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Oracle® Fusion Middleware Mobile Browser Developer's Guide for Oracle Application Development Framework
11g Release 2 (11.1.2.3.0)

Part Number E16178-04
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4 Skinning

This chapter describes skinning for ADF Mobile browser applications.

This chapter includes the following sections:

4.1 About ADF Mobile Browser Skinning

Skinning enables a page to display consistently on a variety of devices through the automatic delivery of device-dependent style sheets. These style sheets enable the optimal display of pages that share the same page definitions on various mobile browsers. Within these style sheets, which enable you to set the look and feel of an application, you not only tailor a component to a specific browser by setting its size, location, and appearance, but you also specify the types of browsers in which components can be displayed or hidden.

Note:

Browsers must support the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) syntax.

4.2 Implementing ADF Mobile Browser Skinning

As noted in Section 2.3.2, "What Happens When You Create a Mobile JSF Page," JDeveloper creates two mobile-specific stylesheets, mobile.css and richmobile.css within the ADF Mobile browser-specific View Controller project, as shown in Figure 4-1. Creating a mobile JSF page also populates the trinidad-config.xml with an EL expression for selecting the skin families defined by these skinning files and also populates trinidad-skins.xml with definitions for the ADF Mobile browser skins.

Figure 4-1 The Mobile Browser Skinning Files

The default skinning files.

Table 4-1 lists the skinning files provided to ADF Mobile pages.

Table 4-1 The ADF Mobile Browser Skins

CSS File Skin Family Use

mobile.css

mobile

Used for basic HTML browsers. This family is used for rendering on Windows Mobile and BlackBerry, Version 4.6 and higher. See Chapter 5, "Supporting Basic HTML Mobile Browsers."

richmobile.css

richmobile

Used for smartphone browsers that use the Webkit rendering engine. Such browsers are used on the Nokia S60 and also iOS- and Android-powered devices.


Example 4-1 illustrates the trinidad-config.xml with the EL expression embedded within its <skin-family> element that evaluates to the string that returns the skin family type requested by the browser.

Example 4-1 The Skin Family Selection Logic within Trinidad-config.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="windows-1252"?>
<trinidad-config xmlns="http://myfaces.apache.org/trinidad/config">
  <skin-family>#{requestContext.agent.type == 'desktop'? 'richmobile': 'mobile'}</skin-family>
</trinidad-config>

Example 4-2 illustrates trinidad-skins.xml, whose <skin> elements are defined for the default ADF Mobile browser skins when you create a mobile JSF page.

Example 4-2 trinidad-skins.xml Populated with ADF Mobile browser <skin> Definitions

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="windows-1252"?>
<!-- To use mobile skin families in your app, please update trinidad-config.xml with below tags -->
<!-- <skin-family>#{requestContext.agent.type == 'desktop'?'richmobile': 'mobile'}</skin-family> -->
  <skins xmlns="http://myfaces.apache.org/trinidad/skin">
    <skin>
      <id>richmobile</id>
      <family>richmobile</family>
      <render-kit-id>org.apache.myfaces.trinidad.desktop</render-kit-id>
      <style-sheet-name>styles/richmobile.css</style-sheet-name>
    </skin>
    <skin>
      <id>mobile</id>
      <family>mobile</family>
      <render-kit-id>org.apache.myfaces.trinidad.pda</render-kit-id>
      <style-sheet-name>styles/mobile.css</style-sheet-name>
    </skin>
  </skins>

4.2.1 Extending the ADF Mobile Skins

You can configure trinidad-config.xml and trinidad-skins.xml to call other CSS files. You can also modify the richmobile.css and mobile.css files to render to a specific mobile device or platform using @rule.

To add mobile features to a non-mobile project:

  1. Create a skin (trinidad-skins.xml, located in the either the WEB-INF or META-INF nodes).

  2. Create a style sheet.

  3. Set the skin family in trinidad-config.xml (located in the WEB-INF node).

    For more information, see "Create a Skin—An Overview" in Development Guidelines for Apache MyFaces Trinidad (http://myfaces.apache.org/trinidad/devguide/skinning.html).

Skin families in Apache MyFaces Trinidad are associated with a renderkit and a unique CSS file. Because Trinidad uses the desktop renderkit for Webkit-based mobile browsers and the PDA renderkit for all other mobile browsers, you can support all mobile browsers by creating two skin families, both of which reference one of these renderkits and a CSS file. Use the @agent and @platform selector rules to enable rendering based on the browser's name, version, or platform. For more information, see "Skinning CSS Features" in Development Guidelines for Apache MyFaces Trinidad (http://myfaces.apache.org/trinidad/devguide/skinning.html).

