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Sun ZFS Storage 7000 System Administration Guide
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Document Information

Preface

1.  Introduction

2.  Status

3.  Configuration

4.  Services

5.  Shares

Shares

Introduction

Concepts

Storage Pools

Projects

Shares

Properties

Snapshots

Clones

Shadow Migration

Shadow Data Migration

Traditional Data Migration

Migration via synchronization

Migration via external interposition

Shadow Migration

Shadow migration behavior

Restrictions on shadow source

Shadow filesystem semantics during migration

Identity and ACL migration

Shadow Migration Management

Creating a shadow filesystem

Managing background migration

Handling errors

Monitoring progress

Canceling migration

Snapshots of shadow filesystems

Backing up shadow filesystems

Replicating shadow filesystems

Shadow migration analytics

Shadow migration requests

Shadow migration bytes

Shadow migration operations

Migration of local filesystems

Tasks

Testing potential shadow migration

Migrating data from an active NFS server

Space Management

Introduction

Terms

Space Management Terms

Physical Data

Logical Data

Referenced Data

Snapshot Data

Quota

Reservation

Understanding snapshots

Filesystem and project settings

Data quotas

Data reservations

User and group settings

Viewing current usage

BUI

CLI

User or group quotas

BUI

CLI

Identity management

Filesystem Namespace

Filesystem namespace

Nested mountpoints

Protocol access to mountpoints

NFSv2 / NFSv3

NFSv4

SMB

FTP / FTPS / SFTP

HTTP / HTTPS

Shares

BUI

List of Shares

Editing a Share

Usage Statistics

Available space

Referenced data

Snapshot data

Unused Reservation

Total space

Static Properties

Compression ratio

Case sensitivity

Reject non UTF-8

Normalization

Volume block size

Origin

Data Migration Source

Project Panel

Creating Shares

CLI

Navigation

Share Operations

Properties

General

General Share Properties

Space Usage

Volume size

Thin provisioned

Properties

Mountpoint

Read only

Update access time on read

Non-blocking mandatory locking

Data deduplication

Data compression

Checksum

Cache device usage

Synchronous write bias

Database record size

Additional replication

Virus scan

Prevent destruction

Restrict ownership change

Custom Properties

Protocols

Shares Protocols

NFS

CLI Considerations

Security Modes

Character set encodings

SMB

SCSI

HTTP

FTP

SFTP

Access

Access Control

Root Directory Access

User

Group

Permissions

ACL Behavior

ACL behavior on mode change

ACL inheritance behavior

Root Directory ACL

Snapshots

Introduction

Snapshot Properties

.zfs/snapshot visible

BUI

Listing Snapshots

Taking Snapshots

Renaming a Snapshot

Destroying a Snapshot

Rolling back to a Snapshot

Cloning a Snapshot

Scheduled Snapshots

CLI

Listing Snapshots

Taking Snapshots

Renaming a Snapshot

Destroying a Snapshot

Rolling back to a Snapshot

Cloning a Snapshot

Scheduled Snapshots

Projects

BUI

List of Projects

Editing a Project

Usage Statistics

Available space

Referenced data

Snapshot data

Unused Reservation

Unused Reservation of shares

Total space

Static Properties

Compression ratio

Creating Projects

CLI

Navigation

Project Operations

Selecting a pool in a cluster

Properties

General

General Project Properties

Space Usage

Quota

Reservation

Inherited Properties

Custom Properties

Filesystem Creation Defaults

LUN Creation Defaults

Protocols

Project Protocols

NFS

SMB

iSCSI

HTTP

FTP

Access

Access Control

Inherited ACL Behavior

Snapshots

Introduction

Snapshot Properites

.zfs/snapshot visible

BUI

CLI

Replication

Remote Replication Introduction

Concepts

Terminology

Targets

Actions and Packages

Storage Pools

Project-level vs Share-level Replication

Configuring Replication

Creating and Editing Targets

Creating and Editing Actions

Modes: Manual, Scheduled, or Continuous

Including Intermediate Snapshots

Sending and Canceling Updates

Managing Replication Packages

BUI

CLI

Canceling Replication Updates

Disabling a Package

Cloning a Package or Individual Shares

Exporting Replicated Filesystems

Severing Replication

