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12c Release 1 (12.1)

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F Using the orapki Utility to Manage PKI Elements

This appendix contains:

Note:

The use of PKI encryption with Transparent Data Encryption is deprecated. To configure Transparent Data Encryption, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement. See Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for more information.

About the orapki Utility

The orapki utility enables you to manage public key infrastructure (PKI) elements, such as wallets and certificate revocation lists, from the command line. This way, you can automate these tasks by using scripts. Providing a way to incorporate the management of PKI elements into scripts makes it possible to automate many of the routine tasks of maintaining a PKI.

You can use the orapki command-line utility to perform the following tasks:

  • Creating and viewing signed certificates for testing purposes

  • Manage Oracle wallets (except for Transparent Data Encryption keystores):

    • Create and display Oracle wallets

    • Add and remove certificate requests

    • Add and remove certificates

    • Add and remove trusted certificates

  • Manage certificate revocation lists (CRLs):

    • Renaming CRLs with a hash value for certificate validation

    • Uploading, listing, viewing, and deleting CRLs in Oracle Internet Directory

orapki Utility Syntax

The basic syntax of the orapki command-line utility is as follows:

orapki module command -parameter value

where module can be wallet (Oracle wallet), crl (certificate revocation list), or cert (PKI digital certificate). The available commands depend on the module you are using. For example, if you are working with a wallet, then you can add a certificate or a key to the wallet with the add command. The following example adds the user certificate located at /private/lhale/cert.txt to the wallet located at $ORACLE_HOME/wallet/ewallet.p12:

orapki wallet add -wallet $ORACLE_HOME/wallet/ewallet.p12 -user_cert -cert /private/lhale/cert.txt

Creating Signed Certificates for Testing Purposes

The orapki utility provides a convenient, lightweight way to create signed certificates for testing purposes.

To create a signed certificate for testing purposes, use the following command:

orapki cert create [-wallet wallet_location] -request certificate_request_location -cert certificate_location -validity number_of_days [-summary]

This command creates a signed certificate from the certificate request. The -wallet parameter specifies the wallet containing the user certificate and private key that will be used to sign the certificate request. The -validity parameter specifies the number of days, starting from the current date, that this certificate will be valid. Specifying a certificate and certificate request is mandatory for this command.

To view a certificate, use the following command:

orapki cert display -cert certificate_location [-summary | -complete]

This command enables you to view a test certificate that you have created with orapki. You can choose either -summary or -complete, which determines how much detail the command will display. If you choose -summary, the command will display the certificate and its expiration date. If you choose -complete, it will display additional certificate information, including the serial number and public key.

Managing Oracle Wallets with orapki Utility

This section contains:

Note:

The -wallet parameter is mandatory for all wallet module commands.

About Managing Wallets with orapki

The following sections describe the syntax used to create and manage Oracle wallets with the orapki command-line utility. You can use these orapki utility wallet module commands in scripts to automate the wallet creation process.

Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Wallets with orapki

This section contains the following topics:

Creating a PKCS#12 Wallet

To create an Oracle PKCS#12 wallet (ewallet.p12), use the following command:

orapki wallet create -wallet wallet_location [-pwd password]

This command prompts you to enter and reenter a wallet password, if no password has been specified on the command line. It creates a wallet in the location specified for -wallet.

Note:

For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you do not specify the password at the command line. You should supply the password only when prompted to do so.

Creating an Auto Login Wallet

To create an auto login wallet (cwallet.sso) that does not need a password, use the following command:

orapki wallet create -wallet wallet_location -auto_login_only

This command creates an auto login wallet (cwallet.sso) that does not need a password to open. You can also modify or delete the wallet without using a password. File system permissions provide the necessary security for such auto login wallets.

You can also create an auto login wallet that is associated with a PKCS#12 wallet. The auto login wallet does not need a password to open. However, you must supply the password for the associated PKCS#12 wallet in order to modify or delete the wallet. Any update to the PKCS#12 wallet also updates the associated auto login wallet.

To create an auto login wallet (cwallet.sso) that is associated with a PKCS#12 wallet (ewallet.p12), use the following command:

orapki wallet create -wallet wallet_location -auto_login [-pwd password]

This command creates a wallet with auto login enabled (cwallet.sso) and associates it with a PKCS#12 wallet (ewallet.p12). The command prompts you to enter the password for the PKCS#12 wallet, if no password has been specified at the command line.

Note:

For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you do not specify the password at the command line. You should supply the password when prompted to do so.

