Oracle8i Parallel Server Setup and Configuration Guide
Release 8.1.5






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alert file

The alert file contains important information about error messages and exceptions that occur during database operations.


When you execute the Discover Node command from the Console, the Management Server contacts the Oracle Intelligent Agent installed on that node to discover the Oracle services installed on the node. The Management Server then places the new information in the repository, and updates the hierearchical tree in the Navigator window of the Console, displaying a big-picture view of all nodes and their respective services.

BSP0 process

The BSP0 process manages out-going messages to requesting nodes for the Consistent Read (CR) Server.


A cluster is a set of instances, each typically running on different nodes, that coordinate with one another when accessing the shared database residing on disk.

Cluster Manager (CM)

Cluster Manager is an Operating System Dependent component that discovers and tracks the membership state of nodes by providing a common view of cluster membership across the cluster.

CM monitors process health, specifically of the Oracle8i release 8.1 database instance. The LMON process, a background process that monitors the health of the Integrated Distributed Lock Manager (IDLM), registers and de-registers from CM.


The Oracle Enterprise Manager Console gives you a central point of control for the Oracle environment through an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) that provides powerful and robust system management.

fine-grain locks

A type of locking where PCM locks are dynamically allocated at block-access time. The resources for the lock are only allocated during the time the lock is needed and are released when the lock is released.

global database name

The global database name is the full name of the database which uniquely identifies it from any other database. The global database name is of the form "database_name.database_domain". For example:


The database name portion, OP, is a simple name you wish to call your database. The database domain portion, .US.ORACLE.COM, specifies the database domain in which the database is located, making the global database name unique. When possible, Oracle Corporation recommends that your database domain mirror the network domain.

The global database name is the default service name of database, as specified by the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the INITDB_NAME.ORA file.

hashed locks

A type of locks where PCM locks are statically assigned to one or more blocks in the data files.


HOME_NAME represents the name of an Oracle home in an Oracle service on Windows NT.


The INITSID.ORA file is an initialization file that contains parameters unique for an instance and points to INITDBNAME.ORA for database parameters.


The INITDBNAME.ORA file is an initialization file that contains database parameters.

Input/Output (IO)

Input/Output is an Operating System Dependent component that provides I/O to access shared disks.


For an Oracle Parallel Server database, each node within the cluster has an instance of the running Oracle8i software referencing the database.

When a database is started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle allocates a memory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracle processes. This combination of the SGA and the Oracle processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database's data efficiently and serve the one or more users of the database. You can connect to any instance to access any information that resides within a parallel server database.

Each instance has unique Oracle System Identifier (SID), instance name, rollback segments, and thread ID.

instance name

Instance name represents the name of the instance and is used to uniquely identify a specific instance when multiple instances share common services names. The instance name is identified by the INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the INITSID.ORA file.

The instance name is the same as the Oracle System Identifier (SID).

Integrated Distributed Lock Manager (IDLM)

Oracle Parallel Server software that provides locking mechanisms to control allocation and modification of Oracle resources.

Inter-Process Communication (IPC)

Inter-Process Communication is an Operating System Dependent component that reliable transfer of messages between instances on different nodes.

LCKN process

The LCKN process manages the locks used by an instance and coordinates requests for those locks by other instances. Additional lock processes, LCK1 through LCK9, are available for systems that require exceptionally high throughput of instance lock requests. The single lock process per instance, LCK0, is usually sufficient for most systems.


The listener is a separate process that resides on the server whose responsibility is to listen for incoming client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.

The listener brokers the client request, handing off the request to the server. Every time a client (or server acting as a client) requests a network session with a server, a listener receives the actual request. If the client's information matches the listener's information, the listener grants a connection to the server.


A configuration file that describes one or more listeners on a server. This file must reside on each of the nodes.

LMDN process

The LMDN process handles remote lock requests (those which originate from another instance).

LMON process

The LMON process manages instance and processes deaths and associated recovery for the Integrated Distributed Lock Manager (IDLM).

