Skip Headers
Oracle® Database Firewall Administration Guide
Release 5.1

E22686-05
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

6 Configuring and Using Role Auditing

This chapter contains:

About User Role Auditing (URA)

User role auditing (URA) enables users to audit and approve changes to user roles in the databases on a specified database server. The Oracle Database Firewall connects to the database server at scheduled intervals and discovers any changes or additions that have been made to user roles. User role auditing is supported for Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, My SQL, Sybase ASE, Sybase SQL Anywhere, and IBM DB2 (Microsoft Windows, UNIX, and Linux) databases.

This chapter explains how to configure a database protected by Database Firewall so that Database Firewall users can audit changes to user roles. Instructions for auditing the user roles are in Oracle Database Firewall Security Guide.

Setting User Permissions for URA

This section contains:

Setting URA User Permissions for Oracle Databases

To set up the user account for Oracle databases (all releases later than Oracle Database 8i):

  1. From the Oracle Database Firewall Product CD (Oracle Database Firewall Utilities 5.1), copy the database directory to the server where you plan to run the scripts.

  2. On this server, go to the database/ura directory and uncompress the oracle compressed file, preferably into a directory called oracle.

  3. Go to this oracle directory and review the uncompressed file (ura_setup.sql) so you will understand its settings.

    The ura_setup.sql script contains settings for the following information:

    • $(username) refers to the user account that will be responsible for user role auditing. Ideally, this user account should be different from the user accounts specified for user role auditing and direct database interrogation (DDI) (for example, ura_auditor).

    • $(password) refers to the password for this user account.

  4. Log in to Oracle Database as a user who has privileges to create users and set user permissions.

    For example:

    sqlplus sys/as sysdba
    Enter password: password
    Connected. 
    SQL> 
    

    If the database has been enabled with Oracle Database Vault, then log in as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role.

  5. Run the ura_setup script and answer the prompts as needed.

    For example:

    SQL> @database/ura/oracle/ura_setup.sql
    username: as parameter 1:
    Enter value for 1: user_name
    password: as parameter 2:
    Enter value for 2: password
    

    The ura_setup.sql script grants the user role auditing user account the following privileges:

    • CREATE SESSION

    • SELECT on these system tables:

      sys.dba_users
      sys.dba_role_privs
      sys.dba_sys_privs
      sys.proxy_users
      v$pwfile_users
      
  6. (Optional) If you need to remove this user account, run the ura_drop script.

    For example:

    SQL> @database/ura/oracle/ura_setup.sql
    username: as parameter 1:
    Enter value for 1: user_name
    

Setting URA User Permissions for SQL Server Databases

To set up the user account for Microsoft SQL Server (2000, 2005, or 2008) databases:

  1. From the Oracle Database Firewall Product CD (Oracle Database Firewall Utilities 5.1), copy the database directory to the server where you plan to run the scripts.

  2. Ensure that the computer where you will run the scripts has the sqlcmd.exe utility installed.

  3. On this server, go to the database/ura directory and uncompress the sqlserver compressed file, preferably into a directory called sqlserver.

  4. Go to this sqlserver directory and review the uncompressed files so you will understand their settings.

    The scripts contain settings for the following information:

    • $(username) refers to the user account that will be responsible for user role auditing. Ideally, this user account should be different from the user accounts specified for user role auditing and direct database interrogation (DDI) (for example, ura_auditor).

    • $(password) refers to the password for this user account.

    • $(database) refers to the database that you want to audit.

  5. As a user who has privileges to create users and set user permissions, run the ura_add_user script on the SQL Server database.

    The syntax is as follows:

    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql 
    -v username="username" password="password"
    

    In this specification:

    • server_name: Enter the name or the IP address of the database server where the protected database resides. Only use this argument if you are running the script from a remote server. You can omit it if you are running the script locally.

    • sa: Enter the system administrator user name.

    • sa_password: Enter the system administrator password.

    • username: Enter the user account that you plan to create for user role auditing, specified by $(username) in the scripts. Enclose this user name in double quotation marks.