If the wallet_location already contains a PKCS#12 wallet, then auto login is enabled for it. You must supply the password for the existing PKCS#12 wallet in order to enable auto login for it.

If the wallet_location does not contain a PKCS#12 wallet, then a new PKCS#12 wallet is created. You must specify a password for the new PKCS#12 wallet.

If you wish to turn the auto login feature off for a PKCS#12 wallet, then use Oracle Wallet Manager.

You can also choose to create a local auto login wallet. You cannot move local auto login wallets to another computer. They must be used on the host on which they are created.

A local auto login wallet does not need a password to open. However, you must supply the password for the associated PKCS#12 wallet in order to modify or delete the wallet. Any update to the PKCS#12 wallet also updates the associated auto login wallet.

To create a local auto login wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet create -wallet wallet_location -auto_login_local [-pwd password]

This command creates an auto login wallet (cwallet.sso) that is local to both the computer on which it is created and the user who created it. It associates it with a PKCS#12 wallet (ewallet.p12). The command prompts you to enter the password for the PKCS#12 wallet, if no password has been specified at the command line.

Note:

For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you do not specify the password at the command line. You should supply the password when prompted to do so.

Viewing a Wallet

To view an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet display -wallet wallet_location

This command displays the certificate requests, user certificates, and trusted certificates contained in the wallet, which must be a binary PKCS12 file, with extension .p12. Other files will fail.

Modifying the Password for a Wallet

To change the wallet password, use the following command:

orapki wallet change_pwd -wallet wallet_location [-oldpwd password ] [-newpwd password]

This command changes the current wallet password to the new password. The command prompts you for the old and new passwords if no password is supplied at the command line.

Note:

For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you do not specify the password options at the command line. You should supply the password when prompted to do so.

Converting an Oracle Wallet to Use the AES256 Algorithm

By default, when you create an Oracle wallet (or keystore) by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or ALTER SYSTEM statement, the wallet is encrypted with 3DES. You can use the orapki convert command to convert the wallet to use the AES256 algorithm, which is stronger than the 3DES algorithm. Note that if you had created the wallet using orapki and not the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or ALTER SYSTEM statement, then by default it uses the AES256 algorithm.

To change the keystore algorithm from 3DES to AES256:

orapki wallet convert -wallet wallet_location [-pwd password] [-compat_v12]

The compat_v12 setting performs the conversion from 3DES to AES256.

Adding Certificates and Certificate Requests to Oracle Wallets with orapki

To add a certificate request to an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -dn user_dn -keySize 512|1024|2048

This command adds a certificate request to a wallet for the user with the specified distinguished name (user_dn). The request also specifies the requested certificate's key size (512, 1024, or 2048 bits). To sign the request, export it with the export option.

To add a trusted certificate to an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -trusted_cert -cert
certificate_location

This command adds a trusted certificate, at the specified location (-cert certificate_location), to a wallet. You must add all trusted certificates in the certificate chain of a user certificate before adding a user certificate, or the command to add the user certificate will fail.

To add a root certificate to an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -dn certificate_dn -keySize 512|1024|2048 -self_signed -validity number_of_days

This command creates a new self-signed (root) certificate and adds it to the wallet. The -validity parameter (mandatory) specifies the number of days, starting from the current date, that this certificate will be valid. You can specify a key size for this root certificate (-keySize) of 512, 1024, or 2048 bits.

To add a user certificate to an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -user_cert -cert certificate_location

This command adds the user certificate at the location specified with the -cert parameter to the Oracle wallet at the wallet_location. Before you add a user certificate to a wallet, you must add all the trusted certificates that make up the certificate chain. If all trusted certificates are not installed in the wallet before you add the user certificate, then adding the user certificate will fail.

To add PKCS#11 information to a wallet, you can use a wallet containing PKCS#11 information like any Oracle wallet. The private keys are stored on a hardware device. The cryptographic operations are also performed on the device.

Use the following command to add PKCS#11 information to a wallet:

orapki wallet p11_add -wallet wallet_location -p11_lib pkcs11Lib 
[-p11_tokenlabel tokenLabel] [-p11_tokenpw tokenPassphrase] 
[-p11_certlabel certLabel] [-pwd password]

In this specification:

  • wallet specifies the wallet location.

  • p11_lib specifies the path to the PKCS#11 library. This includes the library filename.

  • p11_tokenlabel specifies the token or smart card used on the device. Use this when there are multiple tokens on the device. Token labels are set using vendor tools.

