1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the differences between the C API and the Java API to Message Queue and provides a quick start to compiling and running Message Queue C clients. It covers the following topics:

You should be familiar with the concepts presented in the Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Technical Overview before you read this chapter.

Depending on your needs, after you read this chapter, you can proceed either to Chapter 3, "Client Design Issues", which describes the major issues governing C client design, or to Chapter 2, "Using the C API", which explains how you use C data types and functions to obtain the messaging behavior that interests you.

The term "C developer" is used generically throughout this book and includes the C++ developer as well.

Message Queue for the C Developer

The Message Queue product is an enterprise messaging system that implements the Java Message Specification (JMS) standard as a JMS provider. Message Queue developers can use two programming interfaces to establish a connection to the broker, and send or receive messages:

  • C clients use the API described in this manual to send messages to and retrieve messages from a Message Queue broker.

  • Java clients use the Java API, described in the Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Technical Overview, to send messages to and receive messages from a Message Queue broker.

Message Queue provides a C API to its messaging services to enable legacy C applications and C++ applications to participate in JMS-based messaging. It is important to understand however that the Java Message Service specification is a standard for Java clients only; thus the C API described in this book is specific to the Message Queue provider and cannot be used with other JMS providers. A messaging application that includes a C client cannot be handled by another JMS provider.

The C interface, compared to the Java interface, does not support the following features:

  • The use of administered objects

  • Map, stream, or object message types

  • Consumer-based flow control

  • Queue browsers

  • JMS application server facilities (ConnectionConsumer, distributed transactions)

  • Receiving or sending SOAP messages

  • Receiving or sending compressed JMS messages

  • Auto-reconnect or failover, which allows the client runtime to automatically reconnect to a broker if a connection fails


Like the Java interface, the C interface does support the following:

  • Publish/subscribe and point-to-point connections

  • Synchronous and asynchronous receives

  • CLIENT, AUTO, and DUPS_OK acknowledgement modes

  • Local transactions

  • Session recover

  • Temporary topics and queues

  • Message selectors

The JMS programming model is the foundation for the design of a Message Queue C client. Using the C API explains how this model is implemented by the C data types and functions used by a Message Queue C client for delivery of messages.

The next section provides a quick introduction to building and running Message Queue clients.

Building and Running C Clients

Message Queue provides several sample Message Queue C-client applications that illustrate how to send and receive messages. Before you run these applications, read through the next two sections to make sure that you understand the general procedure and requirements for building and running Message Queue C-client programs.

Building C Clients

This section explains how you build Message Queue programs from C source files. You should already be familiar with writing and compiling C applications.

Header Files and Shared Libraries

The Message Queue C client includes the header files (mqcrt.h), the C client runtime shared library mqcrt, and its direct dependency libraries. When writing a Message Queue C client application, you should include the header files and link to the runtime library mqcrt.

The header files are located in IMQ_HOME/include, and the 32-bit runtime library is located in IMQ_HOME/lib. A 64-bit runtime library is available for the following platforms in the specified location:

  • Linux: IMQ_HOME/lib64

  • Solaris SPARC: IMQ_HOME/lib/sparcv9

  • Solaris x86: IMQ_HOME/lib/amd64

Pre-Processor Definitions

Use the appropriate compiler for your platform, as described in the Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Release Notes.

When compiling a Message Queue C client application, you need to specify the pre-processor definition shown for each platform in Table 1-1. This definition is used to support Message Queue fixed-size integer types.

Table 1-1 Preprocessor Definitions for Supporting Fixed-Size Integer Types

Platform Definition









C++ Runtime Library Support

When building a Message Queue C client application, you should be aware that the Message Queue C runtime library is a multi-threaded library and requires C++ runtime library support:

  • On Solaris, this support is provided by the Oracle Solaris Studio libCrun C++ runtime library.

  • On Linux, this support is provided by the gcc/g++ libstdc++ runtime library.