    • password: Enter the password for the user role auditing user account, specified by $(password) in the scripts. Enclose this password in double quotation marks.

    Following are two command examples. (The lines wrap below, but you may see them on one line.):

    sqlcmd -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql  -v username="ura_auditor" password="abcd1234"
    
    sqlcmd -S my_server -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql 
    -v username="ura_auditor" password="abcd1234"
    
  6. Grant the user permissions by running the ura_add_db_permissions or ura_add_all_db_permissions script.

    The following examples show how to run the scripts remotely, but if you are running the scripts locally, then omit the -S server_name argument.

    For permissions to a specific database, use the following syntax:

    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_db_permissions.sql 
    -v username="username" database="protected_database"
    

    For the database="protected_database" setting:

    • Enter the name of the database within this server that you want to audit, specified by $(database) in the scripts.

    • Enclose this database name in double quotation marks.

    For permissions to all databases, use this syntax:

    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_all_db_permissions.sql
    -v username="username"
    

    Below are two command examples. (The lines wrap below, but you may see each command on one line.)

    sqlcmd -S my_server -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_db_permissions.sql
    -v username="jsmith" database="my_database"
    
    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_all_db_permissions.sql
    -v username="jsmith"
    

    The scripts grant the user role auditing user account the following privileges:

    • VIEW ANY DEFINITION for SQL Server 2005 and later

    • SELECT on these tables:

      master.dbo.sysdatabases
      master.dbo.syslogins
      specific_database.dbo.sysmembers
      specific_database.dbo.sysusers
      
  7. (Optional) If you need to remove the above user permissions run the ura_drop_db_permissions or ura_drop_all_db_permissions script.

    Use the following syntax for a specific database:

    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_db_permissions.sql 
    -v username="username" database="protected_database"
    

    Use the following syntax for all databases:

    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_all_db_permissions.sql
    -v username="username"
    

    Below are two command examples. (The lines wrap below, but you may see each command on one line.)

    sqlcmd -S my_server -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_db_permissions.sql
    -v username="jsmith" database="my_database"
    
    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_all_db_permissions.sql
    -v username="jsmith"
    
  8. (Optional) If you need to remove the user role auditing user from the SQL Server database, run the ura_drop_user script.

    The syntax is as follows:

    sqlcmd -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_user.sql 
    -v username="username" password="password"
    

    For example:

    sqlcmd -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_user.sql  -v username="ura_auditor"
    

Setting URA User Permissions for MySQL Databases

To set up the user account for MySQL databases:

  1. Log in to the database as a user who has privileges to create users and set user permissions, and run the following command on the MySQL database:

    create user 'username'@'hostname' identified by 'password'
    

    For username, use the name of the User Role Auditing account, and for hostname use the hostname of the Database Firewall. For example:

    create user 'ura_auditor'@'10.155.56.2' identified by 'jj_1234'
    
  2. Grant required permissions to the user you just created by running the following command:

    grant select on mysql.user TO 'username'@'hostname'
    

    For example:

    grant select on mysql.user TO 'ura_auditor'@'10.155.56.2'
    

    The above command grants the stored procedure auditing user account the following privilege: SELECT on the mysql.user system table.

  3. (Optional) If you need to remove the stored procedure auditing user from the MySQL database, run the following command:

    drop user 'username'@'hostname'
    

    For example:

    drop user 'spa_auditor'@'10.155.56.2'
    

Setting URA User Permissions for Sybase ASE Databases

To set up the Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise user accounts:

  1. From the Oracle Database Firewall Product CD (Oracle Database Firewall Utilities 5.1), copy the database directory to the server where you plan to run the scripts.

  2. On this server, go to the database/ura directory and uncompress the sybase compressed file, preferably into a directory called sybase.

  3. As a user who has privileges to create users and set user permissions, run the ura_add_user.sql script on the Sybase ASE database.

    The syntax is as follows:

    isql -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql 
    

    In this specification:

    • server_name: Only use this argument if the database is remote. You can enter the name of the server or its IP address. If you are running the script locally, then you can omit the -S server_name argument.