  • p11_tokenpw specifies the password that is used to access the token. Token passwords are set using vendor tools.

  • p11_certlabel is used to specify a certificate label on the token. Use this when a token contains multiple certificates. Certificate labels are set using vendor tools.

  • pwd is used to specify the wallet password.

Note:

For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you do not specify the password at the command line. You should supply the password when prompted to do so.

You can verify credentials on the hardware device using the PKCS#11 wallet. Use the following command for this purpose:

orapki wallet p11_verify -wallet wallet_location [-pwd password]

Exporting Certificates and Certificate Requests from Oracle Wallets with orapki

To export a certificate from an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet export -wallet wallet_location -dn certificate_dn -cert certificate_filename

This command exports a certificate with the subject's distinguished name (-dn) from a wallet to a file that is specified by -cert.

To export a certificate request from an Oracle wallet, use the following command:

orapki wallet export -wallet wallet_location -dn certificate_request_dn -request certificate_request_filename

This command exports a certificate request with the subject's distinguished name (-dn) from a wallet to a file that is specified by -request.

Managing Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) with orapki Utility

You must manage certificate revocation lists (CRLs) with the orapki utility. This utility creates a hashed value of the CRL issuer's name to identify the CRLs location in your system. If you do not use orapki, your Oracle server cannot locate CRLs to validate PKI digital certificates. For detailed information about using orapki to manage CRLs refer to "Certificate Revocation List Management".

orapki Usage Examples

This section provides examples of some of the orapki commands that were described in the preceding sections.

Example F-1 illustrates the steps to create a wallet with a self-signed certificate and export the certificate to a file.

Example F-1 Create a Wallet with a Self-Signed Certificate and Export the Certificate

The following steps illustrate creating a wallet, adding a self-signed certificate to it, viewing the wallet and exporting the certificate:

  1. Create a wallet.

    orapki wallet create -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/root
    

    The wallet is created at the location, /private/user/orapki_use/root.

  2. Add a self-signed certificate to the wallet.

    orapki wallet add -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/root -dn 
    'CN=root_test,C=US' -keysize 2048 -self_signed -validity 3650
    

    This creates a self-signed certificate with a validity of 3650 days. The distinguished name of the subject is CN=root_test,C=US. The key size for the certificate is 2048 bits.

  3. View the wallet.

    orapki wallet display -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/root
    

    This is used to view the certificate contained in the wallet.

  4. Export the certificate.

    orapki wallet export -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/root -dn 
    'CN=root_test,C=US' -cert /private/user/orapki_use/root/b64certificate.txt
    

    This exports the self-signed certificate to the file, b64certificate.txt. Note that the distinguished name used is the same as in step 2.

Example F-2 illustrates miscellaneous tasks related to creating user certificates. The following steps illustrate creating a wallet, creating a certificate request, exporting the certificate request, creating a signed certificate from the request for testing, viewing the certificate, adding a trusted certificate to the wallet and adding a user certificate to the wallet.

Example F-2 Create a Wallet and a User Certificate

  1. Create a wallet with auto login enabled.

    orapki wallet create -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/server -auto_login
    

    This creates a wallet at /private/user/orapki_use/server with auto login enabled.

  2. Add a certificate request to the wallet.

    orapki wallet add -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/server -dn 'CN=server_test,C=US' -keysize 2048
    

    This adds a certificate request to the wallet that was created. The distinguished name of the subject is CN=server_test,C=US. The key size specified is 2048 bits.

  3. Export the certificate request to a file.

    orapki wallet export -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/server -dn 'CN=server_test,C=US' -request /private/user/orapki_use/server/creq.txt
    

    This exports the certificate request to the specified file, which is creq.txt in this case.

  4. Create a signed certificate from the request for test purposes.

    orapki cert create -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/root -request /private/user/orapki_use/server/creq.txt -cert /private/user/orapki_use/server/cert.txt -validity 3650
    

    This creates a certificate, cert.txt with a validity of 3650 days. The certificate is created from the certificate request generated in the preceding step.

  5. View the certificate.

    orapki cert display -cert /private/user/orapki_use/server/cert.txt -complete
    

    This displays the certificate generated in the preceding step. The -complete option enables you to display additional certificate information, including the serial number and public key.

  6. Add a trusted certificate to the wallet.

    orapki wallet add -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/server -trusted_cert -cert /private/user/orapki_use/root/b64certificate.txt
    

    This adds a trusted certificate, b64certificate.txt to the wallet. You must add all trusted certificates in the certificate chain of a user certificate before adding a user certificate.

