Skip Headers
Oracle® Database Security Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E48135-10
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

C Kerberos, SSL, and RADIUS Authentication Parameters

This appendix contains:

About the Kerberos, RADIUS, and SSL Authentication Parameters

This appendix illustrates some sample configuration files with the profile file (sqlnet.ora) and the database initialization file authentication parameters, when using Kerberos, RADIUS, or SSL authentication.

Parameters for Clients and Servers Using Kerberos Authentication

Table C-1 lists parameters to insert into the configuration files for clients and servers using Kerberos.

Table C-1 Kerberos Authentication Parameters

File Name Configuration Parameters

sqlnet.ora

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(KERBEROS5)  
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE=oracle     
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME=/usr/tmp/DCE-CC   
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW=1200   
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF=/krb5/krb.conf      
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS=/krb5/krb.realms  
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB=/krb5/v5srvtab

initialization parameter file

OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=""

Parameters for Clients and Servers Using Secure Sockets Layer

There are two ways to configure a parameter for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL):

  • Static: The name of the parameter that exists in the sqlnet.ora file. Parameters like SSL_CIPHER_SUITES and SSL_VERSION can also be configured using the listener.ora file.

  • Dynamic: The name of the parameter used in the security subsection of the Oracle Net address.

Secure Sockets Layer Authentication Parameters for Clients and Servers

Table C-2 describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring SSL on the server.

Table C-2 SSL Authentication Parameters for Clients and Servers

Attribute Description

Parameter Name (static)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES

Parameter Name (dynamic)

AUTHENTICATION

Parameter Type

String LIST

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

Add TCPS to the list of available authentication services.

Default Value

No default value.

Description

To control which authentication services a user wants to use.

Note: The dynamic version supports only the setting of one type.

Existing/New Parameter

Existing

Syntax (static)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (TCPS, selected_method_1, selected_method_2)

Example (static)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (TCPS, radius)

Syntax (dynamic)

AUTHENTICATION = string

Example (dynamic)

AUTHENTICATION = (TCPS)


Cipher Suite Parameters for Secure Sockets Layer

Table C-3 describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring cipher suites.

Table C-3 Cipher Suite Parameters for Secure Sockets Layer

Attribute Description

Parameter Name (static)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES

Parameter Name (dynamic)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES

Parameter Type

String LIST

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

Any known SSL cipher suite

Default Value

No default

Description

Controls the combination of encryption and data integrity used by SSL.

Existing/New Parameter

Existing

Syntax (static)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suite1[, SSL_cipher_suite2, ... SSL_cipher_suiteN])

Example (static)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA)

Syntax (dynamic)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suite1

[, SSL_cipher_suite2, ...SSL_cipher_suiteN])

Example (dynamic)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA)


Supported SSL Cipher Suites

Oracle Database supports the following cipher suites:

  • SSL_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256

  • SSL_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256

  • SSL_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384

  • SSL_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA

Note that the cipher suites that use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) work with Transport Layer Security (TLS 1.0) only.

Secure Sockets Layer Version Parameters

Table C-4 describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring the version of SSL to be used.

Table C-4 Secure Sockets Layer Version Parameters

Attribute Description

Parameter Name (static)

SSL_VERSION

Parameter Name (dynamic)

SSL_VERSION

Parameter Type

string

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

Any version which is valid to SSL. (0, 1.0 (for TLS), 2.0, and 3.0)

Default Value

"0"

Description

To force the version of the SSL connection.

Existing/New Parameter

New

Syntax (static)

SSL_VERSION=version

Example (static)

SSL_VERSION=3.0

Syntax (dynamic)

SSL_VERSION=version

Example (dynamic)

SSL_VERSION=3.0


Secure Sockets Layer Client Authentication Parameters

Table C-5 describes the static and dynamic parameters for configuring SSL on the client.

Table C-5 Secure Sockets Layer Client Authentication Parameters

Attribute Description

Parameter Name (static)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION

Parameter Name (dynamic)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION

Parameter Type

Boolean

Parameter Class

Static

Permitted Values

TRUE or FALSE

Default Value

TRUE

Description

To control whether a client, in addition to the server, is authenticated using SSL.

Existing/New Parameter

New

Syntax (static)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION={TRUE | FALSE}

Example (static)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE

Syntax (dynamic)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION={TRUE | FALSE}

Example (dynamic)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE


Secure Sockets Layer X.509 Server Match Parameters

This section describes the parameters that are used to validate the identity of a server that the client connects to.

SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH Parameter

Table C-6 describes the SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH parameter.

Table C-6 SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH Parameter

Attribute Description

Parameter Name

SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH

Where stored

sqlnet.ora

Purpose

Use this parameter to force the server's distinguished name (DN) to match its service name. If you force the match verifications, SSL ensures that the certificate is from the server. If you choose not to enforce the match verification, SSL performs the check but permits the connection, regardless of whether there is a match. Not forcing the match lets the server potentially fake its identity.

Values

yes|on|true. Specify to enforce a match. If the DN matches the service name, the connection succeeds; otherwise, the connection fails.

no|off|false. Specify to not enforce a match. If the DN does not match the service name, the connection is successful, but an error is logged to the sqlnet.log file.

Default

Oracle8i, or later:.FALSE. SSL client (always) checks server DN. If it does not match the service name, the connection succeeds but an error is logged to sqlnet.log file.

Usage Notes

Additionally configure the tnsnames.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN to enable server DN matching.


SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN Parameter

Table C-7 describes the SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN parameter.

Table C-7 SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN Parameter

Attribute Description

Parameter Name

SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN

Where stored

tnsnames.ora. It can be stored on the client, for every server it connects to, or it can be stored in the LDAP directory, for every server it connects to, updated centrally.

Purpose

This parameter specifies the distinguished name (DN) of the server. The client uses this information to obtain the list of DNs it expects for each of the servers to force the server's DN to match its service name.

Values

Set equal to distinguished name (DN) of the server.

Default

N/A

Usage Notes

Additionally configure the sqlnet.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH to enable server DN matching.

Example

dbalias=(description=address_list=(address=(protocol=tcps)(host=hostname)(port=portnum)))(connect_data=(sid=Finance))(security=(SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN="CN=Finance,CN=OracleContext,C=US,O=Acme"))


Oracle Wallet Location

For any application that must access an Oracle wallet for loading the security credentials into the process space, you must specify the wallet location parameters defined by Table C-8 in each of the following configuration files:

  • sqlnet.ora

  • listener.ora

Table C-8 Wallet Location Parameters

Static Configuration Dynamic Configuration
WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE=
  (METHOD=File)
  (METHOD_DATA=
     (DIRECTORY=your_wallet_dir)
      )

)

MY_WALLET_DIRECTORY
= your_wallet_dir

The default wallet location is the ORACLE_HOME directory.

Parameters for Clients and Servers Using RADIUS Authentication

The following sections describe the parameters for RADIUS authentication

sqlnet.ora File Parameters

The following sections describe the sqlnet.ora parameters that are used to specify RADIUS authentication.

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES Parameter

The SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES parameter configures the client or the server to use the RADIUS adapter.

Table C-9 describes the SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES parameter attributes.

Table C-9 SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(radius)

Default setting

None


SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION parameter sets the location of the primary RADIUS server, either host name or dotted decimal format. If the RADIUS server is on a different computer from the Oracle server, you must specify either the host name or the IP address of that computer.

Table C-10 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION parameter attributes.

Table C-10 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION=RADIUS_server_IP_address

Default setting

localhost


SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT parameter sets the listening port of the primary RADIUS server.

Table C-11 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT parameter attributes.

Table C-11 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT=port_number

Default setting

1645


SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT parameter sets the time to wait for response.

Table C-12 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT parameter attributes.

Table C-12 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT=time_in_seconds

Default setting

5


SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES parameter sets the number of times to resend authentication information.

Table C-13 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES parameter attributes.

Table C-13 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES=n_times_to_resend

Default setting

3


SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING parameter turns accounting on and off. If you enable accounting, packets will be sent to the active RADIUS server at the listening port plus one. By default, packets are sent to port 1646. You need to turn this feature on only when your RADIUS server supports accounting and you want to keep track of the number of times the user is logging on to the system.

Table C-14 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING parameter attributes.

Table C-14 SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING=on

Default setting

off


SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET parameter specifies the file name and location of the RADIUS secret key.

Table C-15 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET parameter attributes.

Table C-15 SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET=path_to_RADIUS_secret_key

Default setting

$ORACLE_HOME/network/security/radius.key


SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE parameter sets the location of an alternate RADIUS server to be used in case the primary server becomes unavailable for fault tolerance.

Table C-16 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE parameter attributes.

Table C-16 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE=alternate_RADIUS_server_hostname_or_IP_address

Default setting

off


SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT parameter sets the listening port for the alternate RADIUS server.

Table C-17 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT parameter attributes.

Table C-17 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT=alternate_RADIUS_server_listening_port_number

Default setting

1645


SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT parameter sets the time to wait for response for the alternate RADIUS server.

Table C-18 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT parameter attributes.

Table C-18 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_TIMEOUT=time_in_seconds

Default setting

5


SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES parameter sets the number of times that the alternate RADIUS server resends messages.

Table C-19 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES parameter attributes.

Table C-19 SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES=n_times_to_resend

Default setting

3


SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE parameter turns on or turns off the challenge-response or asynchronous mode support.

Table C-20 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE parameter attributes.

Table C-20 SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE=on

Default setting

off


SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD parameter sets the keyword to request a challenge from the RADIUS server. User types no password on the client.

Table C-21 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD parameter attributes.

Table C-21 SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_KEYWORD=keyword

Default setting

challenge


SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE Parameter

The SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE parameter sets the name of the Java class that contains the graphical user interface when RADIUS is in the challenge-response (asynchronous) mode.

Table C-22 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE parameter attributes.

Table C-22 SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE=Java_class_name

Default setting

DefaultRadiusInterface (oracle/net/radius/DefaultRadiusInterface)


SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH Parameter

If you decide to use the challenge-response authentication mode, then RADIUS presents the user with a Java-based graphical interface requesting first a password, then additional information, for example, a dynamic password that the user obtains from a token card. Add the SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH parameter in the sqlnet.ora file to set the path for the Java classes for that graphical interface, and to set the path to the JDK Java libraries.

Table C-23 describes the SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH parameter attributes.

Table C-23 SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH Parameter Attributes

Attribute Description

Syntax

SQLNET.RADIUS_CLASSPATH=path_to_GUI_Java_classes

Default setting

$ORACLE_HOME/jlib/netradius.jar:$ORACLE_HOME/JRE/lib/sparc/native_threads


Minimum RADIUS Parameters

sqlnet.authentication_services = (radius)
sqlnet.radius.authentication = IP-address-of-RADIUS-server

Initialization File Parameter

OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=""