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Oracle® Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Privileged Account Manager
11g Release 2 (11.1.2)

Part Number E27152-02
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6 Managing Oracle Privileged Account Manager Auditing and Logging

This chapter describes how to configure and use Oracle Privileged Account Manager's auditing and logging functionality.

The topics in this chapter include:

6.1 Understanding Oracle Privileged Account Manager Auditing

Oracle Privileged Account Manager audits all security events that occur under its purview, which gives you better visibility into how privileged accounts are used within your organization and enables you to effectively manage sensitive information.

Specifically, the Oracle Privileged Account Manager audit logger logs any events that modify entity states; such as when you add, modify, or remove new accounts, targets, or policies.

The following table describes all of the event categories and event types for which an audit can be generated:

Table 6-1 Audited OPAM Events

Event Category Event Types Description

Account Management

 

Events related to managing principal accounts

Note: A principal can be an end-user or a pseudo-user (a service within the system).

 

Add Account

Adding users, groups, or any other principal accounts

 

Change Password

Changes to user passwords

 

Disable Account

Disabling users, groups, or any other principal accounts

 

Enable Account

Enabling users, groups, or any other principal accounts

 

Modify Account

Modifying account attributes

 

Query Account

Queries to a user's account

 

Remove Account

Removing users, groups, or any other principal accounts

Policy Management

 

Events related to managing policies

 

Create Policy

Creating policies

 

Delete Policy

Deleting policies

 

Modify Policy

Modifying policies

 

Query Policy

Querying policies

Target Management

 

Events related to managing targets

 

Add Target

Adding targets

 

Modify Target

Modifying targets

 

Query Target

Querying targets

 

Remove Target

Removing targets


Logging these audit events creates a processing history that allows reporting tools to gather statistics, as described in Section 6.1.2, "Understanding Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit Reports."

6.1.1 Configuring Auditing in Oracle Privileged Account Manager

You can configure Oracle Privileged Account Manager to save audit events into a database or a file. When a database is not available, Oracle Privileged Account Manager saves its audit logs into this file,

DOMAIN_HOME/servers/<opamserver>/logs/auditlogs/opam#11.1.2.0.0

You can also configure Oracle Privileged Account Manager to deploy audit reports in BI Publisher (version 11.1.1.5.0 or higher), and you can use BI Publisher to view audit events in the database.

The following topics provide instructions for configuring auditing in Oracle Privileged Account Manager:

6.1.1.1 Configuring File-Based Auditing in Oracle Privileged Account Manager

Use the following steps to configure Oracle Privileged Account Manager:

Note:

These instructions assume you have already installed a WebLogic server.

  1. Open a command window and change directory (cd) to

    DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig/
    
  2. Edit the jps-config.xml file by changing the audit.filterPreset parameter from None to All, Medium, or Low depending on the type of events to be audited.

    Note:

    See Section 6.1.1.4, "Setting the Audit Logging Levels" for more information.

    For example,

    <serviceInstance location="./audit-store.xml" provider="audit.provider" name="audit.db">
    <property name="audit.filterPreset" value="All"/>
    <property name="audit.maxDirSize" value="0"/>
    <property name="audit.maxFileSize" value="104857600"/>
    <property name="audit.loader.jndi" value="jdbc/AuditDB"/>
    <property name="audit.loader.interval" value="15"/>
    <property name="audit.loader.repositoryType" value="File"/>
    <property name="auditstore.type" value="file"/> </serviceInstance>
    
  3. Restart the Oracle Privileged Account Manager server.

    After the server restarts, audit logs will start appearing in this location:

    DOMAIN_HOME/servers/<opamserver>/logs/auditlogs/opam#11.1.2.0.0
    

6.1.1.2 Configuring Database-Based Auditing in Oracle Privileged Account Manager

This section describes how to configure database-based auditing in Oracle Privileged Account Manager.

Prerequisites

If you want to generate audit reports from a database and BI Publisher, then you must install

To configure database-based auditing:

  1. Download the Repository Creation Utility .zip file from Oracle Technology Network (OTN):

    http://www.oracle.com/technology/

  2. Run./rcu to load the audit schema into the database.

    By default, this step creates the dev_iau user in the database and loads tables under this user.

  3. Log in to the WebLogic Server Administrative Console to configure WebLogic.

    http://adminserver_host:adminserver_port/console

  4. Navigate to Services > Data Sources.

    Click New to create a new data source.

  5. Enter the following information to create a JDBC data source.

    1. Type jdbc/AuditDB in the Name field.

    2. Leave the JNDI Name field blank.

    3. Select Oracle's Driver (Thin) for instance connections that are Versions 9.0.1 and later.

    4. Leave Transaction Options set to the default setting.

    5. Specify the DB name, host, and listener port.

    6. Specify the Audit DB user (for example, dev_iau) and apply it to both the Admin and Managed servers.

    7. Test the connection and apply it to both the Admin and Managed Servers.

    Note:

    Refer to "Create JDBC Data Sources" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console Online Help for more information about creating a JDBC data source and deploying it on a server.

