This chapter summarizes the differences between the C API and the Java API to Message Queue and provides a quick start to compiling and running Message Queue C clients. It covers the following topics:
You should be familiar with the concepts presented in the Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Technical Overview before you read this chapter.
Depending on your needs, after you read this chapter, you can proceed either to Chapter 3, "Client Design Issues", which describes the major issues governing C client design, or to Chapter 2, "Using the C API", which explains how you use C data types and functions to obtain the messaging behavior that interests you.
The term "C developer" is used generically throughout this book and includes the C++ developer as well.
The Message Queue product is an enterprise messaging system that implements the Java Message Specification (JMS) standard as a JMS provider. Message Queue developers can use two programming interfaces to establish a connection to the broker, and send or receive messages:
C clients use the API described in this manual to send messages to and retrieve messages from a Message Queue broker.
Java clients use the Java API, described in the Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Technical Overview, to send messages to and receive messages from a Message Queue broker.
Message Queue provides a C API to its messaging services to enable legacy C applications and C++ applications to participate in JMS-based messaging. It is important to understand however that the Java Message Service specification is a standard for Java clients only; thus the C API described in this book is specific to the Message Queue provider and cannot be used with other JMS providers. A messaging application that includes a C client cannot be handled by another JMS provider.
The C interface, compared to the Java interface, does not support the following features:
The use of administered objects
Map, stream, or object message types
Consumer-based flow control
JMS application server facilities (ConnectionConsumer, distributed transactions)
Receiving or sending SOAP messages
Receiving or sending compressed JMS messages
Auto-reconnect or failover, which allows the client runtime to automatically reconnect to a broker if a connection fails
Like the Java interface, the C interface does support the following:
Publish/subscribe and point-to-point connections
Synchronous and asynchronous receives
DUPS_OK acknowledgement modes
Temporary topics and queues
The JMS programming model is the foundation for the design of a Message Queue C client. Using the C API explains how this model is implemented by the C data types and functions used by a Message Queue C client for delivery of messages.
The next section provides a quick introduction to building and running Message Queue clients.
Message Queue provides several sample Message Queue C-client applications that illustrate how to send and receive messages. Before you run these applications, read through the next two sections to make sure that you understand the general procedure and requirements for building and running Message Queue C-client programs.
This section explains how you build Message Queue programs from C source files. You should already be familiar with writing and compiling C applications.
The Message Queue C client includes the header files (
mqcrt.h), the C client runtime shared library
mqcrt, and its direct dependency libraries. When writing a Message Queue C client application, you should include the header files and link to the runtime library
The header files are located in
IMQ_HOME/include, and the 32-bit runtime library is located in
IMQ_HOME/lib. A 64-bit runtime library is available for the following platforms in the specified location:
Use the appropriate compiler for your platform, as described in the Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Release Notes.
When compiling a Message Queue C client application, you need to specify the pre-processor definition shown for each platform in Table 1-1. This definition is used to support Message Queue fixed-size integer types.
When building a Message Queue C client application, you should be aware that the Message Queue C runtime library is a multi-threaded library and requires C++ runtime library support:
On Solaris, this support is provided by the Oracle Solaris Studio
libCrun C++ runtime library.
On Linux, this support is provided by the
gcc/g++ libstdc++ runtime library.
On AIX, this support is provided by the C++ runtime library in the in the XLC/C++ Runtime Environment.
On Windows, this support is provided by Microsoft Windows Visual C++ runtime library
To run a Message Queue C-client application, you need to make sure that the application can find the
mqcrt shared library. Please consult the documentation for your compiler to determine the best way to do this.
You also need to make sure that the appropriate C++ runtime support library, as described in C++ Runtime Library Support is available.
On Windows you also need to make sure that your application can find the dependent libraries NSPR and NSS that are shipped with Message Queue. These may be different from the NSPR and NSS libraries that are installed on your system to support the Netscape browser and GlassFish Server. The
mqcrt shared library depends directly on the NSPR and NSS versions installed with Message Queue. If a different version of the libraries is loaded at runtime, you may get a runtime error specifying that the libraries being used are incompatible. If this happens, look on your system to see if other versions of the NSPR or NSS libraries exist; for example,
nss3.dll. If you find such versions, take appropriate action to make sure that Message Queue can access the versions it needs.
This section describes the sample C-Client programs that are installed with Message Queue and explains how you should build them and run them.
Message Queue provides two sets of sample C-client programs: basic C-client programs and distributed transaction programs.
The sample C-client program files include the following:
Illustrates how you send a message
Illustrates how you receive a message synchronously
Illustrates how you send a message and receive it asynchronously
Illustrates how you send and respond to a message that specifies a reply-to destination
These sample programs are located in
The following commands illustrate the process of building and linking the sample application
Producer.c on the Solaris, Linux, AIX, and Windows platforms. The commands include the pre-processor definitions needed to support Message Queue C-API fixed-size integer types. For options used to support multithreading, please consult documentation for your compiler.
