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5 Manage Product and Service Data: Manage Product Bundles and Structures

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This chapter contains the following:

Structures and Structure Types

Creating Structures

Managing Structures

FAQs for Manage Product Bundles and Structures

Structures and Structure Types

Structure Types: Explained

Structures, also known as Bills of Material (BOM), are used to store lists of items that are associated with a parent item and information about how each item is related to its parent. Supported structures are standard, model, option class, and planning. The type of structure that can be defined for an item depends on the value specified against the item's item structure type attribute.

Standard Structure

A standard structure is the most common type and lists the mandatory components, the required quantity of each component, and information to control work in process, material planning, and other manufacturing functions. Examples include structures for manufacturing assemblies, pick-to-order bills, kit bills, and phantoms.

Model Structure

A model structure defines the list of options and option classes that you can select when ordering a product that can be configured. A model structure also specifies mandatory components or included items that are required for each configuration of that model. You do not order or build the model itself; you order and build configurations of the model. A model structure can be either assemble-to-order or pick-to-order.

Option Class Structure

An option class is an item that groups optional components on a structure. An option class is an item that becomes a level in your model structure. Option classes can also have mandatory components that apply for all of its options. For example, when you order a computer, the monitor is an option class, and the specific type of monitor that you order is an option within that option class. An option class structure can be either assemble-to-order or pick-to-order.

Option class structures can contain standard components and options, as well as other option classes. You can structure any number of levels of option classes within option classes to create an indented hierarchy of choices. You can also specify a mandatory component under any option class in the indented structure that would automatically be included anytime that you choose an option from that option class (or a lower-level option class).

Planning Structure

A planning structure is a structure that includes a percentage distribution for its components. The percentages associated with the components on a planning structure do not need to add to 100 percent. You can define alternate and common planning structures, where the structure that you reference as common must be another planning structure.

Planning items can be nested within one another any number of times. When you nest planning items, scheduling applications can explode forecasts level by level and apply planning percentages at each level.

Phantom Structure

A phantom assembly is a non-stocked assembly that lets you group together material needed to produce a subassembly. When you create a structure for a parent item, you can specify whether a component is a phantom. One structure can represent a phantom subassembly for one parent item, and a stocked subassembly for another parent item.

Work in Process applications explode through a phantom subassembly to the components as if the components were tied directly to the parent assembly. Work in Process applications ignore phantom assembly routings when you define a job or repetitive schedule.

You can compute manufacturing and cumulative lead times for phantom assemblies that have routings. If you do not want to offset the components of a phantom assembly in the planning process, exclude the phantom item from the lead time calculations.

In general, phantom assemblies behave like normal assemblies when they represent a top-level assembly, such as when you master schedule them or manufacture them using a discrete job. As a subassembly, however, they lose their identity as distinct assemblies and instead represent a collection of their components. The components of the phantom subassembly are included on the job and on the pick list of the job, not the phantom itself.

Primary and Other Structures: Explained

A primary structure is a list of the components you most frequently use to build a product. A structure, other than primary, is another list of components for the same basic assembly.

The primary structure is the default for rolling up costs, defining a job, and calculating cumulative item lead times.

Scheduling programs use the primary structure to plan materials. Order management programs use the primary structure for model and option class products to list available options.

When you build an item, roll up costs, and perform other functions that use structures, you can specify whether to use the primary structure (the default) or an alternate structure. You can also use change orders to control changes to primary and other structures.

Use alternate structures to account for manufacturing variations that produce the same assembly, by specifying the parent item number and an alternate name when you create a structure.

You can use an alternate to define an engineering structure or routing. The alternate is used as a prototype variation from the primary manufacturing structure that produces essentially the same assembly.

Valid Component Attributes and Structure Types: Explained

Each structure can have many components. For each component, you specify attributes, such as operation sequence, item sequence, usage quantity, yield, supply type, supply subinventory and locator, and others.

The following table lists valid component attributes for each type of structure.


Component Attributes

Standard Parent Item

Model Parent Item

Option Class Parent Item

Planning Parent Item

Item

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Item Sequence

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Operation Sequence

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Effective Date Range

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Planning Percentage

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yield

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Enforce Integer Requirements

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Include in Cost Rollup

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Supply Type

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Supply Subinventory

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Supply Locator

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Mutually Exclusive Options

No

Yes

Yes

No

Optional Flag

No

Yes

Yes

No

Check ATP

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Minimum Quantity

No

Yes

Yes

No

Maximum Quantity

No

Yes

Yes

No

Basis

No

Yes

Yes

No

Include in Shipping Document

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Required to Ship

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Required for Revenue

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Quantity

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Inverse Quantity

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Descriptive Flexfield

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Comments

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Validation Rules for Structures and Components: How They Affect Editing of Structures

Your ability to create, copy, or change structures is affected by a number of validation rules; seeded and user-configured.