  6. Edit the jps-config.xml file, located in
    DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig/jps-config.xml, as follows:

    1. Change the <property value="File" name="audit.loader.repositoryType"/> parameter to <property value="Db" name="audit.loader.repositoryType"/>.

    2. Change the audit.filterPreset parameter from None to All, Medium, or Low depending on the type of events to be audited.

      Note:

      See Section 6.1.1.4, "Setting the Audit Logging Levels" for more information.

      For example,

      <serviceInstance location="./audit-store.xml" provider="audit.provider" name="audit">
      <property name="audit.filterPreset" value="All"/>
      <property name="audit.maxDirSize" value="0"/>
      <property name="audit.maxFileSize" value="104857600"/>
      <property name="audit.loader.jndi" value="jdbc/AuditDB"/>
      <property name="audit.loader.interval" value="15"/>
      <property name="audit.loader.repositoryType" value="Db"/>
      <property name="auditstore.type" value="file"/> </serviceInstance>
      
  7. Restart the Oracle Privileged Account Manager server.

6.1.1.3 Deploying Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit Reports in BI Publisher

This section describes how to deploy Oracle Privileged Account Manager audit reports in BI Publisher, a component used to manage and deliver reports.

Use the following steps:

  1. Install and configure Oracle Business Intelligence Publisher (BI Publisher) version 11.1.1.5.0 or higher if it is not already installed.

    Refer to "Configuring Oracle Business Intelligence Publisher" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Identity Navigator for instructions.

  2. After installing BI Publisher, locate the following directory in the WebLogic domain:

    Note:

    BI Publisher can be deployed on the same host or in a different domain.

    BI_DOMAIN_HOME/config/bupublisher/repository/Reports
    
  3. Locate the opam_product_BIP11gReports_11_1_1_6_0.zip file in the following directory:

    ORACLE_HOME/opam/reports
    

    Unzip this file into the Reports folder noted in step 2.

  4. To set up the catalog and configure data sources, open a browser window and enter the URL for BI Publisher.

    The format for this URL is

    http://hostname: port/xmlpserver/

    For example

    http:/localhost:7001/xmlpserver/

  5. When the BI Publisher login page displays, log in as a user with WebLogic privileges and click Sign In.

  6. Set up the catalog as follows:

    1. Select Administration > System Maintenance > Server Configuration.

    2. Open the Catalog dialog, select the BI Publisher - File System from the Catalog Type menu, and enter the following path in the Path field:

      BI_DOMAIN_HOME/config/bupublisher/repository/Reports
      
    3. Log in as an administrator.

    4. Click Catalog to open the Shared Folder/ Oracle Privileged Account Manager folder.

      Note:

      If this folder does not display, restart the application from the WebLogic console.

  7. One JDBC (Oracle Privileged Account Manager JDBC) connection is required for Oracle Privileged Account Manager reports. Use the following steps to define an Oracle Privileged Account Manager JDBC connection and define the data sources:

    1. Click the Administration link found on the right side of the BI Publisher page.

      The BI Publisher Administration page displays. (Note the Data Sources section on this page.)

    2. Click the JDBC Connection link found in the Data Sources section.

    3. When the Data Sources page displays, click Add Data Source in the JDBC section to create a JDBC connection to your database.

    4. On the Add Data Source page, enter the following information:

      Data Source Name

      Oracle Privileged Account Manager JDBC

      Driver Type

      Select a driver type to suit your database (for example, Oracle 10g or Oracle 11g).

      Database Driver Class

      oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver (Define a driver class to suit your database.)

      Connection String

      Provide the database connection details.
      For example, hostname:port:sid.

      User name

      Provide the Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit DB user name.

      Password

      Provide the Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit DB user password.


      If the connection to the database is established, a confirmation message is displayed indicating the success.

    5. Click Apply.

      You should see this newly defined connection (Oracle Privileged Account Manager JDBC) in the list of JDBC Data Sources.

    6. Navigate to Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit Reports.

      The Catalog page is displayed as a tree structure on the left side of the page with details on the right.

    7. Expand Shared Folders and select the Oracle Privileged Account Manager folder to view all of the objects in that folder.

  8. Use Oracle Identity Navigator to configure a connection to the BI Publisher server.

    Refer to "Creating a Connection to BI Publisher" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide for Oracle Identity Navigator for the necessary instructions.

When you configure the connection successfully, the My Reports section of the Oracle Identity Navigator Dashboard page will contain the link, Click here to create reports. In addition, users with the Security Auditor role can now perform the following tasks:

  • View Oracle Identity Management BI Publisher reports and audit reports

    Note:

    Oracle Privileged Account Manager provides a set of out-of-the box audit reports that are integrated with BI Publisher 11g and the Oracle Fusion Middleware Audit Framework. Oracle Privileged Account Manager generates these reports based on audit events logged in the audit store. Refer to Section 6.1, "Understanding Oracle Privileged Account Manager Auditing" for more information.

