In This Section:
The information in this chapter applies to block storage databases and aggregate storage database. As some rules file options and data source requirements vary for aggregate storage databases, also see Preparing Aggregate Storage Databases.
Loading data is the process of adding data values to an Essbase database from a data source, such as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet or SQL database. If the data source is not perfectly formatted, you need a rules file to load the data values.
Building dimensions is the process of loading dimensions and members to an Essbase database outline by using a data source and a rules file. You can also use Outline Editor to add dimensions and members manually.
If you are not using a rules file, you must set up the data source outside Essbase. See Data Sources.
See Rules Files.
Information about members, such as member names, member aliases, formulas, and consolidation properties
Generation and level names
Currency name and category
Data storage properties
When using spreadsheet files to load data or build an outline in Essbase, the spreadsheet files must reside on a Windows computer, regardless of the tool you use. Spreadsheet files that reside on a UNIX computer or are transferred via FTP to a UNIX computer are not supported. If Essbase Administration Server is installed on a UNIX computer, data loads and dimension builds from client-side spreadsheet files are not supported.
To avoid rules file, data load, and dimension build errors, remove formatting in Microsoft Excel data source files; for example, in Excel, set color to “Automatic” and “No Fill,” and remove font settings such as bold and italic.
As illustrated in Figure 62, Records and Fields, a data source comprises records, fields, and field delimiters.
A record is a structured row of related fields.
A field is an individual value.
A delimiter indicates that a field is complete and that the next character in the record starts another field.
As illustrated in Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, data sources can contain dimension fields, member fields, member combination fields, and data fields.
Dimension fields identify the dimensions of the database, such as Market. Use dimension fields to tell Essbase the order of the dimensions in the data source. In Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, for example, the dimension fields are Market, Product, Year, Measures, and Scenario. Fields in the Market column, such as Texas, are members of the Market dimension, and fields in the Product column, such as 100-10, are members of the Product dimension. Although you can set dimension fields in the data source, usually you define dimension fields in the rules file.
Member fields identify the members or member combinations of the specified dimensions. Use member fields to tell Essbase to which members to map new data values, or which members to add to the outline. In Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, for example, Texas, 100-10, Jan, Sales, and Actual are member fields.
Data fields contain the numeric data values that are loaded into the intersections of the members of the database. Each data value must map to a dimension intersection. In Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, for example, 42 is the data value that corresponds to the intersection of Texas, 100-10, Jan, Sales, and Actual.
You can specify information in the header and in an individual record. In the following example, 100 is the data value that corresponds to the intersection of Jan, Actual, Cola, East, Sales, and 200 is the data value that corresponds to the intersection of Jan, Actual, Cola, West, Sales.
Jan, Actual Cola East Sales 100 Cola West Sales 200 Cola South Sales 300
The following sections describe each item in a data source.
In a data load, if the data source does not identify every dimension in the Essbase database, the rules file must identify the missing dimensions. For example, the Sample.Basic database has a dimension for Year. If several data sources arrive with monthly numbers from different regions, the month itself may not be specified in the data sources. You must specify the month in the data source header or the rules file. See Defining Header Records.
A dimension field must contain a valid dimension name. If you are not performing a dimension build, the dimension must already exist in the database. If you are performing a dimension build, the dimension name can be new, but the new name must be specified in the rules file.
A member field can contain the name of a valid member or an alias. In Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, for example, Texas and Ohio are valid members of the Market dimension. A blank member field inherits the member name from the previous record. Essbase must know how to map each member field of the data source to a member of the database.
The member field must contain or inherit a valid member name or member property. See Using the Data Source to Work with Member Properties. If you are not performing a dimension build, the member must already exist in the outline. If you are performing a dimension build, the member can be new.
A member field can map to a single member name, such as Jan (which is a member of the Year dimension), or to a member combination, such as Jan, Actual (which are members of the Year and Scenario dimensions).
Member names that contain the same character as the file delimiter must be surrounded by double quotation marks. For example, if the data source is delimited by spaces, ensure that a member containing spaces, such as “New York,” is enclosed by double quotation marks. If you are performing a data load without a rules file, member names containing some other characters also must be enclosed by quotation marks. See Data Sources that Do Not Need a Rules File.
When a rules file is not used, blank dimension and member fields are valid. When Essbase encounters a blank dimension or member field while loading data without a rules file, it uses the last dimension or member name encountered for that dimension or member column.
While it processes each record in a data source for a data load, Essbase does not check to ensure that a member specified in a member field belongs to the dimension specified for the dimension field. Essbase loads the data value to the data cell identified by the member combination in the record. In Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, for example, if the second record reversed Jan and Sales (Texas, ‘100-10’, Sales, Jan, Actual, 42), Essbase would load 42 to the correct data cell. The exception is for fields in the rules file set as dimension reference method.
Either the data source or the rules file must contain enough information for Essbase to determine where to put each data value. A data field contains the data value for its intersection in the database. In Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, for example, 42 is a data field. It is the dollar sales of 100-10 (Cola) in Texas in January.
In a data field, Essbase accepts numbers and their modifiers, with no spaces or separators between them, and the text strings #MI and #MISSING, as listed in Table 38.
Table 38. Valid Data Field Modifiers
If the data source contains a member field for every dimension and one field that contains data values, you must define the field that contains data values as a data field in the rules file. To read the following data source into the Sample.Basic database, for example, define the last field as a data field.
Jan Cola East Sales Actual 100 Feb Cola East Sales Actual 200
To define a data field, see “Defining Columns as Data Fields” in the Oracle Essbase Administration Services Online Help.
If the data source contains blank fields for data values, replace them with #MI or #MISSING. If there is no value in the data field (or the value is #MISSING), Essbase does not change the existing data value in the database. Essbase does not replace current values with empty values.
In data sources that are loaded without a rules file, Essbase ignores extra delimiters. In the following example, the fields are separated by spaces. Essbase ignores the extra spaces between the fields.
East Cola Actual Jan Sales 10 East Cola Actual Feb Sales 21 East Cola Actual Mar Sales 30
In data sources that are loaded with a rules file, Essbase reads extra delimiters as empty fields. For example, if you try to use a rules file to load the file below into the Sample.Basic database, the load fails. Essbase reads the extra comma between East and Cola in the first record as an extra field. Essbase then puts Cola into Field 3. In the next record, however, Cola is in Field 2. Essbase expects Cola to be in Field 3 and stops the data load.
East,,Cola,Actual,Jan,Sales,10 East,Cola,Actual,Feb,Sales,21 East,Cola,Actual,Mar,Sales,30
Essbase views some characters in the data source as formatting characters only. Essbase ignores the characters listed in Table 39:
Table 39. Valid Formatting Characters
East Actual "100-10" Sales Marketing ===== ========= Jan 10 8 Feb 21 16
Rules define operations that Essbase performs on data values or on dimensions and members when it processes a data source. Use rules to map data values to an Essbase database or to map dimensions and members to an Essbase outline.
Rules are stored in rules files. A rules file defines which build method to use, whether data values or members are sorted or are in random order, and how to transform data values or members before loading them. It is best to create a separate rules file for each dimension.
Essbase reads the data values or members in the data source, changes them based on the rules in the rules file, and loads the changed data values into the database and the changed members into the outline. Essbase does not change the data source. You can reuse a rules file with any data source that requires the same set of rules.
After you create a dimension build rules file, you may want to automate the process of updating dimensions. See Using ESSCMD.
You do not need a rules file if you are performing a data load and the data source maps perfectly to the database. See Data Sources that Do Not Need a Rules File.
If you are using a rules file, the number of fields in each record in the rules file must match. See Dealing with Missing Fields in a Data Source.
To load a data value successfully, Essbase must encounter one member from each dimension before encountering the data value. For example, in Figure 63, Kinds of Fields, Essbase loads the data value 42 into the database with the members Texas, 100-10, Jan, Sales, and Actual. If Essbase encounters a data value before a member of each dimension is specified, it stops loading the data source.
If you are performing a data load without a rules file, when Essbase encounters an invalid member field, it stops the data load. Essbase loads all fields read before the invalid field into the database, resulting in a partial load of the data values. See Loading Dimension Build and Data Load Error Logs.
One or more valid data values. See Valid Data Fields.
Valid delimiters. See Valid Delimiters.
The fields in the data source must be formatted in an order that Essbase understands. The simplest way to format a record is to include a member from each dimension and a data field, as illustrated below:
Sales "100-10" Ohio Jan Actual 25 Sales "100-20" Ohio Jan Actual 25 Sales "100-30" Ohio Jan Actual 25
An incorrectly formatted data source will not load. You can edit the data source using a text editor and fix the problem. If you must perform many edits (such as moving several fields and records), consider using a rules file to load the data source. See Rules Files.