  7. Add a user certificate to the wallet.

    orapki wallet add -wallet /private/user/orapki_use/server -user_cert -cert /private/user/orapki_use/server/cert.txt
    

    This command adds the user certificate, cert.txt to the wallet.

orapki Utility Commands Summary

This section describes the following orapki commands:

orapki cert create Command

Use the orapki cert create command to create a signed certificate for testing purposes.

Syntax

orapki cert create [-wallet wallet_location] -request certificate_request_location -cert certificate_location -validity number_of_days [-summary]
  • wallet specifies the wallet containing the user certificate and private key that will be used to sign the certificate request.

  • request (mandatory) specifies the location of the certificate request for the certificate you are creating.

  • cert (mandatory) specifies the directory location where the tool places the new signed certificate.

  • validity (mandatory) specifies the number of days, starting from the current date, that this certificate will be valid.

orapki cert display Command

Use the orapki cert display command to display details of a specific certificate.

Syntax

orapki cert display -cert certificate_location [-summary|-complete]
  • cert specifies the location of the certificate you want to display.

  • You can use either the -summary or the -complete parameter to display the following information:

    • summary displays the certificate and its expiration date

    • complete displays additional certificate information, including the serial number and public key

orapki crl delete Command

Use the orapki crl delete command to delete CRLs from Oracle Internet Directory. Note that the user who deletes CRLs from the directory by using orapki must be a member of the CRLAdmins (cn=CRLAdmins,cn=groups,%s_OracleContextDN%) directory group.

Prerequisites

None

Syntax

orapki crl delete -issuer issuer_name -ldap hostname:ssl_port -user username [-wallet wallet_location] [-summary]
  • issuer specifies the name of the certificate authority (CA) who issued the CRL.

  • ldap specifies the host name and SSL port for the directory where the CRLs are to be deleted. Note that this must be a directory SSL port with no authentication.

    See also "Uploading CRLs to Oracle Internet Directory" for more information about this port.

  • user specifies the user name of the directory user who has permission to delete CRLs from the CRL subtree in the directory.

  • wallet (optional) specifies the location of the wallet that contains the certificate of the certificate authority (CA) who issued the CRL. Using it causes the tool to verify the validity of the CRL against the CA's certificate prior to deleting it from the directory.

  • summary is optional. It displays the CRL LDAP entry that was deleted.

orapki crl display Command

Use the orapki crl display command to display specific CRLs that are stored in Oracle Internet Directory.

Syntax

orapki crl display -crl crl_location [-wallet wallet_location] [-summary|-complete]
  • crl parameter specifies the location of the CRL in the directory. It is convenient to paste the CRL location from the list that displays when you use the orapki crl list command. See "orapki crl list Command"

  • wallet (optional) specifies the location of the wallet that contains the certificate of the certificate authority (CA) who issued the CRL. Using it causes the tool to verify the validity of the CRL against the CA's certificate prior to displaying it.

  • summary and complete display the following information:

    • summary provides a listing that contains the CRL issuer's name and the CRL's validity period

    • complete provides a list of all revoked certificates that the CRL contains. Note that this option may take a long time to display, depending on the size of the CRL.

orapki crl hash Command

Use the orapki crl hash command to generate a hash value of the certificate revocation list (CRL) issuer to identify the location of the CRL in the file system for certificate validation.

Syntax

orapki crl hash -crl crl_filename|URL [-wallet wallet_location] [-symlink|-copy] crl_directory [-summary]
  • crl specifies the filename that contains the CRL or the URL where it can be found.

  • wallet (optional) specifies the location of the wallet that contains the certificate of the certificate authority (CA) who issued the CRL. Using it causes the tool to verify the validity of the CRL against the CA's certificate prior to uploading it to the directory.

  • Depending on the operating system, use either the -symlink or the -copy parameter:

    • (UNIX) symlink creates a symbolic link to the CRL at the crl_directory location

    • (Windows) copy creates a copy of the CRL at the crl_directory location

  • summary (optional) displays the CRL issuer's name.

orapki crl list Command

Use the orapki crl list command to display a list of CRLs stored in Oracle Internet Directory. This is useful for browsing to locate a particular CRL to view or download to your local file system.

Syntax

orapki crl list -ldap hostname:ssl_port

ldap specifies the host name and SSL port for the directory server from where you want to list CRLs. Note that this must be a directory SSL port with no authentication.