How Structures and Components Are Validated

When you create, copy, or change a structure, the following validation rules are applied:

  • You cannot add a component to a structure where the component item is the same as the parent.

  • You cannot add a component to a structure where the same component, with the same operation sequence and effectivity, already exists on the structure.

  • Lifecycle validation rules, when enabled, ensure that only components in the same lifecycle phase or higher lifecycle phase than the parent item can be added. The only exception is made for an obsolete lifecycle phase. Component items in this lifecycle phase cannot be added to an effective structure.

  • You cannot add a component to a structure that is being referenced as a common structure from another organization, where the component does not exist in the other organization.

  • You cannot add components to common structures. Changes should be performed on the referenced structure only.

  • For Assemble to Order (ATO), Pick to Order (PTO), and phantom structures where the parent item has Available to Promise (ATP) Components set to No, you receive a warning when you add a component that has either the item attributes Check ATP set to Yes or ATP Components set to Yes. The warning says "Order details for the parent item specify NO for ATP Components", but you can add the component.

  • You cannot add an optional component to a structure that is neither model nor option class.

  • You cannot add a component whose planning percentage is not equal to 100 to a standard structure.

  • You cannot add a mandatory component whose planning percentage is not equal to 100 and that has the Forecast Control attribute set to Consume or None to a model or option class structure.

  • When adding a component to a structure, Check ATP component attribute is set to No if the component quantity is less than or equal to 0.

Note

Routings-based validation are not supported. The only check made is to ensure that an integer value is entered for the operation sequence.

The following table presents the validation rules used for adding components to different structure types.

Here is a guide to the various table values:

  • Yes: You can add this component type to this structure type.

  • No: You cannot add this component type to this structure type.

  • *: These components must be optional.

  • **: These components are treated as standard subassemblies.


Description

Planning

PTO Model

PTO Option Class

PTO Option (kit)

ATO Model

ATO Option Class

ATO Item

Standard Item

Planning Structure

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

PTO Model Structure

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes*

Yes

ATO Item

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes**

Yes

ATO Model Structure

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

ATO Option Class Structure

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

ATO Item Structure

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes**

Yes

Standard Item Structure

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Item and Operation Sequence: Explained

Item sequence indicates the sequence of an item on a structure and every routing carries operations.

Item Sequence

Item sequence indicates the sequence of an item on the structure. It is used to sort components on reports and when choosing options from a model bill in Oracle Order Management. This defaults to the value of the highest existing component item sequence plus the value of the BOM: Component Item Sequence Increment profile option. If this profile option is not set, the default is 10. You can override or change this number.

Operation Sequence

Every routing carries operations. You can use the Routings form to assign operations to routings. Each operation must have a sequence number called the Operation Sequence Number.

On a structure, the operation sequence indicates the order in which you perform operations on a routing. You can have the system automatically generate Operation Sequence Numbers using a user-defined increment factor. A profile must be created where you can indicate how much the Operation Sequence Number will increment every time a new operation is generated. You can change the generated value if necessary in the Routings form. Valid values range from 1 to 9999999.

You can assign any component to any operation on the routing, including all components to the same operation (such as the first operation). The planning process assigns material requirement dates based on the operations to which you assign each component.

You can define structures for items with or without routings. If you use routings, you can either define the structure first or the routing first.

With component-to-operation assignments, you can schedule and issue component material to the operation that requires the component on the exact requirement date. You can also assign the same component on the structure to different operations on the routing, with different usage quantities for each assignment.

If no routing exists for the item, all components default to operation sequence 1. You cannot change this value until you define a routing for the item. After you define the routing, you can update your structure with routing operations if you want specific component-to-operation assignments.

If you define the routing before you define a structure, assign components to valid routing operations, or an operation sequence 1 when you define the structure. If you define an alternate routing and then define the alternate structure, you can assign components to the alternate routing operations. If you define an alternate structure and no alternate routing exists, you can assign components to the primary routing operations.

Creating Structures

Item Structures: Explained

A structure contains information on the parent item, components, attachments, and descriptive elements using descriptive flexfields. Each standard component of a structure can have multiple reference designators and substitute components.