Use the following command:
CC -compat=5 -mt -DSOLARIS -Iheader_path -o Producer \\ -Lruntime_path -lmqcrt Producer.c
where header_path and runtime_path are the paths to the Message Queue header file and runtime shared library appropriate to your processor architecture, as listed in Header Files and Shared Libraries.
For 64-bit support on either the SPARC or x86 processor architecture, you must also specify the
-xarch compiler option:
For example, to compile and link the example application Solaris SPARC 64–bit, you would use the following command:
CC -compat=5 -mt -xarch=v9 -DSOLARIS -I$IMQ_HOME/include -o Producer \\ -L$IMQ_HOME/lib/sparcv9 -lmqcrt Producer.c
Use the following command:
g++ -DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -I$IMQ_HOME/include -o Producer \\ -L$IMQ_HOME/lib -lmqcrt Producer.c
Use the following command:
xlC_r -qthreaded -DAIX -I$IMQ_HOME/include -o Producer \\ -blibsuff:so -l$IMQ_HOME/lib -imqcrt Producer.c
Use the following command:
cl /c /MD -DWIN32 -I%IMQ_HOME%\include Producer.c link Producer.obj /NODEFAULTLIB msvcrt.lib \\ /LIBPATH:%IMQ_HOME%\lib mqcrt.lib
Before you run any sample programs, you should start the broker. You can display output describing the command-line options for each program by starting the program with the -
For example, the following command, runs the program
Producer. It specifies that the program should connect to the broker running on the host
MyHost and port
8585, and that it should send a message to the destination
My Topic :
Producer -h MyHost -p 8585 -d MyTopic
The directories that contain the sample programs also include a
README file that explains how you should run their respective samples.
The distributed transaction sample programs show how to use the X/Open distributed transaction (XA) support of the Message Queue C-API with an X/Open distributed transaction processing system (in this case Oracle Tuxedo:
The distributed transaction sample programs include the following files:
Implements Tuxedo services that send and receive messages using the Message Queue C-API
Tuxedo client that uses the message producing service in
Tuxedo client that uses the message receiving service in
Implements a Tuxedo service that asynchronously consumes messages using the Message Queue C-API
Tuxedo client that uses the asynchronous message consuming service in
These sample programs are located in
The following procedures document how to set up Tuxedo as a distributed transaction manager, how to build the sample distributed transaction programs, and how to run the sample programs. The procedures are based on the synchronous message consumption samples and assume a Solaris operating system platform.
See Tuxedo documentation for instructions.
Set up the following environment variables:
Modify to include Message Queue C-API runtime library path and
Tuxedo install root
modify to include
Tuxedo transaction log filename path
Message Queue install root
Message Queue C-API runtime log file name
Set so that Message Queue C-API runtime log file name will be auto-appended with the Tuxedo server process id
Build the Tuxedo transaction monitor server (TMS).
Add the following entry to the
Build the TMS executable using
# buildtms -o $TUXDIR/bin/<exe-name> -r SUN_MQ
Configure the Tuxedo servers.
# tmloadcf config-file
where config-file is the Tuxedo UBBCONFIG file.
Build the server side of the sample application (jmsserver.c).
# cc -I$IMQ_HOME/include -I$TUXDIR/include -g -c jmsserver.c # buildserver -v -t -r SUN_MQ -s SENDMESSAGES,RECVMESSAGES -o jmsserver -f jmsserver.o -f -lmqcrt
Build the client side of the sample application (jmsclient_sender.c and jmsclient_receiver.c).
# cc -I$TUXDIR/include -c jmsclient_sender.c # buildclient -o jmsclient_sender -f jmsclient_sender.o # cc -I$TUXDIR/include -c jmsclient_receiver.c # buildclient -o jmsclient_receiver -f jmsclient_receiver.o
Start a Message Queue broker.
# imqbrokerd -tty
Start the Tuxedo servers.
Run the client-side applications.
# jmsclient_sender # jmsclient_receiver
Confirm the messages are produced to and consumed from the applicable destination.
# imqcmd list dst -u admin # imqcmd querry dst -t q -n xatestqueue -u admin
When you are ready to deploy your client application, you should make sure the administrator knows your application's needs. The following checklist shows the basic information required. Consult with your administrator to determine the exact information needed. In some cases, it might be useful to provide a range of values rather than a specific value. Refer to "Physical Destination Property Reference" in Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue Administration Guide about attribute names and default values.
Configuring physical destinations:
Maximum number of messages expected:
Maximum message bytes expected:
Configuring Dead Message Queue:
Place dead messages on Dead Message Queue:
Log the placement of messages on the Dead Message Queue:
Discard the body of messages placed on the Dead Message Queue: