11 Deploying an IM Column Store with Oracle Active Data Guard

This chapter explains how Database In-Memory feature works in an Oracle Active Data Guard environment.

This chapter contains the following topics:

About Database In-Memory and Active Data Guard

Starting in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1), Oracle Database In-Memory is supported on a standby database in an Oracle Active Data Guard environment.

This section contains the following topics:

See Also:

Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for an introduction to Oracle Active Data Guard

Purpose of IM Column Stores in Oracle Active Data Guard

You can configure an IM column store only on the primary database, only on a standby database, or on both the primary and standby databases.

If you configure an IM column store for both databases, then you can populate the same or a different set of objects on the two instances. This technique effectively increases the IM column store size.

This section contains the following topics:

Identical IM Column Stores in Primary and Standby Databases

In the simplest scenario, the primary and standby databases both contain an IM column store with the same size (which is not required). The IM column stores contain the same objects.

The advantage of this scenario is that analytic queries can access the IM column store on either database. Therefore, you can direct analytic queries to the standby database and not consume resources on the primary database. As a result, the primary database can support the transactional workload, while the standby database supports the analytic workload.

The primary tasks are as follows:

  • Set the INMEMORY_SIZE initialization parameter on both the primary and standby database instances.

  • Ensure that the INMEMORY_ADG_ENABLED initialization parameter is set to true (default) on the standby database instance.

  • Set the INMEMORY attribute on all objects to be populated in the two IM column stores.

If you change the INMEMORY attributes of an object, then the primary database propagates the change to the standby database. For example, if you set the NO INMEMORY attribute on the sales table, then both IM column stores evict sales.

On the primary database, you can enable a subset of columns of a table for population into the IM column store. You can also specify different compression levels for different columns. Enabling specific columns involves a dictionary change. DDL on the primary database is propagated to the Oracle Active Data Guard database.

See Also:

IM Column Store in Standby Database Only

In this scenario, an IM column store exists in the standby database, but not in the primary database.

In this scenario, the primary database can function as a pure OLTP database. No extra memory is required in the primary database for an IM column store. You can direct analytic reporting applications to the standby database without sacrificing performance or consuming resources on the primary database.

The primary tasks are as follows:

  • Set the INMEMORY_SIZE initialization parameter to a non-zero value in the standby database instance, and set it to 0 in the primary database instance.

  • Ensure that the INMEMORY_ADG_ENABLED initialization parameter is set to true (default) on the standby database instance.

  • Set the INMEMORY attribute with the DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE clause on all objects to be populated in the IM column store in the standby database.

    For example, if you log in to the primary database, and if you set the INMEMORY attribute on the sh.sales table, then this table will not be populated in the IM column store on the primary database—because no IM column store exists on this database. However, the standby database will inherit the INMEMORY attribute on the sh.sales table. The table will be populated in the IM column store in the standby database.

Different Objects in the Primary and Standby IM Column Stores

The most flexible scenario is separately configuring the IM column stores for primary and standby databases.

The advantage of this scenario is that you can run different workloads in each database. For example, an HR application runs reports in the primary database, while a sales history application runs reports in the standby database. Thus, neither database bears the full burden of analytic reporting.

The primary tasks are as follows:

  • Set the INMEMORY_SIZE initialization parameter to a non-zero value on the standby and primary database instance. The values do not need to be identical.

  • Ensure that the INMEMORY_ADG_ENABLED initialization parameter is set to true (default) on the standby database instance.

  • Set the INMEMORY ... DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE clause on all objects to be populated in the two IM column stores. The service specifies the instance into which the object is populated.

Three-Service Configuration

In a typical configuration, you create three services: standby-only, primary-only, and primary-and-standby. For example, you may want the latest month of sales fact table data in the primary instance, but the previous sales data in the standby instance. You want the dimension tables populated in both instances. For each sales partition, you use INMEMORY ... DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE to specify either the standby or primary service. For each dimension table, you specify the service that includes both primary and standby database instances.

Note:

As long as the service name is defined for both the primary and standby instances, you can specify the same service name in DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE to populate the same tables in the primary and standby databases.