A product manager or product data steward is normally responsible for defining and managing product (item) structures. Note that the terms product and item are used interchangeably. A typical flow would involve:

  • Create Product Structure

  • Manage Product Structure

  • Compare Product Structure

Create Product Structure

Product structures can be created in various ways. If the new structure is similar to an existing structure, you may copy and modify this new structure. If the new structure is an exact copy of another structure and its assembly details need not be maintained separately, you can link the new structure to an existing structure by using the Common option. Alternately, you can create a new structure by adding the required components and their information. Product structure can be created in one of three following ways:

  • Create as New

  • Create from Copy

  • Create from Common

Create as New

Select an item and select create a new structure. Specify the structure name, description, and effectivity control. Select and add the required components on the Structure Details page.

An item structure exists only in the organization in which it was created. To use a structure in another organization, you must either copy it or reference it as common.

Create from Copy

You can copy structures across different effectivities with these restrictions.


Structure Effectivity

Structure Effectivity

Source

Target

Copy Allowed?

Date

Date

Yes

 

Serial

Yes

 

Unit

Yes

Serial

Date

No

 

Serial

Yes

 

Unit

No

Unit/Lot

Date

No

 

Serial

No

 

Unit

Yes

Create from Common

Select an item and its structure to common and preview the components of the common structure. However, unlike copying structures, common structures will have the same components. You will not have the ability to pick individual components.

When creating a common or referenced structure, the target structure will be created with the same effectivity as the source structure.

Common Structures: Explained

Common structures are referenced structures that share a component hierarchy, including the substitute components and reference designators defined for the components.

Creating Common Structures

If two or more organizations use the same item structure, you can define the structure in one organization and reference it from the other organizations, creating what is known as a common or referenced structure. You cannot update any information in a common structure. Any maintenance, such as removing or adding components or changing component attribute values, have to be made against the source (referenced) structure.

You cannot reference another structure as common if that structure also references a common structure. You can reference another structure as a common structure only if the referenced structure has the same structure name.

You can create a common structure within the same organization, as well as across multiple organizations. Sharing structures across multiple organizations minimizes the maintenance of your item structures.

You can reference structures only from organizations that have the same item master organization as the current organization.

Editing Common Structures

While common structures minimize maintenance, there is a need in some businesses to manage material control attributes independently. You can control these attributes by setting Allow attribute updates to yes when creating a common structure. This setting enables you to manage five component material controls at each structure level separately, independent of the source structure.

Here are the five material control attributes:

  • Supple Type

  • Subinventory

  • Locator

  • Operation Sequence

  • Include in Cost Rollup

You can enable this option only when you are creating a common structure. You cannot enable this option once the common structure has been created. Evaluate the business need thoroughly before creating the common structure.

Once you enable the Allow attribute updates option in a common structure and save the structure, you cannot disable the attributes. If you must disable the attributes, then delete the structure and enter a new common structure for the item.

Managing Structures

Managing Product Structures: Explained

Managing product structures involves updating the structure by adding or removing components in the structures, making changes to first level component attributes, and maintaining substitute and reference designator information for first level components. Managing product structures also includes deleting product structures that are no longer in use.

Viewing Structure Details

Structure information is available as part of the item details. You can view structure details by navigating to the Item Details page and selecting the Structures tab. All structures created for items are listed in the structure table within the item structures subtab. The change control column indicates if structure changes are allowed. Change control permission is based on the business rules written for the structure name. The change orders column presents the number of change orders pending for the structure. Structure details, including header attachments and configured attributes, are presented in a details region. Clicking the structure name enables you to drill into the structure details page to view the component information.

The structure details page shows multilevel structure components in a hierarchical table and provides you with a complete view of all the component and assemblies of the structure. A date filter enables you to view the structure components as of a given date. For each component in a structure, the component item and component information is provided in a detailed region. This region includes these sections:

  • Substitute Components: Lists items that can be used in place of the component.

  • Reference Designators: Lists the component placement during assembly.

  • Where Used: Lists component items that are used in other structures.

  • Change Orders: Lists pending changes for the component (item).

  • Additional Attributes: Lists additional attributes and their values that may have been configured for the structure type and name.

Note

Only the first level components can be managed from the Structure Details page.

The structure details table provides a default view of some component and item attributes. You have the ability to view additional item or component attributes using the columns option in the View menu. To view component data across different levels, you can add item operational and component attributes as table columns.

The structure details table also provides for direct access to the structures list table without having to first go to an items page and navigating to structures tab. Simply right-click on an item and select Structure List.