Reversing the Direction of Replication

Destroying a Replication Package

Examples

Reversing Replication

Remote Replication Details

Authorizations

Alerts

Replication and Clustering

Snapshots and Data Consistency

Snapshot Management

Replicating iSCSI Configuration

Replicating Clones

Observing Replication

Replication Failures

Upgrading From 2009.Q3 and Earlier

Schema

Customized Share Properties

BUI

CLI

Tasks

Create a property to track contact info

6.  Analytics

7.  Integration

Glossary

Snapshots

Introduction

Snapshots are read only copies of a filesystem at a given point of time. For more information on snapshots and how they work, see the concepts page.

Snapshot Properties

.zfs/snapshot visible

Filesystem snapshots can be accessed over data protocols at .zfs/snapshot in the root of the filesystem. This directory contains

a list of all snapshots on the filesystem, and they can be accessed just like normal filesystem data (in read only mode). By default, the '.zfs' directory is not visible when listing directory contents, but can be accessed by explicitly looking it up. This prevents backup software from inadvertently backing up snapshots in addition to new data.

BUI Value
CLI Value
Description
Hidden
hidden
The .zfs directory is not visible when listing directory contents in the root of the filesystem. This is default.
Visible
visible
This .zfs directory appears like any other directory in the filesystem.

BUI

Listing Snapshots

Under the "snapshots" tab is the list of active snapshots of the share. This list is divided into two tabs: the "Snapshots" tab is used for browsing and managing snapshots. The "Schedules" tab manages automatic snapshot schedules. Within the "Snapshots" tab, you can select between viewing all snapshots, only manual snapshots, or only scheduled snapshots. For each snapshot, the following fields are shown:

Field
Description
Name
The name of the snapshot. For manual snapshots, this is the name provided when the snapshot was created. Manual snapshots can be renamed by clicking on the name and entering a new value. For automatic snapshots, this is a name of the form ".auto-<timestamp>", and these snapshots cannot be renamed. Other forms of automatic snapshots may be created beginning with ".rr" or ".ndmp". These snapshots are used internally for remote replication and NDMP backup, and will be removed once the system determines they are no longer needed.
Creation
The date and time when the snapshot was created.
Unique
The amount of unique space used by the snapshot. Snapshots begin initially referencing all the same blocks as the filesystem or LUN itself. As the active filesystem diverges, blocks that have been changed in the active share may remain held by one or more snapshots. When a block is part of multiple snapshots, it will be accounted in the share snapshot usage, but will not appear in the unique space of any particular snapshot. The unique space is blocks that are only held by a particular snapshot, and represents the amount of space that would be freed if the snapshot were to be destroyed.
Total
The total amount of space referenced by the snapshot. This represents the size of the filesystem at the time the snapshot was taken, and any snapshot can theoretically take up an amount of space equal to the total size as data blocks are rewritten.
Clones
Show the number of clones of the snapshot. When the mouse is over a snapshot row with a non-zero number of clones, a "Show..." link will appear. Clicking this link will bring up a dialog box that displays the complete list of all clones.

Taking Snapshots

To create a manual snapshot, click the image:Add item icon when the "Snapshots" tab is selected and the list of snapshots is shown. A dialog box will prompt for the snapshot name. Hitting the "apply" button will create the snapshot. There is no limit on the number of snapshots that can be taken, but each snapshot will consume some amount of resources (namely memory), so creating large numbers of snapshots can slow down the system, eventually grinding to a halt. The practical limit on the number of snapshots system-wide depends on the system configuration, but should be on the order of a hundred thousand or more.

Renaming a Snapshot

To rename a snapshot, click the name within the list of active snapshots. This will change to a text input box. After updating the name within the text input, hitting return or changing focus will commit the changes.

Destroying a Snapshot

To destroy a snapshot, click the image:Destroy icon when over the row for the target snapshot. Destroying a snapshot will require destroying any clones and their descendents. If this is the case, you will be prompted with a list of the clones that will be affected.

Rolling back to a Snapshot

In addition to accessing the data in a filesystem snapshot directory, snapshots can also be used to roll back to a previous instance of the filesystem or LUN. This requires destroying any newer snapshots and their clones, and reverts the share contents to what they were at the time the snapshot was taken. It does not affect any property settings on the share, though changes to filesystem root directory access will be lost, as that is part of the filesystem data.

To rollback a filesystem, click the image:Rollback icon for the destination snapshot. A confirmation dialog will appear, and if there are any clones of the snapshot, any newer snapshots, or their descendents, they will be displayed, indicating that they will be destroyed as part of this process.

Cloning a Snapshot

A clone is a writable copy of a snapshot, and is managed like any other share. Like snapshots of filesystems, it initially consumes no additional space. As the data in the clone changes, it will consume more space. The original snapshot cannot be destroyed without also destroying the clone. Scheduled snapshots can be safely cloned, and scheduled snapshots with clones will be ignored if they otherwise should be destroyed.

To create a clone, click the image:Clone icon for the source snapshot. A dialog will prompt for the following values.

Property
Description
Project
Destination project. By default, clones are created within the current project, but they can also be created in different projects (or later moved between projects).
Name
The name to give to the clone.
Preserve Local Properties
By default, the all currently inherited properties of the filesystem will inherit from the destination project in the clone. Local settings are always preserved. Setting this property will cause any inherited properties to be preserved as local setting in the new clone.
Mountpoint
When preserving local properties, the clone must be given a different mountpoint, as shares cannot save the same mountpoint. This option is only available when "Preserve local properties" is set.

Scheduled Snapshots

In addition to manual snapshots, you can configure automatic snapshots according to an arbitrary schedule. These snapshots are named '.auto-<timestamp>', and can be taken on half hour, hourly, daily, weekly, or

monthly schedules. A schedule is a list of intervals and retention policies. To add a new interval, click the image:Add item icon when viewing the "Schedules" tab. Each interval has the following properties.

Property
Description
Frequency
One of "half hour", "hour", "day", "week", or "month". This indicates how often the snapshot is taken.
Offset
This specifies an offset within the frequency. For example, when selecting an hour frequency, snapshots can be taken at an explicit minute offset from the hour. For daily snapshots, the offset can specify hour and minute, and for weekly or monthly snapshots the offset can specify day, hour, and minute.
Keep at most
Controls the retention policy for snapshots. Automatic snapshots can be kept forever (except for half hour and hour snapshots, which are capped at 48 and 24, respectively) or can be limited to a certain number. This limit will delete automatic snapshots for the given interval if they are older than the retention policy. This is actually enforced by the time they were taken, not an absolute count. So if you have hour snapshots and the appliance is down for a day, when you come back up all your hour snapshots will be deleted. Snapshots that are part of multiple intervals are only destroyed when no interval specifies that they should be retained.

Automatic snapshots can only be set on a project or a share, but not both. Otherwise, overlapping schedules and retention policies would make it impossible to guarantee both schedules. Removing an interval, or changing its retention policy, will immediately destroy any automatic snapshots not covered by the new schedule. Automatic snapshots with clones are ignored.

Previous versions of the software allowed for automatic snapshots at the frequency of a minute. This proved to put undue strain on the system and was not generally useful. To help users avoid placing undue stress on the system, this feature was removed with the 2010.Q3 release. Snapshots can now only be specified at a period of once every half hour or longer. Existing minute periods will be preserved should the software be rolled back, and previous instances will expire according to the existing schedule, but no new snapshots will be taken. An alert will be posted if a share or project with this frequency is found.

CLI

To access the snapshots for a share, navigate to the share and run the snapshots command.

clownfish:> shares select default select builds
clownfish:shares default/builds> snapshots
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> 

Listing Snapshots

Snapshots can be listed using the standard CLI commands.

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> list
today
yesterday
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots>

Taking Snapshots

To take a manual snapshot, use the snapshot command:

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> snapshot test
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> 

Renaming a Snapshot

To rename a snapshot, use the rename command:

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> rename test test2
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots>

Destroying a Snapshot

To destroy a snapshot, use the destroy command:

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> select test2
clownfish:shares default/builds@test2> destroy
This will destroy this snapshot. Are you sure? (Y/N)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots>

You can also use the destroy command from the share context without selecting an individual snapshot:

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> destroy test2
This will destroy this snapshot. Are you sure? (Y/N)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots>

Rolling back to a Snapshot

To rollback to a snapshot, select the target snapshot and run the rollback command:

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> select today 
clownfish:shares default/builds@today> rollback
Rolling back will revert data to snapshot, destroying newer data. Active
initiators will be disconnected.

Continue? (Y/N) 
clownfish:shares default/builds@today> 

Cloning a Snapshot

To clone a snapshot, use the clone command. This command will place you into an uncommitted share context identical to the one used to create shares. From here, you can adjust properties as needed before committing the changes to create the clone.

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> select today
clownfish:shares default/builds@today> clone testbed
clownfish:shares default/testbed (uncommitted clone)> get
                    aclinherit = restricted (inherited)
                       aclmode = discard (inherited)
                         atime = true (inherited)
                      checksum = fletcher4 (inherited)
                   compression = off (inherited)
                        copies = 1 (inherited)
                    mountpoint = /export/testbed (inherited)
                         quota = 0 (default)
                      readonly = false (inherited)
                    recordsize = 128K (inherited)
                   reservation = 0 (default)
                secondarycache = all (inherited)
                        nbmand = false (inherited)
                      sharesmb = off (inherited)
                      sharenfs = on (inherited)
                       snapdir = hidden (inherited)
                         vscan = false (inherited)
                      sharedav = off (inherited)
                      shareftp = off (inherited)
                    root_group = other (default)
              root_permissions = 777 (default)
                     root_user = nobody (default)
                    quota_snap = true (default)
              reservation_snap = true (default)
clownfish:shares default/testbed (uncommitted clone)> set quota=10G
                         quota = 10G (uncommitted)
clownfish:shares default/testbed (uncommitted clone)> commit
clownfish:shares default/builds@today>

The command also supports an optional first argument, which is the project in which to create the clone. By default, the clone is created in the same project as the share being cloned.

Scheduled Snapshots

Automatic scheduled snapshots can be configured using the automatic command from the snapshot context. Once in this context, new intervals can be added and removed with the create and destroy commands. Each interval has a set of properties that map to the BUI view of the frequency, offset, and number of snapshots to keep.

clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots> automatic
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic> create
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic (uncommitted)> set frequency=day
                     frequency = day (uncommitted)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic (uncommitted)> set hour=14
                          hour = 14 (uncommitted)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic (uncommitted)> set minute=30
                        minute = 30 (uncommitted)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic (uncommitted)> set keep=7
                          keep = 7 (uncommitted)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic (uncommitted)> get
                     frequency = day (uncommitted)
                           day = (unset)
                          hour = 14 (uncommitted)
                        minute = 30 (uncommitted)
                          keep = 7 (uncommitted)
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic (uncommitted)> commit
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic> list
NAME                 FREQUENCY            DAY                  HH:MM KEEP
automatic-000        day                  -                    14:30    7
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots automatic> done
clownfish:shares default/builds snapshots>