Oracle RAC and Oracle Active Data Guard

In Oracle RAC, you can combine the FOR SERVICE clause, which specifies the instance for population, with the DISTRIBUTE AUTO or DISTRIBUTE BY clause, which controls the distribution of IMCUs. However, in Oracle Active Data Guard, the FOR SERVICE clause specifies the primary or standby instances in which to populate the specified object: you cannot use DISTRIBUTE AUTO or DISTRIBUTE BY to distribute IMCUs between the primary and standby instances. For example, you cannot divide the population of the sales table between the primary instance and standby instance, so that half the IMCUs are in the primary instance and half the IMCUs are in the standby instance.

See Also:

How IM Column Stores Work in Oracle Active Data Guard

In an Oracle Active Data Guard environment, the object-level PRIORITY attribute governs population. An object is only populated in the database instances on which the service is active.

Population is either on-demand on priority-based, depending on the PRIORITY value. When a role change or switchover occurs, the database repopulates the tables according to the set of database instances to which the service is newly mapped.

Note:

Standby databases do not support IM FastStart, join groups, capturing IM expressions, or multi-instance redo apply.

The following graphic illustrates the internal mechanism for updating a standby database with redo from the primary database.

Figure 11-1 Updating a Standby Database

Description of Figure 11-1 follows
Description of "Figure 11-1 Updating a Standby Database"

The process is as follows:

  1. The primary database generates redo, and then transfers the redo to the standby database.

    The redo generated on the primary database for all DML statements includes metadata indicating whether the change is to an INMEMORY object.

  2. The standby database applies the redo to the data blocks stored in disk.

    As the standby database applies redo generated from ongoing operations on the primary database, the standby database keeps them transactionally consistent.

  3. If an INMEMORY object is modified, then the standby database invalidates the modified rows just as it does on the primary database, using the transaction journal and Snapshot Metadata Unit (SMU) to track the changes.

The repopulation mechanism works the same way in a standby database as it does in a primary database. When sufficient DML occurs on an object to reach an internal threshold, the standby database repopulates the object in the IM column store.

Configuring IM Column Stores in an Oracle Active Data Guard Environment

Configuring IM column stores in Oracle Active Data Guard requires setting INMEMORY_SIZE, and setting the INMEMORY attribute appropriately for the objects to be populated.

This task assumes thorough knowledge of Oracle Active Data Guard concepts and procedures.

Prerequisites

You must meet the following requirements:

  • The COMPATIBLE setting must be 12.2.0 or greater.

  • To populate different objects in each database, configure the appropriate services.

To configure IM column stores in an Oracle Active Data Guard environment:

  1. Set the INMEMORY_SIZE initialization parameter on the database instances that will contain an IM column store.

    Follow these guidelines:

    • To configure IM column stores on the primary and standby databases, set INMEMORY_SIZE on both database instances.

    • To configure IM column stores on the standby database only, set INMEMORY_SIZE on the standby database instance.

  2. Ensure that the INMEMORY_ADG_ENABLED initialization parameter is set to true (default) on the standby database instance.

  3. On the primary database, execute DDL statements with the INMEMORY attribute.

    The task depends on where the IM column stores exist, and whether different objects will be populated in each IM column store:

    • If an IM column store exists in both databases, then connect to the primary database, and set INMEMORY attributes without a DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE clause. For example, apply the INMEMORY attribute to the sh.sales table.

      Population occurs on each database according to the standard rules. For example, if sales on the standby database has priority NONE, then a query of the standby database that triggers a full scan of sales populates this table in the standby IM column store.

      Note:

      A full scan of sales on the standby database does not populate this table in the IM column store in the primary database.

    • If an IM column store exists in the standby database only, then log in to the primary database, and set INMEMORY attributes without a DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE clause.

      During redo transfer, the standby database receives this DDL statement from the primary database. Population occurs on the standby database in the normal way. For example, if sales has the INMEMORY attribute and priority NONE, then the table must undergo a full scan for population to occur.

    • If an IM column store exists in both databases, and if you want these IM column stores to contain different objects, then log in to the primary database, and set INMEMORY ... DISTRIBUTE FOR SERVICE as appropriate for each object.

      In each DDL statement, the service specifies the instances in which the object should be populated. For example, to enable sales for population only in the standby database, specify a standby-only service in the DDL statement. To enable products for population in both databases, specify a standby-and-primary service in the DDL statement.

See Also: