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Using Microsoft SQL Server Trigger Information

This section discusses how to:

Note: For Microsoft SQL Server, Image and Text Columns in tables can't be selected from the trigger tables INSERTED and DELETED.

Using Microsoft SQL Server Trigger Syntax

To audit INSERTS, UPDATES, and DELETES of the records, use trigger with the following format:

Replace the names in emphasized text with the appropriate names for the trigger that you are constructing.

CREATE TRIGGER PS_ABSENCE_HIST_TR ON PS_ABSENCE_HIST
FOR DELETE , INSERT , UPDATE
AS
SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE @XTYPE CHAR(1), @OPRID CHAR(8)
SET @OPRID = NULL
[SELECT @OPRID = substring(cast(context_info as char(128)),
1,(charindex(',',cast(context_info as char(128)))-1))
			FROM master..sysprocesses
			WHERE spid = @@spid]

-- Determine Transaction Type
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM DELETED)
BEGIN
SET @XTYPE = 'D'
END
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM INSERTED)
BEGIN
IF (@XTYPE = 'D')
 BEGIN
  SET @XTYPE = 'U'
 END
ELSE
 BEGIN
  SET @XTYPE = 'I'
 END
END
-- Transaction is a Delete
IF (@XTYPE = 'D')
BEGIN
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE 
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'D',
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED FROM deleted 
END
-- Transaction is a Insert
IF (@XTYPE = 'I')
BEGIN
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE 
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'A',
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED FROM inserted 
END
-- Transaction is a Update
IF (@XTYPE = 'U')
BEGIN
-- Before Update
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'K',
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED FROM deleted 
-- After Update
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE 
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'N',
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED FROM inserted 
END

Using Microsoft SQL Server to Capture Text/Image Columns

If you want to audit text or image columns with Microsoft SQL Server, you will have to alter the trigger scripts that are generated manually. The trigger scripts that generated through the online pages do not support text or image columns. Below is an example of how a join against the base table can capture the value of the COMMENTS field after an insert, or update is performed.

CREATE TRIGGER PS_ABSENCE_HIST_TR ON PS_ABSENCE_HIST
FOR DELETE , INSERT , UPDATE
AS
SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE @XTYPE CHAR(1), @OPRID CHAR(8)
SET @OPRID = NULL
[SELECT @OPRID = substring(cast(context_info as char(128)),1,
(charindex(',',cast(context_info as char(128)))-1))
          FROM master..sysprocesses
          WHERE spid = @@spid]

IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM DELETED)
BEGIN
SET @XTYPE = 'D'
END
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM INSERTED)
BEGIN
IF (@XTYPE = 'D')
 BEGIN
  SET @XTYPE = 'U'
 END
ELSE
 BEGIN
  SET @XTYPE = 'I'
 END
END
-- Transaction is a Delete
IF (@XTYPE = 'D')
BEGIN
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE 
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED,COMMENTS)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'D',
A.EMPLID,A.ABSENCE_TYPE,A.BEGIN_DT,A.RETURN_DT,A.DURATION_DAYS,
A.DURATION_HOURS,A.REASON,A.PAID_UNPAID,A.EMPLOYER_APPROVED,'' 
FROM deleted A 
END
-- Transaction is a Insert
IF (@XTYPE = 'I')
BEGIN
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED,COMMENTS)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'A',
A.EMPLID,A.ABSENCE_TYPE,A.BEGIN_DT,A.RETURN_DT,A.DURATION_DAYS,
A.DURATION_HOURS,A.REASON,A.PAID_UNPAID,A.EMPLOYER_APPROVED,B.COMMENTS 
FROM inserted A, PS_ABSENCE_HIST BWHERE A.EMPLID = B.EMPLID  AND A.ABSENCE_TYPE = B.ABSENCE_TYPE  AND A.BEGIN_DT = B.BEGIN_DT
END
-- Transaction is a Update
IF (@XTYPE = 'U')
BEGIN
-- Before Update
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED,COMMENTS)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'K',
A.EMPLID,A.ABSENCE_TYPE,A.BEGIN_DT,A.RETURN_DT,A.DURATION_DAYS,
A.DURATION_HOURS,A.REASON,A.PAID_UNPAID,A.EMPLOYER_APPROVED,'' 
FROM deleted A 
 
-- After Update
INSERT INTO PS_AUDIT_ABSENCE 
(AUDIT_OPRID,AUDIT_STAMP,AUDIT_ACTN,
EMPLID,ABSENCE_TYPE,BEGIN_DT,RETURN_DT,DURATION_DAYS,
DURATION_HOURS,REASON,PAID_UNPAID,EMPLOYER_APPROVED,COMMENTS)
SELECT @OPRID,getdate(),'N',
A.EMPLID,A.ABSENCE_TYPE,A.BEGIN_DT,A.RETURN_DT,A.DURATION_DAYS,
A.DURATION_HOURS,A.REASON,A.PAID_UNPAID,A.EMPLOYER_APPROVED,B.COMMENTS 
FROM inserted A, PS_ABSENCE_HIST BWHERE A.EMPLID = B.EMPLID  AND A.ABSENCE_TYPE = B.ABSENCE_TYPE  AND A.BEGIN_DT = B.BEGIN_DT
END

Administering Microsoft SQL Server Trigger Maintenance

The following commands may be helpful when administering triggers.

List All Triggers in a Database

This command lists all triggers in a database:

SELECT name  FROM sysobjects WHERE type = 'TR'

List the Trigger Definition

This command lists the trigger definition:

sp_helptext TRIGGERNAME

List Trigger Information

This command lists trigger information:

sp_helptrigger BASE TABLE NAME

Returns the type or types of triggers that are defined on the specified table for the current database.

sp_help TRIGGERNAME

Reports information about a database object (any object listed in the SYSOBJECTS table), a user-defined data type, or a data type that Microsoft SQL Server supplies.

To Remove a Trigger

To remove a trigger:

drop trigger TRIGGERNAME

To Modify an Existing Trigger

To modify a trigger:

ALTER trigger ...

This alters the definition of a trigger that is created previously by the CREATE TRIGGER statement.

See the full definition in SQL Server Books Online.

See SQL Server Books Online for the full example.

To Disable a Trigger

To disable a trigger:

ALTER TABLE <table> | (ENABLE | DISABLE) TRIGGER	(ALL | trigger_name[,...n])

(ENABLE | DISABLE ) TRIGGER - Specifies that trigger_name is enabled or disabled. When a trigger is disabled, it is still defined for the table; however, when INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements are executed against the table, the actions in the trigger are not performed until the trigger is re-enabled.

  • ALL: Specifies that all triggers in the table are enabled or disabled.

  • trigger_nam: Specifies the name of the trigger to disable or enable.