    • sa: Enter the system administrator user name.

    • sa_password: Enter the system administrator password.

    Examples:

    isql -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql
    
    isql -S my_server -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql 
    
  4. Grant this user permissions by running the ura_add_db_permissions.sql script.

    The syntax is as follows:

    isql -S server_name -U sa -P password -i  ura_add_db_permissions.sql
    

    In this specification:

    • server_name: Only use this argument if the database is remote. You can enter the name of the server or its IP address. If you are running the script locally, then you can omit the -S server_name argument.

    • sa: Enter the system administrator user name.

    • sa_password: Enter the system administrator password.

    The scripts grant the user role auditing user account the following privileges:

    • SELECT on these tables:

      master.dbo.sysdatabases
      master.dbo.syslogins
      master.dbo.sysloginroles
      master.dbo.syssrvroles
      master.dbo.sysattributes
      specific_database.sysusers
      specific_database.sysalternates
      specific_database.sysroles
      
  5. (Optional) If you need to remove the above permissions, run the ura_drop_db_permissions script.

    The syntax is as follows:

    isql -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_drop_db_permissions.sql
    
  6. (Optional) If you need to remove the user role auditing user, run the ura_drop_user script on the Sybase ASE database.

    The syntax is as follows:

    isql -S server_name -U sa -P sa_password -i ura_add_user.sql 
    

Setting URA User Permissions for Sybase SQL Anywhere Databases

This section contains:

Installing the Sybase SQL Anywhere ODBC Driver for Linux

Before you can use Sybase SQL Anywhere, you must install the SQL Anywhere ODBC driver for Linux.

To install the ODBC driver for Linux:

  1. Log in to the Database Firewall server as user root.

  2. From the Sybase SQL Anywhere installation media, copy the linux_x86_GA_sa1101_2044_l10n.tar.gz to a secure location on the Database Firewall server.

  3. Expand this archive file.

    tar zxvf linux_x86_GA_sa1101_2044_l10n.tar.gz
    
  4. Run the setup utility to begin the installation of the client.

    ./setup
    
  5. When prompted, select to install only 3. Administration Tools.

  6. When prompted, install the client to the /var/sqlanywhere11 directory.

  7. From the Sybase SQL Anywhere installation media, copy sa11_full_linux_x86+x64.1101_2420_ebf.tar.gz to the Database Firewall server.

  8. Expand this archive file.

    tar zxvf sa11_full_linux_x86+x64.1101_2420_ebf.tar.gz
    
  9. Run the setup utility to begin the installation of the client.

    ./setup
    
  10. When prompted, select to install to the /var/sqlanywhere11 directory.

Setting URA User Permissions

To set up the Sybase SQL Anywhere user accounts:

  1. From the Oracle Database Firewall Product CD (Oracle Database Firewall Utilities 5.1), copy the database directory to the server where you plan to run the scripts.

  2. On this server, go to the database/ura directory and uncompress the sqlanywhere compressed file, preferably into a directory called sqlanywhere.

  3. Go to this sqlanywhere directory and review the uncompressed file (ura_setup.sql) so you will understand the privileges that the users in these scripts will have.

    The ura_setup script contains settings for the following information:

    • $(username) refers to the user account that will be responsible for user role auditing. Ideally, this user account should be different from the user accounts specified for user role auditing and direct database interrogation (DDI) (for example, ura_auditor).

    • $(password) refers to the password for this user account.

  4. As a user who has privileges to create users and set user permissions, run the ura_setup script on the SQL Anywhere database.

    The syntax is as follows:

    isql -S server_name -U sa -P password -i ura_setup.sql
    -v username="username" password="password" database="protected_database"
    

    In this specification:

    • server_name: Only use this argument if the database is remote. You can enter the name of the server or its IP address. If you are running the script locally, then you can omit the -S server_name argument.

    • username: Enter the user account that you plan to create for user role auditing, specified by $(username) in the scripts. Enclose this user name in double quotation marks.

    • password: Enter the password for the user role auditing user account, specified by $(password) in the scripts. Enclose this password in double quotation marks.