4.2.2 What Happens at Runtime

The EL expression defined within the trinidad-config.xml <skin-family> element selects the renderkit appropriate to the browser's user agent. The ADF Mobile browser framework then applies the style defined for the renderkit.

4.3 Applying ADF Mobile Browser Skinning

Although CSS styles are applied automatically for many components, some components require you to manually set the style classes to its styleClass attribute.

4.3.1 Headers

Augmenting the <tr:panelHeader> component with the styleClass attribute enables you to display title-only headers and headers with a title and links on various browsers.

4.3.1.1 Creating a Title-Only Header

To create a title-only header, add styleClass="af_m_toolbar" to the <tr:panelHeader> component as illustrated in Example 4-3.

Example 4-3 Adding Attributes to Create a Title-Only Header

<tr:panelHeader styleClass="af_m_toolbar" text="Welcome"/>

Figure 4-2 shows how this ADF Mobile browser attribute creates a title-only header on an Apple iPhone.

Figure 4-2 A Title-Only Header on the Apple iPhone

iPhone title-only label.

Table 4-2 lists examples of how title-only headers display on Windows Mobile devices, BlackBerry smartphones, and the Nokia Webkit.

Table 4-2 Title-Only Header Displays on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Title only on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile title-only label.

Nokia Webkit

Nokia Webkit title-only label.

BlackBerry 4.2

BlackBerry 4.2 title-only label.

4.3.1.2 Creating Headers with Titles and Links

As illustrated in Figure 4-3, you can add links and a title within a header. Figure 4-3 shows such a header as it displays in on the Apple iPhone.

Figure 4-3 Title and Links Within a Header on Apple iPhone

iPhone header with title and link.

As described in Section 4.3.1.1, "Creating a Title-Only Header," you define the title for the header (in Figure 4-3, a title called Transfer) by adding styleClass="af_m_toolbar" within the <tr:panelHeader> element. The links are defined as buttons (styleClass="af_m_backButton" and styleClass="af_m_button", respectively) within the child <tr:commandLink> element as illustrated in Example 4-4. In Example 4-4, the <tr:panelHeader> element includes these attributes (in bold).

Example 4-4 Adding Titles and Links to Headers

<tr:panelHeader styleClass="af_m_toolbar" 
                 text="Transfer">
            <tr:commandLink styleClass="af_m_backButton"
                            text="Back"
                            action="back"/>
            <tr:spacer rendered="#{requestContext.agent.skinFamilyType eq 'blackberryminimal'}"
                       height="5" width="105"/>                       
            <tr:spacer rendered="#{requestContext.agent.skinFamilyType eq 'windowsmobile'}"
                       height="" 
                       width="28"/>
             <tr:commandLink styleClass="af_m_button"
                             text="Sign Off"
                             action="signoff"/>
         </tr:panelHeader>

Table 4-3 lists examples of how the <tr:panelHeader> that includes a title and links display on Windows Mobile devices, BlackBerry smartphones, and the Nokia Webkit.

Table 4-3 Title and Link Headers on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

title with links on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Title and lnks on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Title and links on Windows on Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Title and Link on BlackBerry 4.2

4.3.2 Table Components

Using the styleClass attribute enables table components within ADF Mobile browser application to render appropriately on various browsers.

4.3.2.1 Multi-Column Tables

Unlike panel headers, which require that you include the styleClass attribute to apply the style appropriately on the target platform, the table column headers do not require any attributes. Instead, you use the <tr:columns> component described in Section 3.7.1, "Creating Tables." Figure 4-4 illustrates how column headers render on the Apple iPhone.

Figure 4-4 Column Headers and Cells on Apple iPhone

Columns, headers on iPhone.

Example 4-5 illustrates how to define the <tr:columns> element (in bold).

Example 4-5 Creating Column Headers

<tr:table  var="row" …./>
            <tr:column  headerText="LastName">
                <tr:outputText value="#{row.bindings.LastName.inputValue}"/>
            </tr:column>
            <tr:column  headerText="FirstName">
                <tr:outputText value="#{row.bindings.FirstName.inputValue} "/>
             </tr:column>
             <tr:column headerText="Phone">
                <tr:outputText value="#{row.bindings.Phone.inputValue}"/>
            </tr:column>
</tr:table>

Table 4-4 shows examples of how column headers display on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-4 Column Headers on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Column headers on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Column headers on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Column headers on Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Column headers on BlackBerry 4.2.


4.3.2.2 Adding Images and Primary Details with Links

Figure 4-5 demonstrates creating the links and details within a table using the styleClass values af_m_listingLink and af_m_listingDetails.

Figure 4-5 Images, Links and Details as Rendered on the Apple iPhone

Images, details on iPhone.