  • On AIX, this support is provided by the C++ runtime library in the in the XLC/C++ Runtime Environment.

  • On Windows, this support is provided by Microsoft Windows Visual C++ runtime library msvcrt.

Providing Runtime Support

To run a Message Queue C-client application, you need to make sure that the application can find the mqcrt shared library. Please consult the documentation for your compiler to determine the best way to do this.

You also need to make sure that the appropriate C++ runtime support library, as described in C++ Runtime Library Support is available.

On Windows you also need to make sure that your application can find the dependent libraries NSPR and NSS that are shipped with Message Queue. These may be different from the NSPR and NSS libraries that are installed on your system to support the Netscape browser and GlassFish Server. The mqcrt shared library depends directly on the NSPR and NSS versions installed with Message Queue. If a different version of the libraries is loaded at runtime, you may get a runtime error specifying that the libraries being used are incompatible. If this happens, look on your system to see if other versions of the NSPR or NSS libraries exist; for example, libnspr4.dll or nss3.dll. If you find such versions, take appropriate action to make sure that Message Queue can access the versions it needs.

Working With the Sample C-Client Programs

This section describes the sample C-Client programs that are installed with Message Queue and explains how you should build them and run them.

Message Queue provides two sets of sample C-client programs: basic C-client programs and distributed transaction programs.

Basic C-Client Programs

The sample C-client program files include the following:

Table 1-2 Basic C-Client Sample Program Files

Sample Program Description


Illustrates how you send a message


Illustrates how you receive a message synchronously


Illustrates how you send a message and receive it asynchronously


Illustrates how you send and respond to a message that specifies a reply-to destination

These sample programs are located in IMQ_HOME/examples/C.

Building the Basic C-Client Sample Programs

The following commands illustrate the process of building and linking the sample application Producer.c on the Solaris, Linux, AIX, and Windows platforms. The commands include the pre-processor definitions needed to support Message Queue C-API fixed-size integer types. For options used to support multithreading, please consult documentation for your compiler.

To Compile and Link on Solaris OS

Use the following command:

CC -compat=5 -mt -DSOLARIS -Iheader_path -o Producer \\
    -Lruntime_path -lmqcrt Producer.c

where header_path and runtime_path are the paths to the Message Queue header file and runtime shared library appropriate to your processor architecture, as listed in Header Files and Shared Libraries.

For 64-bit support on either the SPARC or x86 processor architecture, you must also specify the -xarch compiler option:

  • SPARC: -xarch=v9

  • x86: -xarch=amd64

For example, to compile and link the example application Solaris SPARC 64–bit, you would use the following command:

CC -compat=5 -mt -xarch=v9 -DSOLARIS -I$IMQ_HOME/include -o Producer \\
-L$IMQ_HOME/lib/sparcv9 -lmqcrt Producer.c
To Compile and Link on Linux

Use the following command:

g++ -DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -I$IMQ_HOME/include -o Producer \\
-L$IMQ_HOME/lib -lmqcrt Producer.c
To Compile and Link on AIX

Use the following command:

xlC_r -qthreaded -DAIX -I$IMQ_HOME/include -o Producer \\
-blibsuff:so -l$IMQ_HOME/lib -imqcrt Producer.c
To Compile and Link on Windows

Use the following command:

cl /c /MD -DWIN32 -I%IMQ_HOME%\include Producer.c

link Producer.obj /NODEFAULTLIB msvcrt.lib \\
/LIBPATH:%IMQ_HOME%\lib mqcrt.lib

Running the Basic C-Client Sample Programs

Before you run any sample programs, you should start the broker. You can display output describing the command-line options for each program by starting the program with the -help option.

For example, the following command, runs the program Producer. It specifies that the program should connect to the broker running on the host MyHost and port 8585, and that it should send a message to the destination My Topic :

Producer -h MyHost -p 8585 -d MyTopic

The directories that contain the sample programs also include a README file that explains how you should run their respective samples.