    • database="protected_database": Enter the name of the database within this server that you want to protect, specified by $(database) in the scripts. Enclose this database name in double quotation marks.

    For example:

    isql -S my_server -U sa -P password -i ura_setup.sql
    -v username="ura_auditor" password="$(password)_password" database="sales_db"
    

    The ura_setup script grants the user role auditing user account the following privileges:

    • CONNECT

    • SELECT on these system tables:

      sys.sysuser
      sys.sysuserauthority
      sys.sysremoteuser
      sys.sysloginmap
      sys.sysgroup
      
  5. (Optional) If you need to remove the above permissions, run the ura_drop script on the SQL Anywhere database.

    The syntax is as follows:

    isql -S server_name -U sa -P password -i ura_drop.sql
    -v username="username" password="password" database="protected_database"
    

Setting URA User Permissions for IBM DB2 SQL Databases

To set up an IBM DB2 user account, you do not need to run any scripts. Instead, you create a new user account or designate an existing user account to be used for the user role auditing.

To set up the IBM DB2 user account:

  1. Log in to the IBM DB2 Windows, UNIX, or Linux database that you want to audit.

  2. Create a new user account or designate an existing user account to be used for the user role auditing.

  3. Grant the following privileges to this user:

    grant select on sysibmadm.authorizationids to user
    grant select on syscat.dbauth to user
    
  4. (Optional) If you need to remove the above permissions, either revoke the granted permissions, or remove the user account from the IBM DB2 database.

Enabling URA on the Database Firewall

To enable user role auditing:

  1. Log in to the standalone Database Firewall or Management Server Administration Console.

    See "Logging in to the Administration Console" for more information.

  2. Click List in the Enforcement Points menu of the Monitoring page.

  3. Choose an enforcement point to monitor user roles, and click the Settings button.

    All enforcement points also monitor SQL traffic to a nominated database server. If required, the enforcement point can monitor user roles in databases located on a different server.

  4. Select the URA check box:

    Description of image059.gif follows
    Description of the illustration image059.gif

  5. Complete the URA fields and options:

    • Database Address and Port: Specify the IP address of the server that holds the databases to be audited. For the port number, enter the port number used by the database. (For example, the default port number for Oracle databases is 1521. For Oracle databases, you can find this information in the tnsnames.ora file.) All databases on the server will be included in the audit. If you are using a Domain Name Server (DNS), you can enter a hostname instead of an IP address.

      The IP address of the protected database specified in the enforcement point is not automatically included in the audit.

    • Database Name: Name of the database. For Oracle databases, enter the service name, as defined in the tnsnames.ora file.

    • User Name: Enter the user name of the user who was created by the scripts described in "Setting User Permissions for URA".

    • Change Password: If you want to change the password of the user, click the Change Password button and then enter a new password. (This field appears only if you are editing an existing configuration. The first time that you configure user role auditing, the Password and Confirm Password fields appear.)

    • Database Connection (Test Now): Clicking Test Now checks that the specified user can log into the databases and has the required permissions.

    • First Run Time and Repeat Every: Specify the date and time to run the first audit and the frequency to repeat the audits. Select a time when the database is not busy, such as 2 a.m."

      If you want to run an audit immediately, click List in the Enforcement Points menu, then the Manage button for the appropriate enforcement point, followed by Run Now.

Disabling URA

You can disable user role auditing. If you want to completely remove user role auditing, see Oracle Database Firewall Installation Guide.

To disable user role auditing:

  1. Log in to the standalone Database Firewall or Management Server Administration Console.

    See "Logging in to the Administration Console" for more information.

  2. Select the Monitoring tab.

    By default, the Enforcement Points page appears. If it does not, then click the List button in the Enforcement Points menu on the left side of the page.

  3. Find the enforcement point for the user role auditing that you want to disable.

  4. Click the Settings button.

    The Monitoring Settings page appears.

  5. In the URA area, clear the Activate User Role Auditing check box.

  6. Scroll to the bottom of the Monitoring Settings page and click the Save button.