As illustrated in Example 4-6, you create these features by adding a <tr:panelGroupLayout> component as a child of a <tr:column> component. You then add the styleClass="af_m_listingLink" and styleClass="af_m_listingDetails" attributes to the panelGroupLayout's <tr:commandLink> and <tr:outputText> subcomponents. See Chapter 3, "Component Support" for information on the tr:panelGroupLayout, tr:commandLink, and tr:outputText.

Example 4-6 Adding Links with Details

<tr:table  horizontalGridVisible="false"
           var="row"
           width="100%">
            <tr:column>
                <tr:image source="#{row.bindings.TypeIconUrl.inputValue}"/>1
            </tr:column>
            <tr:column inlineStyle="width:100%;">
                <tr:panelGroupLayout layout="vertical">
                    <tr:commandLink text="#{row.bindings.DescShort.inputValue}"
                                    action="detail" 
                                    styleClass="af_m_listingLink">
                    </tr:commandLink>
                    <tr:outputText value="#{row.bindings.Balance.inputValue}"
                                   styleClass="af_m_listingDetails">
                    </tr:outputText>
                </tr:panelGroupLayout>
            </tr:column>
 </tr:table>

Table 4-5 shows examples of how images, links, and details display on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-5 Images, Links, and Details on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Images and links in BlackBerry 4.6

Windows Mobile

Links and details on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Images and links in Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Images and links on BlackBerry 4.2.


4.3.2.3 Creating Primary Details with Links

Figure 4-6 illustrates how to create primary details and links within a table.

Figure 4-6 Primary Details with Links as Rendered on Apple iPhone

Details and links on iPhone.

Similar to adding the primary links and details with images described in Section 4.3.2.2, "Adding Images and Primary Details with Links," you create these features by adding a <tr:panelGroupLayout> component as a child of a <tr:column> component. As illustrated in Example 4-7, you then add the styleClass="af_m_listingLink" and styleClass="af_m_listingDetails" attributes to the panelGroupLayout's <tr:commandLink> and <tr:outputText> subcomponents. See Chapter 3, "Component Support" for information on the tr:panelGroupLayout, tr:commandLink, and tr:outputText.

Example 4-7 Primary Details and Links

<tr:table  horizontalGridVisible="false"
           var="row"
           width="100%">
            <tr:column>
                <tr:panelGroupLayout layout="vertical">
                    <tr:commandLink text="#{row.bindings.Email.inputValue}"
                          styleClass=" af_m_listingLink">
                    </tr:commandLink>
                    <tr:outputText value="#{row.bindings.FirstName.inputValue}” 
                          styleClass="af_m_listingDetails"/>
                </tr:panelGroupLayout>
            </tr:column>
</tr:table>

Table 4-6 shows examples of how links and details display on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-6 Images and Links on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Links, details on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Links, details on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Images, links on Nokia Webkit

BlackBerry 4.2

Links, details on BlackBerry 4.2.


4.3.2.4 Creating Primary Details Without Links

As illustrated in Figure 4-7, af_m_listingPrimaryDetails and af_m_listingDetails style classes enable you to create details that do not function as links; their behavior is different from the primary details described in Section 4.3.2.2, "Adding Images and Primary Details with Links."

Figure 4-7 Primary Details without Links on Apple iPhone

iPhone with no details.

As illustrated in Example 4-8, you create non-linking primary details by adding styleClass=af_m_listingPrimaryDetails and styleClass="af_m_listingDetails" to the <tr:outputText> element. This element is a child of the <tr:panelGroupLayout> element (which is itself a child of the <tr:column> element).

Example 4-8 Adding Non-Linking Primary Details

tr:table  horizontalGridVisible="false"
          var="row"
          width="100%">
             <tr:column>
                <tr:panelGroupLayout layout="vertical">
                    <tr:outputText value="#{row.bindings.Amount.inputValue} 
                        styleClass="af_m_listingPrimaryDetails">
                    </tr:outputText>
                    <tr:outputText value=" #{row.bindings.FromAccountName.inputValue} “
                        styleClass="af_m_listingDetails"/>
                </tr:panelGroupLayout>
             </tr:column>
</tr:table>

Table 4-7 shows examples of how non-linking details display on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-7 Non-Linking Details on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Non-link details on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Non-links on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Non-links on Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Non-links on BlackBerry 4.2


4.3.3 Panel List Components

Defining the value of the styleClass as af_m_panelBase within the <tr:panelGroupLayout> component applies padding to the <tr:panelList> components, as shown in Figure 4-8.

Figure 4-8 Rendering Padding on an Apple iPhone

iPhone with PanelList components.

As illustrated in Example 4-9, you do not have to include a styleClass attribute in the child <tr:panelList> component. For more information on using <tr:panelList> and <tr:panelGroupLayout>, see Section 3.2.2, "Creating Lists" and Section 3.4, "Layout Components," respectively.

