing a Package's Contents, note that you might need to make some changes based on your decisions in Step 1. If you have not organized your package yet, you should do so now. If you do not organize your package, you cannot use the pkgproto command to create a basic prototype file.

  3. If your package has collectively relocatable objects, edit the pkginfo file to set the BASEDIR parameter to the appropriate value.

    For example:

    BASEDIR=/opt

    For information on collectively relocatable objects, see Collectively Relocatable Objects.

  4. If your package has individually relocatable objects, create a request script to prompt the installer for the appropriate path name. Alternatively, create a checkinstall script to determine the appropriate path from file system data.

    The following list gives page numbers for your reference regarding common tasks:

  5. Change the owner and group on all of your package components to be the intended owner and group on the target systems.

    Use the chown -R and the chgrp -R commands on your package directory and information files directory.

  6. Execute the pkgproto command to create a basic prototype file.

    The pkgproto command scans your directories to create a basic file. For example:

    $ cd package-directory
    $ pkgproto ./package-directory > prototype

    The prototype file can be located anywhere on your system. Keeping your information files and installation scripts in one place simplifies access and maintenance. For additional information on the pkgproto command, see the pkgproto(1) man page.

  7. Edit the prototype file by using your favorite text editor, and add entries for files of type v, e, x, and i.

    For information on the specific changes you might need to make, see Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created With the pkgproto Command.

  8. (Optional) If you are using multiple classes, edit the prototype and pkginfo files. Use your favorite text editor to make the necessary changes, and create corresponding class action scripts.

    For information on the specific changes you might need to make, see Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created With the pkgproto Command and Writing Class Action Scripts.

  9. Edit the prototype file by using your favorite text editor to redefine path names and change other field settings.

    For more information, see Fine-Tuning a prototype File Created With the pkgproto Command.

  10. (Optional) Edit the prototype file by using your favorite text editor to add functionality to your prototype file.

    For more information, see Adding Functionality to a prototype File.

  11. Save your changes and quit the editor.

See Also

If you are ready for the next task, see How to Build a Package.