The following sections define an SNMP-compliant MIB and introduce the SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0:
Each management station or agent in an SNMP-managed network maintains a local database of information relevant to network management, known as the management information base (MIB). The relationship between the management station, the agent, and the MIB is shown in Figure 1-1.
An SNMP-compliant MIB contains definitions and information about the properties of managed resources and the services that the agents support. The manageable features of resources, as defined in an SNMP-compliant MIB, are called managed objects or management variables (or just objects or variables).
A management station gets and sets objects in the MIB, and an agent notifies the management station of significant but unsolicited events called traps. All message exchanges between the management station and its agents take place using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
The MIB at the management station contains network management information extracted from the MIBs of all the managed entities in the network.
The structure of management information (SMI), an SNMP standard described in the NWG RFC 1155, defines the structure of the MIB information and the allowable data types. The SMI identifies how resources within the MIB are represented and named. The philosophy behind SMI is to encourage simplicity and extensibility within the MIB.
The SNMP specification includes a template, known as an Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) OBJECT TYPE macro, which provides the formal model for defining objects and tables of objects in the MIB. The following keywords are used to define a MIB object:
Each object in the MIB has an object identifier (OID), which the management station uses to request the object’s value from the agent. An OID is a sequence of integers that uniquely identifies a managed object by defining a path to that object through a tree-like structure called the OID tree or registration tree. When an SNMP agent needs to access a specific managed object, it traverses the OID tree to find the object. The MIB object identifier hierarchy and format is shown in Figure 1-2.
In this hierarchy, each Oracle private MIB object that the Oracle SNMP Agent software manages has a unique object identifier. A prefix of
.220.127.116.11.4.1.140 points to the objects in the Oracle private MIB for the Oracle SNMP Agent software.
Absolute OIDs specify a path to an attribute from the root of the OID tree. Absolute OID names always begin with a dot and must specify every node of the OID tree from the top-most node to the specific managed object. For example:
Relative OIDs specify a path to the attribute relative to some node in the OID tree. For example,
18.104.22.168 specifies the sysDescr object in the
system group, relative to the Internet node in the OID tree.
In addition to using the “dot-dot” notation, a series of integers separated by dots to describe OIDs, you can also express OIDs by using textual symbols instead of numbers to represent nodes in the path to the object, or by using a combination of both integers and textual symbols. A symbolic OID uses mnemonic keywords to specify the managed object. For example:
The following numeric OID uses integers to specify the same managed object:
Note that 22.214.171.124 in this example is a relative OID.
An OID can combine both symbolic and numeric representations of individual nodes of the OID tree; for example:
The SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 is essentially an SNMP version of the Tuxedo management information base (TMIB) for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0. The TMIB is the standard MIB for administering the components of an Oracle Tuxedo or Oracle WebLogic Enterprise application. For more information about the TMIB, see Understanding the Differences Between the SNMP MIB and the TMIB.
The SNMP MIB defines the data types and access permissions for the various managed objects that can be accessed through the Oracle SNMP Agent software. It also defines the event notifications that can be generated by the Oracle SNMP Agent software. As required by the SNMP standard, the SNMP MIB definitions are written in concise MIB format in accordance with RFC 1212.
Oracle SNMP Agent provides a file named
bea.asn1 for defining the SNMP MIB. For an Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 installation, the
bea.asn1 file resides in the
/udataobj/snmp/etc directory, where
tux_prod_dir represents the directory in which the Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 distribution is installed.
bea.asn1 file for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 makes the features of the following components recognizable and thus manageable within an SNMP network management framework:
You can use Oracle SNMP Agent and the SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 to manage Tuxedo 9.1, 9.0, 8.1, 8.0, 7.1, and 6.5 applications. You cannot use Oracle SNMP Agent and the SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 to manage WebLogic Enterprise 5.1 or earlier applications.
The SNMP MIB defined by the
bea.asn1 file for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 refers to the entire database of management information at the management station or agent. The SNMP MIB, itself, consists of distinct component MIBs, each of which refers to a specific defined collection of management information that is part of the overall SNMP MIB. The management station uses the component MIBs to administer the particular components of the Oracle Tuxedo system, to administer the agents themselves, and to collect information about the managed resources.
The SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 consists of the following component MIBs:
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for controlling the operation and configuration of a Tuxedo application. This MIB contains the main information groups for Tuxedo applications, including domains, machines, queues, servers, routing, clients, and services. For a detailed description, see Core MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for describing the interaction between Tuxedo domains (Tuxedo business applications). For a detailed description, see Domains MIB.
beaDomainList)—Contains the MIB objects for identifying and describing all Tuxedo domains currently being monitored on a particular managed node (machine). For a detailed description, see Oracle Domain List MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for managing Tuxedo 8.0 or later CORBA features. For a detailed description, see CORBA Interface MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for setting and controlling the security options for the Tuxedo application. For a detailed description, see Access Control List MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for specifying information about Tuxedo client workstations including workstation listeners and handlers. For a detailed description, see Workstation MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for managing access to Tuxedo application queues. The groups include objects for managing queue spaces, queues, messages, and transactions. For a detailed description, see Application Queue MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for describing current event subscriptions, defining new subscriptions, or invalidating subscriptions. For a detailed description, see EventBroker MIB.
tuxedo)—Contains the MIB objects for specifying the trap notifications generated by the SNMP agent for Oracle SNMP Agent, and for specifying the objects passed in the variable bindings for the traps. For a detailed description, see Traps MIB.
beaSystem)—Contains the MIB objects for passing the trap notifications generated by the Oracle SNMP Agent Integrator polling rules. As an example, a rule-action might specify that when the value of the polled object at OID
.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.0is greater than 20, send a trap with a specific trap ID of 200; when the object’s value becomes less than 20, send a trap with a specific Trap ID of 300. For a description of the Oracle SNMP Agent Integrator polling feature, see in the Oracle Tuxedo SNMP Agent Administration Guide.
beaIntAgt)—Contains the MIB objects for creating user-defined traps that are generated by the Oracle SNMP Agent Integrator according to user-defined polling rules. You can configure the Oracle SNMP Agent Integrator running on the managed node to perform local polling and generate SNMP trap notifications, or execute a system command when certain conditions are met. Individual rules, stored as MIB objects, can be activated and deactivated by the management station. For a description of polling rules, see in the Oracle Tuxedo SNMP Agent Administration Guide.
With the exception of Oracle Domain List, Traps, Oracle System, and Oracle Agent Integrator, the SNMP MIB component MIBs correspond to the TMIB component MIBs. For more information about the TMIB, see Understanding the Differences Between the SNMP MIB and the TMIB.
The object names within the SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 are prefixed with the letters
tux. For example, the Core MIB contains a group named
tuxTmachineTable, and the following objects are included within the
The SNMP MIB definitions are written in concise MIB format in accordance with RFC 1212. Thus, the SNMP MIB stores only simple data types: scalars and two-dimensional arrays of scalars, called tables. Keywords SYNTAX, ACCESS, and DESCRIPTION as well as other keywords such as STATUS and INDEX are used to define the SNMP MIB managed objects.
To monitor or modify values of managed objects through your management station, you need to know which MIB objects represent the features of the Oracle Tuxedo resources that are relevant to your management goals. You also need to know the data types, default values, and access permissions for these MIB objects.
For table objects, keep the following tips in mind:
tuxTmachineTable) contains information on the columnar values that are minimally necessary for creation of a row—how a new row is created, whether the values pertain only to the local machine, and other pertinent information about the table objects.
bea.asn1 file defines a full range of Oracle Tuxedo system and application events in accordance with RFC 1215, Trap definitions. These system and application events are transmitted as enterprise-specific traps to the management station. For a list of these traps, see Traps MIB.
The following keywords are used to define a trap:
.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.110. This value is passed in the
enterprisefield of the trap packet (Protocol Data Unit—PDU).
The management station uses the
bea.asn1 file to set up the SNMP MIB for Oracle SNMP Agent on the management station. The
bea.asn1 file must be imported into the management database of the management station, as described in in Oracle Tuxedo SNMP Agent Administration Guide.
The SNMP agent for Oracle SNMP Agent uses a file named
mib.txt to set up its local SNMP MIB on the managed node (machine). The
mib.txt file, similar to the
bea.asn1 file, provides a textual description of the content of the SNMP MIB. By default, the
mib.txt file resides in the
/udataobj/snmp/etc directory, where
tux_prod_dir represents the directory in which the Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 distribution is installed. For more information about using the
mib.txt file to create the local SNMP MIB on a managed node, see in Oracle SNMP Tuxedo Agent Administration Guide.
The SNMP agent communicates with the TMIB of the managed Oracle Tuxedo application to get the object values that initially populate the local SNMP MIB. As the management station gets and sets object values in the local SNMP MIB through the SNMP agent, the SNMP agent issues Tuxedo commands to read and write the comparable object values in the local TMIB.
The local SNMP MIB is not persistent, meaning that the SNMP MIB is not written to disk. When the SNMP agent process terminates, its SNMP MIB also terminates.
If you attempt to retrieve the value for an SNMP MIB object that does not exist, either no value is returned, or one of the following values is returned:
For example, if an Oracle Tuxedo 8.0 or later application is not installed on the managed node, the CORBA-specific objects included in the SNMP MIB for Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 do not return values when queried.
Some objects in the SNMP MIB can be set (updated) only under certain states of the Oracle Tuxedo system. If you get an error while trying to set read-write objects in this MIB, examine the Tuxedo
ULOG file for more information about the error.
The Tuxedo system creates a new
ULOG file each day on each machine in a Tuxedo domain. For a description of the
ULOG file, see reference page userlog(3c).
The primary difference between the SNMP MIB for Oracle SNMP Agent and the Tuxedo MIB (TMIB) is the use of terms. In addition, the SNMP MIB contains a few additional component MIBs.
The TMIB for an Oracle Tuxedo system consists of distinct component MIBs, each used to administer a particular component of the Tuxedo system. These component MIBs are defined in individual reference pages each addressing the MIB for a particular part of the system. For example, reference page TM_MIB(5) in Oracle Tuxedo File Formats, Data Descriptions, MIBs, and System Processes Referencedefines the MIB used to administer the fundamental aspects of an Oracle Tuxedo 10.0 application. TM_MIB is comparable to the SNMP Core MIB.
Instead of referring to groups and managed objects, as is common in SNMP terminology, the TMIB defines application resources as classes and attributes. Classes are the administrative class definitions that make up the TMIB. Each class has a set of attributes that identifies individual items in the class. Examples of TMIB classes are:
Attributes for these classes are identified by the prefix
TA_ followed by the attribute name. A few examples for the
T_MACHINE class are:
For more information about the TMIB, refer to Oracle Tuxedo File Formats, Data Descriptions, MIBs, and System Processes Reference.