Distributed Transaction Sample Programs

The distributed transaction sample programs show how to use the X/Open distributed transaction (XA) support of the Message Queue C-API with an X/Open distributed transaction processing system (in this case Oracle Tuxedo: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/tuxedo/overview/index.html.)

The distributed transaction sample programs include the following files:

Table 1-3 Distributed Transaction Sample Program Files

Sample Program Description


Implements Tuxedo services that send and receive messages using the Message Queue C-API


Tuxedo client that uses the message producing service in jmsserver.c


Tuxedo client that uses the message receiving service in jmsserver.c


Implements a Tuxedo service that asynchronously consumes messages using the Message Queue C-API


Tuxedo client that uses the asynchronous message consuming service in async_jmsserver.c

These sample programs are located in IMQ_HOME/examples/C/tuxedo.

The following procedures document how to set up Tuxedo as a distributed transaction manager, how to build the sample distributed transaction programs, and how to run the sample programs. The procedures are based on the synchronous message consumption samples and assume a Solaris operating system platform.

To Set Up Tuxedo as a Distributed Transaction Manager

  1. Install Tuxedo.

    See Tuxedo documentation for instructions.

  2. Set up the following environment variables:

    Environment Variable Description


    Modify to include Message Queue C-API runtime library path and TUXDIR/lib path


    Tuxedo install root


    modify to include $TUXDIR/bin and compiler path


    TUXCONFIG filename path


    Tuxedo transaction log filename path


    Message Queue install root


    Message Queue C-API runtime log file name


    Set so that Message Queue C-API runtime log file name will be auto-appended with the Tuxedo server process id

  3. Build the Tuxedo transaction monitor server (TMS).

    1. Add the following entry to the $TUXDIR/udataobj/RM file:

      # SUN_MQ:sun_mq_xa_switch:-lmqcrt

    2. Build the TMS executable using buildtms:

      # buildtms -o $TUXDIR/bin/<exe-name> -r SUN_MQ

  4. Configure the Tuxedo servers.

    # tmloadcf config-file

    where config-file is the Tuxedo UBBCONFIG file.

To Build the Distributed Transaction Sample Programs

  1. Build the server side of the sample application (jmsserver.c).

    # cc -I$IMQ_HOME/include -I$TUXDIR/include -g -c jmsserver.c
    # buildserver -v -t -r SUN_MQ -s SENDMESSAGES,RECVMESSAGES -o jmsserver
    -f jmsserver.o -f -lmqcrt
  2. Build the client side of the sample application (jmsclient_sender.c and jmsclient_receiver.c).

    # cc -I$TUXDIR/include -c jmsclient_sender.c
    # buildclient -o jmsclient_sender -f jmsclient_sender.o 
    # cc -I$TUXDIR/include -c jmsclient_receiver.c
    # buildclient -o jmsclient_receiver -f jmsclient_receiver.o

To Run the Distributed Transaction Sample Programs

  1. Start a Message Queue broker.

    # imqbrokerd -tty
  2. Start the Tuxedo servers.

    # tmboot
  3. Run the client-side applications.

    # jmsclient_sender
    # jmsclient_receiver
  4. Confirm the messages are produced to and consumed from the applicable destination.

    # imqcmd list dst -u admin 
    # imqcmd querry dst -t q -n xatestqueue -u admin

Client Application Deployment Considerations

When you are ready to deploy your client application, you should make sure the administrator knows your application's needs. The following checklist shows the basic information required. Consult with your administrator to determine the exact information needed. In some cases, it might be useful to provide a range of values rather than a specific value. Refer to "Physical Destination Property Reference" in Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Administration Guide about attribute names and default values.

  • Configuring physical destinations:

    • Type:

    • Name:

    • Properties:

    • Maximum number of messages expected:

    • Maximum message bytes expected:

  • Configuring Dead Message Queue:

    • Place dead messages on Dead Message Queue:

    • Log the placement of messages on the Dead Message Queue:

    • Discard the body of messages placed on the Dead Message Queue: