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Oracle® Fusion Middleware WebCenter Sites: Installing and Configuring Supporting Software
11g Release 1 (11.1.1.8.0)

Part Number E29751-02
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18 Setting Up OpenLDAP 2.3.x

This chapter explains how to set up OpenLDAP for use with WebCenter Sites.

Note:

You must set OpenLDAP before you run the WebCenter Sites-LDAP integrator.

It contains the following sections:

18.1 OpenLDAP Commands

This section contains the most commonly used OpenLDAP commands. Use it as a reference when configuring OpenLDAP for use with WebCenter Sites.

18.1.1 Starting OpenLDAP

Note:

This section assumes that the slapd daemon is located in /usr/local/libexec. Depending on your installation, the daemon might be located elsewhere. In such cases, substitute the correct path in the commands listed in this section.

  • To start OpenLDAP normally, use the following command:

    /usr/local/libexec/slapd

  • To start OpenLDAP with full debugging (useful when diagnosing configuration issues and installing WebCenter Sites), use the following command:

    /usr/local/libexec/slapd -h 'ldap:///' -d 0x5001

18.1.2 Searching an OpenLDAP Server

To search an OpenLDAP Server, do the following:

  1. Execute the following command:

    ldapsearch -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>" -W 
    -b '' -s base '(objectClass=*)' namingContexts
    

    where <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a.

  2. When prompted for a password, enter the Root DN user password you specified in step d.

    A typical response from the ldapsearch command looks as follows:

    Enter LDAP Password:
    # extended LDIF
    #
    # LDAPv3
    # base <> with scope baseObject
    # filter: (objectClass=*)
    # requesting: namingContexts
    #
    
    #
    dn:
    namingContexts: dc=example,dc=com
    # search result
    search: 2
    result: 0 Success
    
    # numResponses: 2
    # numEntries: 1
    

18.1.3 Adding an LDIF File to an OpenLDAP Server

To add a well-formed LDIF file to your OpenLDAP Server, use the ldapadd command:

ldapadd -D 'cn=Manager,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>'
-w <root_dn_password> -f <LDIF_file_name>

where:

  • <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a.

  • <root_dn_password> is the Root DN user password you specified in step d.

  • <LDIF_file_name> is the name of the LDIF file you are adding.

18.2 Installing OpenLDAP

This section explains how to install OpenLDAP.

Note:

OpenLDAP is bundled with most Linux distributions. If OpenLDAP is already installed on your system, skip this section.

To install Open LDAP 

  1. Download the OpenLDAP tgz archive from the OpenLDAP web site:

    http://www.openldap.org/

    For example: openldap-stable-20070110.tgz

  2. Decompress the archive (Figure 18-1):

    • If you are using GNU, use the following command:

      tar-xvzf openldap-stable-20070110.tgz

    • If you are not using GNU, use the following command:

      gzip -d openldap-stable-20070110.tgz ; tar -xvf openldap-stable-20070110.tar

      Figure 18-1 Archive Decompression

      Description of Figure 18-1 follows
      Description of "Figure 18-1 Archive Decompression"

  3. Change to the directory containing the OpenLDAP source (Figure 18-2). For example:

    cd openldap-2.3.32

    Figure 18-2 Directory Change

    Description of Figure 18-2 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-2 Directory Change "

  4. Configure the OpenLDAP source (Figure 18-3) as follows:

    ./configure --enable-crypt --with-tls

    Figure 18-3 OpenLDAP Source Configuration

    Description of Figure 18-3 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-3 OpenLDAP Source Configuration"

    The suggested options are:

    • --enable-crypt — enables password encryption

    • --with-tls — enables TLS/SSL support

      Note:

      If you want to customize OpenLDAP for your system, run

      ./configure --help for a complete list of configuration options.

  5. Compile OpenLDAP dependencies: make depend

  6. Compile OpenLDAP: make

  7. Install OpenLDAP: make install

    Note:

    By default, OpenLDAP is installed in /usr/local.

18.3 Configuring OpenLDAP

This section shows you how to configure your OpenLDAP installation.

  1. Edit the ldap.conf file as follows:

    Note:

    If you installed OpenLDAP manually by following the steps in the previous section, ldap.conf is located in /usr/local/etc.

    1. Specify your Base DN. Locate the following line (or create it if it does not exist):

      BASE dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>

      where <domain> and <extension> are, respectively, the domain and TLD of your LDAP server.

      The Base DN for OpenLDAP should always be two dc's in length. For example, if your full domain is vm.example.com, your Base DN would be example.com, and your BASE line would look as follows:

      BASE dc=example,dc=com

    2. Specify your URI(s). Locate the following line (or create it if it does not exist):

      URI ldap://<hostanme_or_IP> ldap://<hostanme_or_IP>

      Enter the host names and/or IP addresses on which on which OpenLDAP is to listen for connections. Separate the entries with spaces. For example:

      URI ldap://127.0.0.1 ldap://localhost ldap://172.19.1.2

  2. Edit the sldapd.conf file as follows:

    Note:

    If you installed OpenLDAP manually by following the steps in the previous section, sldapd.conf is located in /usr/local/etc.

    1. Locate the following section:

      access to * 
         by self write
         by users read
      and replace it with:
      access to *
         by dn="cn=Manager,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>" write
      by self write
      by users read
      by anonymous auth
      

      where <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step 1a.

    2. Specify your suffix. Locate the following line (or create it if it does not exist):

      suffix dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>

      where <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step 1a.

    3. Specify your Root DN user. (The Root DN user is used to access the LDAP Server.) Locate the following line (or create it if it does not exist):

      rootdn cn=<user_name>,dc=<domain>,dc=<domain>

      Enter Manager as the user name and replace <domain> and <extension> with the values you specified in step 1a.

    4. Specify a password for the Root DN user. Locate the following line (or create it if it does not exist):

      rootpw<password>

      Note:

      The password can be either encrypted or unencrypted. (Encrypted passwords start with {SSHA}). If you wish to use an encrypted password, do the following:

      • Generate an encrypted password (hash) using the slappasswd command. The command generates a valid encrypted password (hash) and prints it to the terminal.

      • Perform step e below.

    5. (Optional) If you chose to use an encrypted password in the previous step, set the password type to SHA. Locate the following line (or create it if it does not exist):

      password-hash {SSHA}

      This sets the password type to SHA (the default). You can set other password types; see the OpenLDAP documentation for more information.

  3. Edit the core.schema file as follows:

    Note:

    If you installed OpenLDAP manually by following the steps in the previous section, core.schema is located in /usr/local/etc/schema.

    1. Locate the following section:

      objectclass ( 2.5.6.17 NAME 'groupOfUniqueNames'   DESC 'RFC2256: a group of unique names (DN and Unique Identifier)'SUP top STRUCTURAL MAY ( businessCategory $ seeAlso $ owner $ ou $ o $ description $ uniqueMember) MUST ( uniqueMember $ cn ))
      
    2. Comment the section out by placing a # character at the beginning of each line. Then insert the following modified section after it:

      objectclass ( 2.5.6.17 NAME 'groupOfUniqueNames'   DESC 'RFC2256: a group of unique names (DN and Unique Identifier)'SUP top STRUCTURALMAY ( businessCategory $ seeAlso $ owner $ ou $ o $ description $ uniqueMember) MUST ( cn ))
      

      The difference between the original and modified sections is the last line:

      MUST ( uniqueMember $ cn ) becomes MUST ( cn )

    OpenLDAP is now configured.

18.4 Adding WebCenter Sites Schema to OpenLDAP

This section shows you how to add WebCenter Sites schema to your OpenLDAP server.

Note:

If you are copying the contents of the sample LDIF file below, make sure to insert an empty line between dn sections and at the end of the file.

To configure OpenLDAP for WebCenter Sites

  1. Create an LDIF file named pre_cs_openldap.ldif with the following contents:

    dn: dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>objectClass: dcObjectobjectClass: organizationdc: exampledescription: OpenLDAP pre_cs_setupo: Example Software# LDAP Manager Roledn: cn=Manager,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>objectclass: organizationalRolecn: Manager# add the organizational Unit Peopledn: ou=People,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>objectClass: organizationalUnitobjectClass: topou: People# add the organizational Unit Groupdn: ou=Groups,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>objectClass: organizationalUnitobjectClass: topou: Groups
    

    where <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a.

    The file will create a new organization (example) containing two sub-organizations (Groups and People)and the Manager user. The Manager user will be used to access the LDAP server.

  2. Add the pre_cs_openldap.ldif file to your OpenLDAP server. Execute the following command:

    ldapadd -D 'cn=Manager,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>'

    -w <root_dn_password> -f pre_cs_openldap.ldif

    where:

    • <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a.

    • <root_dn_password> is the Root DN user password you specified in step d.

  3. Test your OpenLDAP server. Execute the following command:

    ldapsearch -x -b 'ou=Groups,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>' '(objectclass=*)'

    where <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a.

    An example response from the ldapsearch command looks as follows:

    # extended LDIF## LDAPv3# base <ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com> with scope subtree# filter: (objectclass=*)# requesting: ALL## search resultsearch: 2result: 0 Success# numResponses: 1
    

    If the pre_cs_openldap.ldif file was successfully inserted into the LDAP server, the result: line indicates success, at which point you are ready to run the WebCenter Sites LDAP integrator. For instructions, see Part V, "Integrating Oracle WebCenter Sites with LDAP."

18.5 Modifying User Passwords

When you ran the WebCenter Sites LDAP integrator, all WebCenter Sites users (except fwadmin, ContentServer, and DefaultReader) were assigned the password which you entered in the "WebCenter Sites Configuration" screen. For security reasons, you might want to manually assign unique passwords to those users.

Note:

If you chose to use encrypted passwords when you configured OpenLDAP, you must change the passwords for all users on your WebCenter Sites system, or your WebCenter Sites installation will not function properly. This is because the WebCenter Sites-LDAP integrator writes user passwords into OpenLDAP as plaintext, but OpenLDAP expects password hashes.

The following table shows the passwords you must assign to your WebCenter Sites users:

User Password

DefaultReader

SomeReader

ContentServer

The password you supplied during WebCenter Sites installation

fwadmin

The password you supplied during WebCenter Sites installation

All other users on your WebCenter Sites system

The password you supplied during WebCenter Sites- LDAP integration


This section covers the following methods for changing passwords in OpenLDAP:

18.5.1 Modifying User Passwords Using an LDAP Browser

This section shows you how to modify user passwords using the free LDAP Browser/Editor program available at http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/~gawor/ldap/.

To modify user passwords in OpenLDAP using an LDAP browser 

  1. Download and install the LDAP browser.

  2. Start the LDAP browser: ./lbe.sh

  3. Click the Quick Connect tab (Figure 18-4).

    Figure 18-4 Quick Connect Tab

    Description of Figure 18-4 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-4 Quick Connect Tab"

  4. Fill out the fields as follows:

    Field Value

    Hostname

    The host name of your OpenLDAP server.

    Port

    389

    Version

    3

    Base DN

    The Base DN you specified in step a.

    Anonymous bind

    Yes (select check box)

    User DN

    cn=Manager

    Append base DN

    Yes (select check box)

    Password

    The Root DN user password you specified in step d.


  5. Click Connect.

  6. In the left-hand tree, expand the ou=People node (Figure 18-5).

    Figure 18-5 ou-People Expanded

    Description of Figure 18-5 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-5 ou-People Expanded"

  7. Double-click the user whose password you want to change and press Ctrl-E.

  8. The plaintext password written by the WebCenter Sites-LDAP integrator appears in the userPassword field (Figure 18-6). Click Set.

    Figure 18-6 Edit Dialog Box

    Description of Figure 18-6 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-6 Edit Dialog Box"

  9. In the pop-up window, enter the user's password (Figure 18-7) and click Set.

    Figure 18-7 Generate Password Dialog Box

    Description of Figure 18-7 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-7 Generate Password Dialog Box"

    The password appears in its encrypted form.

  10. Click Apply to save the new password (Figure 18-8).

    Figure 18-8 Edit Dialog Box

    Description of Figure 18-8 follows
    Description of "Figure 18-8 Edit Dialog Box"

  11. Repeat steps 710 for each user whose password you want to change. When you are finished, test your integration by logging in to WebCenter Sites.

18.5.2 Modifying User Passwords Using the ldapmodify Command

The ldapmodify command provides you with an interface in which you can enter valid LDIF statements to make changes to the configuration of your OpenLDAP server. This section shows you how to use the ldapmodify and sldappasswd commands to change the passwords of LDAP users.

To modify user passwords in OpenLDAP using the ldapmodify command 

  1. Generate an encrypted password for each user. Run the sldappasswd command and enter the plaintext password which you want to encrypt. The command outputs the encrypted password (hash) to the terminal. For example:

    {SSHA}ydUT5RCpBAU80P0PW8gaHnsmYmLlmUL8

    Note:

    If you are generating hashes for a large number of users, it is a good idea to store the hashes in a file, so that you can easily retrieve them in step 3. When you finish this procedure, make sure that you destroy the file in which the hashes are stored.

  2. Execute the ldapmodify command as follows:

    ldapmodify -D 'cn=Manager,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>' 
    -w <root_dn_password>
    

    where:

    • <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a .

    • <root_dn_password> is the Root DN user password you specified in step d.

    When the command returns a blank line, you are ready to input LDIF statements.

  3. Change the user's password. Issue the following commands:

    1. dn:cn=<user_name>,ou=People,dc=<domain>,dc=<extension>

      where user_name is the user name of the user whose password you want to change, and <domain> and <extension> are the values you specified in step a.

    2. changetype:modify

    3. replace:userPassword

    4. userpassword:<password_hash>

      where <password_hash> is the hash generated by the sldappasswd command in step 1 of this procedure.

    5. Press Ctrl+D.

    6. Repeat steps ae for each user whose password you want to change. When you are finished, press Ctrl+C to terminate the ldapmodify command.