You also have the ability to see a flat representation of the structure by clicking View Summary. The summary view table will list:

  • Item Name

  • Item Description

  • Item Class

  • Total Quantity

  • Item Revision

Updating Structure Components

Structure component updates include adding, deleting, or disabling components and updating component attributes. You can search for items and add as first level components to a structure.

You can select component rows and update their attributes. Multiple components with the same attribute changes can be updated quickly in a single action. The disable action enables you to quickly end-date a component. The delete action enables you to remove the component from the structure permanently and to integrate the component into the Delete Groups. You are required to add the component deletion request to a delete group.

Updating Substitute Component Information

You can assign any number of substitute items to each structure component, and you can assign the same substitute item to more than one component. The substitute item quantity is the quantity needed to replace the full component quantity. The quantity can differ from the component usage quantity.

Planning bills and model, option class, and planning components cannot have substitute components.

Updating Component Reference Designators

Reference designators are sequenced comments and instructions that pertain to a component. For example, you may have drawings that clarify the assembly process for certain components, or further instructions for the use of a large quantity of the same component. You can specify whether to assign one reference designator for every usage of the component or assign any number of reference designators to the component.

You can indicate whether reference designators are related to component quantity .

Planning bills and model, option class, and planning components cannot have reference designators.

Updating Component Item Usage

The Where Used tab enables you to view component item usage in other structures.

Versioned Item Structures: Explained

Item structure definition and maintenance is part of item versioning. Item structures are maintained at the item level. If the root item's item class has enabled versioning, you must manage item structures through item versioning. For example, any structure changes for items in that item class will cause new item versions to be created.

Date effective structures are supported in versioning.

The start and end dates of a structure component will be the start and end dates of the item version. You cannot enter start and end dates for components that are different from the version's start and end dates.

To add or remove a future effective component, you must create a new item version.

Structure Deletion: Explained

Item structures or specific components within item structures can be deleted using delete groups. Deleting a structure or a component from a structure removes the record without any reference to its earlier usage or existence. When you delete an entire structure, you delete all the components for the assembly, along with their reference designators and substitute items.

When you delete a structure or component, that delete action passes through several deletion constraints and statements defined for structures. Additionally, you can define custom deletion constraints and statements.

Defining Custom Deletion Constraints and Statements

You can define custom deletion constraints and statements. If what you are attempting to delete does not pass deletion constraints, it is not deleted. For example, you can define a constraint that prevents you from deleting a structure for an assembly that has an item status of active.

FAQs for Manage Product Bundles and Structures

What's a structure attachment?

When creating a structure, you can attach various documents pertaining to that item structure, such as drawings and reference materials. These attachments are available to view as part of structure header details.

What are item and components attachments?

Item and component attachments are attachments that you can view at the item level as part of the structure details view. Only those attachments whose categories have been associated with the structure name will be available.

What's a Substitute Component?

Substitute components are items that can be used in place of a component. You can associate any number of substitute items to each structure component and the same substitute item can be associated to more than one component. The substitute item quantity is the quantity needed to replace the full component quantity. The quantity can differ from the component quantity. Planning bills and model, option class, and planning components cannot have substitute components.

How does enable lifecycle validation impact structure creation and management?

When lifecycle validation rules are enabled, they ensure that only components in the same lifecycle phase or higher lifecycle phase than the parent item can be added. The only exception is made for obsolete lifecycle phase. Component items in this lifecycle phase cannot be added to an effective structure. For example, the parent item has lifecycle phases of Concept, Design, Prototype, Production, and Obsolescence. It is currently in Prototype lifecycle phase. When adding a component to this item's structure, the component should have a cycle phase of Prototype (same as the parent item) or Production (higher lifecyle than the parent item).

What's a reference designator?

Reference designators are sequenced comments and instructions that pertain to a component. For example, you may have drawings that clarify the assembly process for certain components, or further instructions for the use of a large quantity of the same component. You can specify whether to assign one reference designator for every usage of the component or assign any number of reference designators to the component. Planning bills and model, option class, and planning components cannot have reference designators. You can also specify a comment for each reference designator.

What's a structure loop?

Structure loops occur when a structure is assigned as a component of itself somewhere in the multilevel structure of a defined item. By default, a check for structure loops is run when creating or editing a structure.

How can I compare item structures?

Initiate a structure comparison from the structure list table by selecting two structures to compare and then selecting component attributes.

Structure comparison results are presented in a hierarchical table with the selected two structure component details. Differences are identified with a blue dot. Clicking the blue dot presents the differences between the two structures in a table. You can change the attributes or structures being compared quickly using the Actions menu.


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