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Oracle® Big Data Appliance Software User's Guide
Release 2 (2.2.1)

Part Number E41241-04
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Glossary

ASR

Oracle Auto Service Request, a software tool that monitors the health of the hardware and automatically generates a service request if it detects a problem.

See also OASM.

Balancer

A service that ensures that all nodes in the cluster store about the same amount of data, within a set range. Data is balanced over the nodes in the cluster, not over the disks in a node.

CDH

Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop, the version of Apache Hadoop and related components installed on Oracle Big Data Appliance.

Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop (CDH)

See CDH.

cluster

A group of servers on a network that are configured to work together. A server is either a master node or a worker node.

All servers in an Oracle Big Data Appliance rack form a cluster. Servers 1, 2, and 3 are master nodes. Servers 4 to 18 are worker nodes.

See Hadoop.

DataNode

A server in a CDH cluster that stores data in HDFS. A DataNode performs file system operations assigned by the NameNode.

See also HDFS; NameNode.

Flume

A distributed service in CDH for collecting and aggregating data from almost any source into a data store such as HDFS or HBase.

See also HBase; HDFS.

Hadoop

A batch processing infrastructure that stores files and distributes work across a group of servers. Oracle Big Data Appliance uses Cloudera's Distribution including Apache Hadoop (CDH).

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

See HDFS.

Hadoop User Experience (Hue)

See Hue.

HBase

An open-source, column-oriented database that provides random, read/write access to large amounts of sparse data stored in a CDH cluster. It provides fast lookup of values by key and can perform thousands of insert, update, and delete operations per second.

HDFS

Hadoop Distributed File System, an open-source file system designed to store extremely large data files (megabytes to petabytes) with streaming data access patterns. HDFS splits these files into data blocks and distributes the blocks across a CDH cluster.

When a data set is larger than the storage capacity of a single computer, then it must be partitioned across several computers. A distributed file system can manage the storage of a data set across a network of computers.

See also cluster.

Hive

An open-source data warehouse in CDH that supports data summarization, ad hoc querying, and data analysis of data stored in HDFS. It uses a SQL-like language called HiveQL. An interpreter generates MapReduce code from the HiveQL queries.

By using Hive, you can avoid writing MapReduce programs in Java.

See also Hive Thrift; HiveQL; MapReduce.

Hive Thrift

A remote procedure call (RPC) interface for remote access to CDH for Hive queries.

See also CDH; Hive.

HiveQL

A SQL-like query language used by Hive.

See also Hive.

HotSpot

A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that is maintained and distributed by Oracle. It automatically optimizes code that executes frequently, leading to high performance. HotSpot is the standard JVM for the other components of the Oracle Big Data Appliance stack.

Hue

Hadoop User Experience, a web user interface in CDH that includes several applications, including a file browser for HDFS, a job browser, an account management tool, a MapReduce job designer, and Hive wizards. Cloudera Manager runs on Hue.

See also HDFS; Hive.

Java HotSpot Virtual Machine

See HotSpot.

JobTracker

A service that assigns MapReduce tasks to specific nodes in the CDH cluster, preferably those nodes storing the data.

See also Hadoop; MapReduce.

MapReduce

A parallel programming model for processing data on a distributed system.

A MapReduce program contains these functions:

  • Mappers: Process the records of the data set.

  • Reducers: Merge the output from several mappers.

  • Combiners: Optimizes the result sets from the mappers before sending them to the reducers (optional).

MySQL Server

A SQL-based relational database management system. Cloudera Manager, Oracle Data Integrator, Hive, and Oozie use MySQL Server as a metadata repository on Oracle Big Data Appliance.

NameNode

A service that maintains a directory of all files in HDFS and tracks where data is stored in the CDH cluster.

See also HDFS.

node

A server in a CDH cluster.

See also cluster.

NoSQL Database

See Oracle NoSQL Database.

OASM

Oracle Automated Service Manager, a service for monitoring the health of Oracle Sun hardware systems. Formerly named Sun Automatic Service Manager (SASM).

Oozie

An open-source workflow and coordination service for managing data processing jobs in CDH.

Oracle Database Instant Client

A small-footprint client that enables Oracle applications to run without a standard Oracle Database client.

Oracle Linux

An open-source operating system. Oracle Linux 5.6 is the same version used by Exalogic 1.1. It features the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel.

Oracle NoSQL Database

A distributed key-value database that supports fast querying of the data, typically by key lookup.

Oracle R Distribution

An Oracle-supported distribution of the R open-source language and environment for statistical analysis and graphing.

Oracle R Enterprise

A component of the Oracle Advanced Analytics Option. It enables R users to run R commands and scripts for statistical and graphical analyses on data stored in an Oracle database.

Pig

An open-source platform for analyzing large data sets that consists of the following:

  • Pig Latin scripting language

  • Pig interpreter that converts Pig Latin scripts into MapReduce jobs

Pig runs as a client application.

See also MapReduce.

Puppet

A configuration management tool for deploying and configuring software components across a cluster. The Oracle Big Data Appliance initial software installation uses Puppet.

The Puppet tool consists of these components: puppet agents, typically just called puppets; the puppet master server; a console; and a cloud provisioner.

See also puppet agent; puppet master.

puppet agent

A service that primarily pulls configurations from the puppet master and applies them. Puppet agents run on every server in Oracle Big Data Appliance.

See also Puppet; puppet master

puppet master

A service that primarily serves configurations to the puppet agents.

See also Puppet; puppet agent.

Sqoop

A command-line tool that imports and exports data between HDFS or Hive and structured databases. The name Sqoop comes from "SQL to Hadoop." Oracle R Connector for Hadoop uses the Sqoop executable to move data between HDFS and Oracle Database.

table

In Hive, all files in a directory stored in HDFS.

See also HDFS.

TaskTracker

A service that runs on each node and executes the tasks assigned to it by the JobTracker service.

See also JobTracker.

ZooKeeper

A centralized coordination service for CDH distributed processes that maintains configuration information and naming, and provides distributed synchronization and group services.