See Also:

"Uploading CRLs to Oracle Internet Directory" for more information about this port

orapki crl upload Command

Use the orapki crl upload command to upload certificate revocation lists (CRLs) to the CRL subtree in Oracle Internet Directory. Note that you must be a member of the directory administrative group CRLAdmins (cn=CRLAdmins,cn=groups,%s_OracleContextDN%) to upload CRLs to the directory.

Syntax

orapki crl upload -crl crl_location -ldap hostname:ssl_port -user username [-wallet wallet_location] [-summary]
  • crl specifies the directory location or the URL where the CRL is located that you are uploading to the directory.

  • ldap specifies the host name and SSL port for the directory where you are uploading the CRLs. Note that this must be a directory SSL port with no authentication.

    See also "Uploading CRLs to Oracle Internet Directory" for more information about this port.

  • user specifies the user name of the directory user who has permission to add CRLs to the CRL subtree in the directory.

  • wallet specifies the location of the wallet that contains the certificate of the certificate authority (CA) who issued the CRL. This is an optional parameter. Using it causes the tool to verify the validity of the CRL against the CA's certificate prior to uploading it to the directory.

  • summary is optional. It displays the CRL issuer's name and the LDAP entry where the CRL is stored in the directory.

orapki wallet add Command

Use the orapki wallet add command to add certificate requests and certificates to an Oracle wallet.

Syntax

To add certificate requests:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -dn user_dn -keySize 512|1024|2048
  • wallet specifies the location of the wallet to which you want to add a certificate request.

  • dn specifies the distinguished name of the certificate owner.

  • keySize specifies the key size for the certificate.

  • To sign the request, export it with the export option. Refer to "orapki wallet export Command"

To add trusted certificates:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -trusted_cert -cert certificate_location
  • trusted_cert adds the trusted certificate, at the location specified with -cert, to the wallet.

To add root certificates:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -dn certificate_dn -keySize 512|1024|2048 -self_signed -validity number_of_days
  • self_signed creates a root certificate.

  • validity is mandatory. Use it to specify the number of days, starting from the current date, that this root certificate will be valid.

To add user certificates:

orapki wallet add -wallet wallet_location -user_cert -cert certificate_location
  • user_cert adds the user certificate at the location specified with the -cert parameter to the wallet. Before you add a user certificate to a wallet, you must add all the trusted certificates that make up the certificate chain. If all trusted certificates are not installed in the wallet before you add the user certificate, then adding the user certificate will fail.

orapki wallet convert Command

Use the orapki wallet convert command to convert the 3DES algorithm in an Oracle wallet or to use the AES256 algorithm.

Syntax

orapki wallet convert -wallet wallet_location [-pwd password] [-compat_v12]
  • wallet specifies a location for the new wallet or the location of the wallet for which you want to turn on auto login.

  • pwd is the wallet password.

  • compat_v12 performs the conversion from 3DES to AES256.

orapki wallet create Command

Use the orapki wallet create command to create an Oracle wallet or to set auto login on for an Oracle wallet.

Syntax

orapki wallet create -wallet wallet_location [-auto_login|-auto_login_local]
  • wallet specifies a location for the new wallet or the location of the wallet for which you want to turn on auto login.

  • auto_login creates an auto login wallet, or it turns on automatic login for the wallet specified with the -wallet option.

    See also Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide for details about auto login wallet.

  • auto_login_local creates a local auto login wallet, or it turns on local automatic login for the wallet specified with the -wallet option.

orapki wallet display Command

Use the orapki wallet display command to view the certificate requests, user certificates, and trusted certificates in an Oracle wallet.

Syntax

orapki wallet display -wallet wallet_location
  • wallet specifies a location for the wallet you want to open if it is not located in the current working directory.

orapki wallet export Command

Use the orapki wallet export command to export certificate requests and certificates from an Oracle wallet.

Syntax

To export a certificate from an Oracle wallet:

orapki wallet export -wallet wallet_location -dn certificate_dn -cert certificate_filename
  • wallet specifies the location of the wallet from which you want to export the certificate.

  • dn specifies the distinguished name of the certificate.

  • cert specifies the name of the file that contains the exported certificate.

To export a certificate request from an Oracle wallet:

orapki wallet export -wallet wallet_location -dn certificate_request_dn -request certificate_request_filename
  • request specifies the name of the file that contains the exported certificate request.