Actual Texas Sales COGS Jan Feb Jan Feb "100-10" 98 89 26 19 "100-20" 87 78 23 32
When Essbase encounters multiple members from the same dimension with no intervening data fields, it sets up a range for that dimension. The range stays in effect until Essbase encounters another member name from the same dimension, at which point Essbase replaces the range with the new member or new member range.
The following example contains a range of Jan to Feb in the Year dimension. It remains in effect until Essbase encounters another member name, such as Mar. When Essbase encounters Mar, the range changes to Jan, Feb, Mar.
Texas Sales Jan Feb Mar Actual “100-10" 98 89 58 “100-20” 87 78 115
When Essbase encounters a member range, it assumes that there is a corresponding range of data values. If the data values are not in the member range, the data load stops. Essbase loads any data fields read before the invalid field into the database, resulting in a partial data load.
The following example contains more data fields than member fields in the defined range of members. The data load stops when it reaches the 10 data field. Essbase loads the 100 and 120 data fields into the database.
Cola Actual East Jan Feb Sales 100 120 10 COGS 30 34 32
For information on restarting the load, see Loading Dimension Build and Data Load Error Logs.
The following example shows duplicate members for Actual, Budget, Sales, and Budget and two ranges: Actual to Budget and Sales to COGS. Essbase ignores the duplicate instances of Actual, Budget, Sales, and COGs (for example, in the second line in the example, the second Actual and second Actual are ignored):
Cola East Actual Budget Actual Budget Sales Sales COGS COGS Jan 108 110 49 50 Feb 102 120 57 60
For Actual, the first member of the first range, Essbase maps data values to each member of the second range (Sales and COGS). Essbase then proceeds to the next value of the first range, Budget, similarly mapping values to each member of the second range. As a result, Essbase interprets the file as shown below:
Cola East Actual Budget Sales COGS Sales COGS Jan 108 110 49 50 Feb 102 120 57 60
As Essbase scans a file, it processes the most recently encountered range first when identifying a range of data values. The example above contains two ranges: Actual and Budget and Sales and COGS. While reading the file from left to right and top to bottom, Essbase encounters the Actual and Budget range first and the Sales and COGS range second. Because the Sales and COGS range is encountered second, Essbase puts data fields in the Sales and COGS part of the database first.
Symmetric columns have the same number of members under them. In the following example, each dimension column has one column of members under it. For example, Product has one column under it (100-10 and 100-10) and Market has one column under it (Texas and Ohio).
Product Measures Market Year Scenario "100-10" Sales Texas Jan Actual 112 "100-10" Sales Ohio Jan Actual 145
Jan Feb Actual Budget Actual Budget "100-10" Sales Texas 112 110 243 215 "100-10" Sales Ohio 145 120 81 102
Asymmetric columns have different numbers of members under them. In the following example, the Jan and Feb columns are asymmetric because Jan has two columns under it (Actual and Budget) and Feb has one column under it (Budget):
Jan Jan Feb Actual Budget Budget "100-10" Sales Texas 112 110 243 "100-10" Sales Ohio 145 120 81
The following example is not valid because the column labels are incomplete. The Jan label must appear over the Actual and Budget columns.
Jan Feb Actual Budget Budget "100-10" Sales Texas 112 110 243 "100-10" Sales Ohio 145 120 81
Essbase supports concurrent multiple users reading and updating the database; therefore, users can use the database while you are dynamically building dimensions, loading data, or calculating the database. In a multi-user environment, Essbase protects data by using the security system described in User Management and Security in EPM System Security Mode.
The security system prevents unauthorized users from changing the database. Only users with write access to a database can load data values or add dimensions and members to the database. Write access can be provided globally or by using filters.
See Ensuring Data Integrity for information on Essbase transaction settings, such as identifying whether other users get read-only access to the locked block or noting how long Essbase waits for a locked block to be released.
See Data Locks for information on whether Essbase unlocks a block when its update is complete or waits for the entire data load to complete before unlocking the block.
You cannot build dimensions while other users are reading or writing to the database. After you build dimensions, Essbase restructures the outline and locks the database for the duration of the restructure operation.