  • Select and add reports to the My Reports list

  • View and run any reports for which you have access privileges

You can now navigate in BI Publisher and use the Oracle Privileged Account Manager 11g BI reports.

6.1.1.4 Setting the Audit Logging Levels

To change the amount of audit logging provided by Oracle Privileged Account Manager, use the following steps:

  1. Open a command window and change directory (cd) to

    DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig/
    
  2. Locate the jps-config.xml file.

  3. Change the audit.filterPreset parameter from None to one of the following settings:

    • All: Logs all event types.

    • Medium: Logs all event types in the PolicyManagement and TargetManagement categories, and the following event types in the AccountManagement category:

      • ChangePassword

      • CheckinAccount

      • CreateAccount

      • DeleteAccount

      • DisableAccount

      • EnableAccount

      • ModifyAccount

      • QueryAccount

    • Low: Logs the following event types

      • In the AccountManagement category: ChangePassword, CheckinAccount, CreateAccount, DeleteAccount, DisableAccount, EnableAccount, and ModifyAccount

      • In the PolicyManagement category: CreatePolicy, DeletePolicy, and ModifyPolicy

    • In the TargetManagement category: CreateTarget, DeleteTarget, and ModifyTarget

    For example,

    <serviceInstance location="./audit-store.xml" provider="audit.provider" name="audit">
    <property value="All" name="audit.filterPreset"/>
    <property value="0" name="audit.maxDirSize"/>
    <property value="104857600" name="audit.maxFileSize"/>
    <property value="jdbc/AuditDB" name="audit.loader.jndi"/>
    <property value="15" name="audit.loader.interval"/>
    <property value="File" name="audit.loader.repositoryType"/>
    <property value="file" name="auditstore.type"/> </serviceInstance>
    
  4. Restart the Oracle Privileged Account Manager server.

    After the server restarts, audit logs will start appearing in the following location:

    DOMAIN_HOME/servers/<opamserver>/logs/auditlogs/opam#11.1.2.0.0
    

6.1.2 Understanding Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit Reports

Oracle Privileged Account Manager supplies a set of default audit reports that are integrated with BI Publisher 11g and the Oracle Fusion Middleware Audit Framework. Oracle Privileged Account Manager generates these reports based on the audit events logged in the audit store.

The default audit report types include:

  • Error and Exception reports, such as authentication and authorization failures

  • User Activities reports, including account check-out and check-in history

  • Operational reports, including grantee assignments and any targets, accounts, and policies that have been added, edited, or removed

  • All Events reports, including all audit events that have been logged in the audit store

Oracle Privileged Account Manager audit reports can show who checked out an account and on which system it was checked out, justifications, requests for a system that is already checked out, and requests for a system to which a user does not have privileges.

For example, the following figure shows a typical Oracle Privileged Account Manager audit report as viewed in BI Publisher.

Note:

You can view Oracle Privileged Account Manager audit reports in BI Publisher.

Figure 6-1 Example Oracle Privileged Account Manager Audit Report

Figure showing example audit report

Notice that this report provides the following information:

  • Category: Event category

  • Event: Type of event that occurred

  • User ID: User that initiated the event

  • Status: Event results, where 1 is success and 0 is a failure

  • Target: Target on which the event occurred

  • Resource ID: Resource identifier

  • Time: Date and time the event occurred

6.2 Understanding Oracle Privileged Account Manager Logging

The Oracle Privileged Account Manager generic logger takes care of all logs not recorded by the audit logger, which includes debugging statements and exception messages. Processing tools can use these logs to diagnose problems that occur within the Oracle Privileged Account Manager server.

Oracle Privileged Account Manager-related log files are stored in the following locations:

DOMAIN_HOME/servers/adminserver/logs
DOMAIN_HOME/servers/opamserver/logs

6.2.1 Configuring Basic Logging

To change the out-of-the-box logging for Oracle Privileged Account Manager,

  1. Manually edit the opam-logging.xml file, which is located in the following directory:

    DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig/opam
    
  2. Restart the OPAM server (usually the Managed Server).

Note:

For more information about implementing logging functionality and setting log levels, refer to "Logging Custom WLST Commands" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware WebLogic Scripting Tool Command Reference and "Managing Log Files and Diagnostic Data" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Administrator's Guide.

6.2.2 Example Logging Data

This figure shows some example logging data as viewed from the WebLogic console.

Figure 6-2 Example Logging Report

Figure showing example logging report

Notice that this report provides the following information:

  • Date and timestamp when the event occurred

  • Subsystem on which the event occurred

  • Message severity

  • Message ID

  • Message describing the operation that was performed