Example 4-9 Adding Padding to panelList Components

<tr:panelGroupLayout styleClass="af_m_panelBase">
        <tr:panelList>
            <tr:commandLink text="Welcome" action="welcome"/>
            <tr:commandLink text="Branch" action="branch"/>
         </tr:panelList>
</tr:panelGroupLayout>

Table 4-8 shows examples of padding in the <tr:panelList> component on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-8 Padding Applied to <tr:panelList> on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Padding on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Padding on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Padding on Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Padding on BlackBerry 4.2


4.3.4 PanelFormLayout

Defining the value of the styleClass attribute as af_m_panelBase within the <tr:panelGroupLayout> component applies padding to the child <tr:panelFormLayout> components, as shown in Figure 4-9.

Figure 4-9 Padding Rendered in panelFormLayout on Apple iPhone

Padding in panelFormLayout on iPhone.

As illustrated in Example 4-10, you do not need to add styleClass to the <tr:panelFormLayout> component.

Example 4-10 Applying Padding to the PanelFormLayout Component

<tr:panelGroupLayout styleClass="af_m_panelBase">
     <tr:panelFormLayout labelWidth="35%" fieldWidth="65%">
         <tr:selectOneChoice value="#{transferBean.transferFromAccount}"
              label="From:" showRequired="false">
                    <f:selectItems value="#{bindings.AccountView1.items}"/>
         </tr:selectOneChoice>
         <tr:selectOneChoice  value="#{transferBean.transferToAccount}"
                              showRequired="false"  
                              unselectedLabel="- select -"
                              label="To:">
                    <f:selectItems value="#{bindings.AccountView1.items}"/>
         </tr:selectOneChoice>
         <tr:inputText id="amount"
                       columns="#{requestContext.agent.capabilities.narrowScreen ? '8' : '12'}"
                       required="false" showRequired="false"
                       value="#{transferBean.transferAmount}"
                       label="Amount:">
                    <f:converter converterId="Bank10.amountConverter"/>
         </tr:inputText>
         <tr:panelLabelAndMessage label="Date: ">
              <tr:outputText value="#{transferBean.transferDate}"/>
         </tr:panelLabelAndMessage>
        <f:facet name="footer">
            <tr:panelGroupLayout>
                 <tr:spacer rendered="#{requestContext.agent.skinFamilyType eq   
                                     'blackberryminimal'}"
                            height="5" 
                            width="75"/>
                  <tr:commandButton text="Submit"
                                    action="#{transferBean.validateTransferRequest}"/>
            </tr:panelGroupLayout>
        </f:facet>
     </tr:panelFormLayout>
</tr:panelGroupLayout>

Table 4-9 shows examples of padding in the <tr:panelList> component on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-9 Padding Applied to <tr:panelFormLayout> Component on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Padding on BlackBerry 4.6

Windows Mobile

Padding on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Padding on Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Padding on BlackBerry 4.2.


4.3.5 Panel Accordion

Defining the value of the styleClass component as af_m_panelBase within the <tr:panelGroupLayout> component applies padding to its <tr:panelAccordion> component, as shown in Figure 4-10.

Figure 4-10 Padding Applied to the Panel Accordion on Apple iPhone

Padding in accordian on iPhone.

As illustrated in Example 4-11, you do not need to add the styleClass attribute to the <tr:panelAccordion> component.

Example 4-11 Applying Padding to the <tr:panelAccordion> Component

<tr:panelGroupLayout styleClass="af_m_panelBase">
        <tr:panelAccordion discloseMany="true">
            <tr:showDetailItem text="Name" disclosed="true">
                <tr:panelFormLayout fieldWidth="70%" labelWidth="30%">
                    ...
                </tr:panelFormLayout>
            </tr:showDetailItem>
            <tr:showDetailItem text="Contact" disclosed="true">
                <tr:panelFormLayout fieldWidth="70%" labelWidth="30%">
                    ...
                </tr:panelFormLayout>
            </tr:showDetailItem>
            <tr:showDetailItem text="Address">
                <tr:panelFormLayout fieldWidth="70%" labelWidth="30%">
                   ...
                </tr:panelFormLayout>
            </tr:showDetailItem>
        </tr:panelAccordion>
</tr:panelGroupLayout>

Example 4-11 shows examples of padding in the <tr:panelAccordion> component on Windows Mobile devices, the Nokia Webkit, and BlackBerry smartphones.

Table 4-10 <tr:panelAccordion> on Various Platforms

Platform Example

BlackBerry 4.6

Padding on BlackBerry 4.6.

Windows Mobile

Padding on Windows Mobile.

Nokia Webkit

Padding in Nokia Webkit.

BlackBerry 4.2

Padding on BlackBerry 4.2.