Management Server

The Oracle Enterprise Manager Management Server provides centralized intelligence and distributed control between the Console and the managed nodes, and processes system management tasks sent by the Console and administers the distribution of these tasks across the enterprise. The Management Server stores all system data, application data, and information about the state of managed nodes in a repository, which is a set of tables stored in a database. High performance and scalability is ensured because the workload is automatically shared and balanced when there are multiple Management Servers.

multiple Oracle homes

The capability of having more than one Oracle home directory on a machine.

net service name

A net service name is able to access a service across the network by providing the network description information necessary to locate the service on the network.


Net8 is the foundation of Oracle's family of networking products, allowing services and their applications to reside on different computers and communicate as peer applications. The main function of Net8 is to establish network sessions and transfer data between a client machine and a server or between two servers. Once a network session is established, Net8 acts as a data courier for the client and the server.


A node is a machine where an instance resides.

OPSCTL utility

Oracle Parallel Server Management uses the OPSCTL utility (installed on each node) to manage instances. OPSCTL gathers information about all the instances for Oracle Enterprise Manager. OPSCTL serves as a single point of control between the Oracle Oracle Intelligent Agent and the nodes. Only one node's Oracle Intelligent Agent is used to communicate to OPSCTL. OPSCTL on that node then communicates to the other nodes through Net8.

Oracle Enterprise Manager

Oracle Enterprise Manager is a system management tool which provides an integrated solution for centrally managing your heterogeneous environment. Oracle Enterprise Manager combines a graphical Console, Management Server, Oracle Intelligent Agent, repository database, and tools to provide an integrated, comprehensive systems management platform for managing Oracle products.

A product family consists of system management tools designed to efficiently manage the complete Oracle environment.

Oracle Data Gatherer

The Oracle Data Gatherer collects performance statistics for the Oracle Performance Manager. The Oracle Data Gatherer must be installed on a node somewhere on the network.

Oracle Intelligent Agent

The Oracle Intelligent Agent is a process that runs on each of the nodes. It functions as the executor of jobs and events sent by the console via the Management Server. High availability is ensured since the agent can function regardless of the status of the Console or network connections.

Oracle Parallel Query

Parallel query divides the work of processing certain types of SQL statements among multiple query server processes.

Oracle Parallel Server

Oracle Parallel Server is an architecture that allows multiple instances to access a shared database of data files.

Oracle Parallel Server Option

The Oracle Parallel Server Option provides the necessary Oracle Parallel Server scripts, initialization files, and data files to make Oracle8i Enterprise Edition an Oracle Parallel Server database.

Oracle Parallel Server Management

Oracle Parallel Server Management is a comprehensive and integrated system management solution for the Oracle Parallel Server. Oracle Parallel Server Management allows you to manage multi-instance databases running in heterogeneous environments through an open client-server architecture through Oracle Enterprise Manager.

In addition to managing parallel databases, Oracle Parallel Server Management allows you to schedule jobs, perform event management, monitor performance, and obtain statistics to tune parallel databases.

Oracle Performance Manager

Oracle Performance Manager is an add-on application for Oracle Enterprise Manager that offers a variety of tabular and graphic performance statistics for parallel servers. The statistics represent the aggregate performance for all instances running on an Oracle Parallel Server.

Oracle service

Oracle services are created and associated with Oracle products, such as the database or listener.

Oracle System Identifier (SID)

The Oracle System Identifier (SID) identifies a specific instance of the running Oracle8i software. For an Oracle Parallel Server database, each node within the cluster has an instance referencing the database.

The database name, specified by the DB_NAME parameter in the INITDB_NAME.ORA file, and unique thread ID make up each node's SID. The thread ID starts at 1 for the first instance in the cluster, and is incremented by 1 for the next instance, and so on.

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition is an Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS). It provides the applications and files to manage a database. All other Oracle Parallel Server components are layered on top of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Operating System Dependent layer

A software layer that consists of several software components developed by vendors. The OSD layer maps the key OS/cluster-ware services required for proper operation of Oracle Parallel Server.


