Programming an Oracle Tuxedo Application Using COBOL

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Programming Environment

This topic includes the following sections:


Updating the UBBCONFIG Configuration File

The application administrator initially defines the configuration settings for an application in the UBBCONFIG configuration file. To customize your programming environment, you may need to create or update a configuration file.

If you need to create or update a configuration file, refer to the following guidelines:

Table 2-1 summarizes the UBBCONFIG configuration file parameters that affect the programming environment. Parameters are listed by functional category.

Table 2-1 Programming-related UBBCONFIG Parameters by Functional Category 
Functional Category
Global resource limits
Specifies the maximum number of servers in the configuration. When setting this value, you need to consider the MAX values for all servers.
Specifies the maximum total number of services in the configuration.
Data-dependent routing
List of types and subtypes of data records for which the specified routing entry is valid.
Link-level encryption
Sets the minimum encryption level that a process accepts.
Sets the maximum encryption level that a process accepts.
Load balancing
Flag for specifying whether or not load balancing is enabled. If enabled, the Oracle Tuxedo system attempts to balance requests across the network.
Numeric value that is added to the load factor of services that are remote from the invoking client, providing a bias for choosing a local server over a remote server. Load balancing must be enabled (that is, LDBAL must be set to Y).
Relative load factor associated with a service instance. The default is 50.
Specifies the name of an application authentication service that is invoked by the system for each client joining the system.
Specifies the type of application security to be enforced.
Conversational communication
Sets the maximum number of simultaneous conversations for a single machine. You can specify a value between 0 and 32,767. The default is 64 if any conversational servers are defined in the SERVERS section; otherwise, the default is 1. The specified value can be overriden for each machine in the MACHINES section.
Specifies whether or not conversational communication is supported. If this parameter is set to N or unspecified, a TPCONNECT call to a service fails.
Specifies the minimum and maximum number of occurrences of the server to be started by tm boot(1). If not specified, MIN defaults to 1 and MAX defaults to MIN. The same parameters are available for use with request/response servers. However, conversational servers are automatically spawned as needed. So if you set MIN=1 and MAX=10, for example, tmboot starts one server initially. When a TPCONNECT call is made to a service offered by that server, the system starts a second copy of a server. As each copy is called, a new one is spawned, up to a limit of 10.
Transaction management
Controls whether a service routine is placed in transaction mode. If you set this parameter to Y, a transaction in the service subroutine is automatically started whenever a request message is received from another process.
Multithreaded servers
Specifies the maximum number of concurrently dispatched threads that each server process may spawn.
Specifies the number of server dispatch threads started on initial server boot.

The configuration file is an operating system text file. To make it usable by the system, you must execute the tmloadcf(1) command to convert the file to a binary file.

See Also


Setting Environment Variables

Initially, the application administrator sets the variables that define the environment in which your application runs. These environment variables are set by assigning values to the ENVFILE parameter in the MACHINES section of the UBBCONFIG file. (Refer to Setting Up an Oracle Tuxedo Application for more information.)

For the client and server routines in your application, you can update existing environment variables or create new ones. Table 2-2 summarizes the most commonly used environment variables. The variables are listed by functional category.

Table 2-2 Programming-related Environment Variables
Environment Variable
Defines the . . .
Used by . . .
Location of the Oracle Tuxedo system binary files.
Oracle Tuxedo application programs.
Location of the Oracle Tuxedo configuration file.
Oracle Tuxedo application programs.
Command that invokes the COBOL compiler. Default is cobcc.
Specify cobcc85 to use the Fujitsu NetCOBOL compiler.
buildclient() -C and buildserver() -C commands.
Link edit flags to be passed to the COBOL compiler. Link edit flags are optional.
buildclient() -C and buildserver() -C commands.
Arguments that you may want to use on the compile command line.
COBOPT cannot be used with Fujitsu NetCOBOL compiler. Please refer to Fujitsu’s NetCOBOL manuals for COBOL environment variables.
buildclient() -C and buildserver() -C commands.
Directories that contain a set of the COBOL COPY files to be used by the compiler.
COBCPY cannot be used with Fujitsu NetCOBOL compiler. Please refer to Fujitsu’s NetCOBOL manuals for COBOL environment variables.
buildclient() -C and buildserver() -C commands.
Data compression
Level of compression between 1 and 9.
Oracle Tuxedo application programs that perform data compression.
Load balancing
Numeric value that is added to the load value for remote queues, making the remote queues appear to have more work than they actually do. As a result, even if load balancing is enabled, local requests are sent to local queues more often than to remote queues.
Oracle Tuxedo application programs that perform load balancing.
Record management
Comma-separated list of field table filenames for FML and FML32 typed records, respectively. Required only for FML VIEW types.
FML and FML32 record types and FML VIEWs.
Colon-separated list of directories to be searched for the field table files for FML and FML32, respectively. For Windows 2003, a semicolon-separated list is used.
FML and FML32 record types and FML VIEWs.
Comma-separated list of allowable filenames for VIEW and VIEW32 typed records, respectively.
VIEW and VIEW32 record types.
Colon-separated list of directories to be searched for VIEW and VIEW32 files, respectively. For Windows 2003, a semicolon-separated list is used.
VIEW and VIEW32 record types.

1On a Windows system, the ALTCC and ALTCFLAGS environment variables are not applicable and setting them will produce unexpected results. You must compile your application first using a COBOL compiler and then pass the resulting object file to the buildclient or buildserver command.

If operating in a UNIX environment, add $TUXDIR/bin to your environment PATH to ensure that your application can locate the executables for the Oracle Tuxedo system commands. For more information on setting up the environment, refer to Setting Up an Oracle Tuxedo Application.

See Also


Defining Equivalent Data Types

Table 2-3 lists the C data types for which equivalent COBOL data types are available.

Table 2-3 COBOL Equivalents for C Data Types
C Data Type
Equivalent COBOL Data Type
S9(9) COMP-51
S9(4) COMP-51
COBOL COMP-3 packed decimal field

1COMP-5, provided for use with MicroFocus COBOL, allows the COBOL integer fields to match the data format of the corresponding C fields. The data type for VS COBOL II is COMP.

For storage efficiency, COBOL supports packed decimals: two decimal digits packed into each byte with the low-order half byte used to store the sign. The length of a packed decimal may be 1 to 9 bytes with storage available for 1 to 17 digits, including the sign.

The dec_t field is defined in a VIEW. The size is specified as two values separated by a comma. The first value indicates the total number of bytes occupied by the decimal in COBOL. The second value indicates the number of digits to the right of the decimal point in COBOL. You can use the following formula to convert the dec_t field to a COBOL declaration:

dec_t(m, n) => S9(2*m-(n+1),n)COMP-3

For example, a size specification of 6,4 in the VIEW indicates that there are 4 digits to the right of the decimal point and 7 digits to the left, and the last half byte is used to store the sign. A COBOL application programmer represents this as 9(7)V9(4), where the V represents the decimal point between each value. Note that FML does not support the dec_t type; if FML-dependent VIEWs are used, then each field must be mapped to a C type in the VIEW file. For instance, a packed decimal can be mapped to an FML string field, and then the mapping functions can be used to do the conversion between formats.


Starting and Stopping the Application

To start the application, execute the tmboot(1) command. The command gets the IPC resources required by the application, and starts administrative processes and application servers.

To stop the application, execute the tmshutdown(1) command. The command stops the servers and releases the IPC resources used by the application, except any that might be used by the resource manager, such as a database.

See Also

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