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Oracle® Database Security Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E48135-09
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16 Strong Authentication Administration Tools

This chapter contains:

About the Configuration and Administration Tools

This chapter introduces the tools that you must use to configure and administer the encryption, integrity (checksumming), and strong authentication methods for Oracle Net Services. Strong authentication method configuration can include third-party software, as is the case for Kerberos or RADIUS, or it may entail configuring and managing a public key infrastructure for using digital certificates with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Network Encryption and Strong Authentication Configuration Tools

This section contains:

About Network Encryption and Strong Authentication Configuration Tools

You can configure Oracle Net Services to encrypt data using standard encryption algorithms, and for strong authentication methods, such as Kerberos, RADIUS, and SSL.

Oracle Net Manager

Oracle Net Manager is a graphical user interface tool, primarily used to configure Oracle Net Services for an Oracle home on a local client or server host.

Although you can use Oracle Net Manager to configure Oracle Net Services, such as naming, listeners, and general network settings, it also enables you to configure the following features, which use the Oracle Net protocol:

  • Strong authentication (Kerberos, RADIUS, and Secure Sockets Layer)

  • Network encryption (RC4, DES, Triple-DES, and AES)

  • Checksumming for data integrity (MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2)

Kerberos Adapter Command-Line Utilities

The Kerberos adapter provides three command-line utilities that enable you to obtain, cache, display, and remove Kerberos credentials.

Table 16-1 briefly describes these utilities.

Table 16-1 Kerberos Adapter Command-Line Utilities

Utility Name Description

okinit

Obtains Kerberos tickets from the Key Distribution Center (KDC) and caches them in the user's credential cache

oklist

Displays a list of Kerberos tickets in the specified credential cache

okdstry

Removes Kerberos credentials from the specified credential cache


See Also:

"Utilities for the Kerberos Authentication Adapter" for complete descriptions of these utilities, their syntax, and available options

Note:

The Cybersafe adapter is not supported beginning with this release. You should use Oracle's Kerberos adapter in its place. Kerberos authentication with the Cybersafe KDC (Trust Broker) continues to be supported when using the Kerberos adapter.

Public Key Infrastructure Credentials Management Tools

This section contains:

About the Public Key Infrastructure Credentials Management Tools

The security provided by a public key infrastructure (PKI) depends on how effectively you store, manage, and validate your PKI credentials. Oracle Wallet Manager and orapki are used to manage certificates, wallets, and certificate revocation lists so your PKI credentials can be stored securely and your certificate validation mechanisms kept current.

About Oracle Wallet Manager

Oracle Wallet Manager is an application that wallet owners and security administrators use to manage and edit the security credentials in their Oracle wallets. A wallet is a password-protected container that is used to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by SSL. You can use Oracle Wallet Manager to perform the following tasks:

Note:

In previous releases of Oracle Database, you could use Oracle Wallet Manager to configure wallets for Transparent Data Encryption. In this release, you can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement instead. For more information, see Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide.

About the orapki Utility

The orapki utility is a command-line tool that you can use to manage certificate revocation lists (CRLs), create and manage Oracle wallets, and to create signed certificates for testing purposes.

The basic syntax for this utility is as follows:

orapki module command -option_1 argument ... -option_n argument

For example, the following command lists all CRLs in the CRL subtree in an instance of Oracle Internet Directory that is installed on machine1.us.example.com and that uses port 389:

orapki crl list -ldap machine1.us.example.com:389

Note:

The use of orapki to configure Transparent Data Encryption has been deprecated. Instead, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement. For more information, see Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide.

See Also:

Duties of Strong Authentication Administrators

Most of the tasks of a security administrator involve ensuring that the connections to and from Oracle databases are secure.

Table 16-2 describes the primary tasks of security administrators who are responsible for strong authentication, the tools used to perform the tasks, and links to where the tasks are documented.

Table 16-2 Common Security Administrator/DBA Configuration and Administrative Tasks

Task Tools Used See Also

Configure encrypted Oracle Net connections between database servers and clients

Oracle Net Manager

"Configuring Encryption on the Client and the Server"

Configure checksumming on Oracle Net connections between database servers and clients

Oracle Net Manager

"Configuring Integrity on the Client and the Server"

Configure database clients to accept RADIUS authentication

Oracle Net

"Step 1A: Configure RADIUS on the Oracle Client"

Configure a database to accept RADIUS authentication

Oracle Net

"Step 1B: Configure RADIUS on the Oracle Database Server"

Create a RADIUS user and grant them access to a database session

SQL*Plus

"Step 2: Create a User and Grant Access"

Configure Kerberos authentication on a database client and server

Oracle Net Manager

"Step 6: Configure Kerberos Authentication"

Create a Kerberos database user

  • kadmin.local

  • Oracle Net Manager

Manage Kerberos credentials in the credential cache

  • okinit

  • oklist

  • okdstry

Create a wallet for a database client or server

  • Oracle Wallet Manager

Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide

Request a user certificate from a certificate authority (CA) for SSL authentication

  • Oracle Wallet Manager

Import a user certificate and its associated trusted certificate (CA certificate) into a wallet

  • Oracle Wallet Manager

Configuring SSL connections for a database client

  • Oracle Net Manager

"Step 2: Configure Secure Sockets Layer on the Client"

Configuring SSL connections for a database server

  • Oracle Net Manager

"Step 1: Configure Secure Sockets Layer on the Server"

Enabling certificate validation with a certificate revocation list (CRL)

  • Oracle Net Manager

"Configuring Certificate Validation with Certificate Revocation Lists"