A utility to start and stop instances from either one node or from Oracle Enterprise Manager.

OPS Communication Daemon (OPSD)

The OPS Communication Daemon (OPSD) receives requests from the OPSCTL utility to execute administrative job tasks, such as startup or shutdown. The command is executed locally on each node, and the results are sent back to OPSCTL. OPSD is installed on the nodes. OPSD is only implemented on UNIX platforms.

Parallel Cache Management (PCM)

Oracle Parallel Server software that provides instance locks that cover one or more data blocks (table or index blocks) in the buffer cache. PCM locks ensure that each shared buffer cache in a node remains consistent with the shared buffer caches in other nodes with minimal use of the Integrated Distributed Lock Manager (IDLM).

parallel coordinator

A process that dispatches the execution of a SQL statement to several parallel server processes and coordinates the results from all of the slave processes to send the results back to the user.

parallel server process

Processes that performs the requested action of the parallel coordinator.

preferred credentials

Each Oracle Enterprise Manager administrator can set up specific user names, passwords, and roles for nodes, listeners, databases, and other services that you administer in the network.

After these credentials are set up, you log in once to start the Console and are then automatically logged in as needed to the nodes. All login credentials are encrypted in the repository database.

repository database

A repository database is a set of tables in an Oracle database which stores data required by Oracle Enterprise Manager. This database is separate from the database on the nodes.

rollback segments

Records the old values of data that was changed by each transaction (whether committed or not committed). Rollback segments are used to provide read consistency, to roll back transactions, and to recover the database. Each node typically has two rollback segments, which are identified with a naming convention of RBSthread_id_rollback_number by the ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS parameter in the INITSID.ORA file.

service name

The service name identifies the database. By default, the Oracle Universal Installer and the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates a service name that includes the entire global database name, a name comprised of the database name (DB_NAME) and domain name (DB_DOMAIN), entered during installation or database creation.

The service name is identified by the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the INITDBNAME.ORA file.


SID is an abbreviation for Oracle System Identifier (SID).

SETLINKS utility

SETLINKS is a utility to map symbolic links to raw devices for Windows NT.

Startup (START)

Startup is an Operating System Dependent component that provides one-time configuration to startup functionality.


SYSDBA is a special database administration role that contains all system privileges with the ADMIN OPTION, and the SYSOPER system privilege. SYSDBA also permits CREATE DATABASE and time-based recovery.


SYSOPER is a special database administration role that permits a database administrator to perform STARTUP, SHUTDOWN, ALTER DATABASE OPEN/MOUNT, ALTER DATABASE BACKUP, ARCHIVE LOG, and RECOVER, and includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

System Global Area (SGA)

A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an Oracle instance.


A logical portion of an Oracle database used to allocate storage for table and index data. Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files. Every Oracle database has a tablespace called SYSTEM and may have additional tablespaces. A tablespace is used to group related logical structures together. For example, tablespaces commonly group all of an application's objects to simplify certain administrative operations.

thread ID

The number of the redo thread that is to be used by the instance. Any available redo thread number can be used, but an instance cannot use the same thread number as another instance. Also, an instance cannot start when its redo thread is disabled. An instance cannot mount a database if the thread is used by another instance or if the thread is disabled.

The thread starts at 1 node for the first instance in the cluster, and is incremented by 1 for the next instance, and so on..

Threads are depicted by the THREAD parameter in the INITSID.ORA file.

When redo log files are generated, they include the thread ID, allowing you to easily identify a particular node's log files.


A file that contains net service names. This file is needed on clients, nodes, the Console, and the Oracle Performance Manager machine.

trace file

Each server and background process can write to an associated trace file. When an internal error is detected by a process, it dumps information about the error to its trace file. Some of the information written to a trace file is intended for the database administrator, while other information is intended for Oracle Support Services. Trace file information is also used to tune applications and instances.


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