Oracle8i Installation Guide
Release 3 (8.1.7)

Part Number A87434_01
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4
Post-installation Tasks

After you complete the Oracle Universal Installer session, you must perform certain post-installation steps to configure Oracle8i. This chapter describes the required steps, as well as some optional ones. It contains the following sections:

User Passwords

Oracle Corporation recommends that you change the password for user names immediately after installation. To change a password:

  1. Start SQL*Plus:

    $ sqlplus
    
  2. Connect with the user name and password that you want to change:

    Enter user-name: username/password
    
    
  3. Enter the following command to change the password:

    SQL> ALTER USER USERNAME IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD;
    

    See Also:

    See the Oracle Enterprise Manager Administrator's Guide for information on using Oracle Security Manager or Oracle DBA Studio to change the password 

Configuration Tasks to Perform as the root User

Log in as the root user and perform the following tasks:

Create Additional UNIX Accounts

Verify Database File Security

Automate Database Startup and Shutdown (Optional)

Create Additional UNIX Accounts

If necessary, use a system administration tool to create additional UNIX accounts. Each DBA user on the system must be a member of the OSDBA group.

Verify Database File Security

If you configure Oracle8i in a way similar to a United States NCSC C2 or European ITSEC E3 security evaluation configuration, verify database file security to ensure the integrity of the Oracle software installation. This task is optional if security is not an issue.

Many files must be protected to prevent unauthorized access to secure data. The file privileges and recommended ownership are as follows:

Table 4-1 summarizes the directory and file permissions recommended for different types of files


Note:

Do not change these default permission values. 


.
Table 4-1 Access Permissions on Oracle Directories and Files  
Directories/Files  Permissions  Comments 

All database, redo log, and control files (extensions for these files are typically.dbf,.log, and.ctl

640

rw-r---- 

To maintain discretionary access to data, all database, redo log, and control files must be readable only by the oracle account and oinstall group. 

$ORACLE_HOME/bin/ 

751

rwxr-x--x 

Must be writable by the oracle account, and executable by all users. 

The oracle executable, and the following network executables: $ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle and
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbsnmp 

6751

rws-r-s--x

 

The 6 sets the setuid bit and the setgid bit so the executables run as the oracle and dba group, regardless of who executes them. 

All other executables 

751

rwxr-x--x 

Must be writable by the oracle account and executable by all users. 

$ORACLE_HOME/lib/ 

755

rwxr-xr-x 

The directory is readable, writable, and executable by the owner. It is readable and executable by all other users. 

All files in the $ORACLE_HOME/
lib/
directory 

644

rw-r--r-- 

The files are readable and writable by the owner. They are read-only for all other users. 

$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/log  

751

rwxr-x--x 

Restricts access to files in the directory to the oracle account and oinstall group. 

Product subdirectories such as $ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus or $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms 

751

rwxr-x--x 

Restricts access to log files to the oracle account and oinstall group. 

Files in the $ORACLE_HOME/
sqlplus
or $ORACLE_HOME/
rdbms
directories 

644

rw-r--r-- 

The files are readable and writable by the owner. They are read-only for all other users. 

$ORACLE_HOME/
network/trace
 

777

rwxrwxrwx

or

730

rwx-wx--- 

The 777 permission allows broad access to view and create trace files during development. Use 730 in a production environment to ensure that only the oracle account and members of the oinstall group have access to trace files. 

All files in product admin directories, such as $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms\
/admin
and
$ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/\
admin
 

644

-rw-r--r-- 

SQL scripts should typically be run as the SYS user. 

Automate Database Startup and Shutdown (Optional)

You can configure your system to automatically start Oracle databases when your system starts up and to shut down Oracle databases when your system shuts down. Automating database startup is optional, but automatic shutdown is recommended because it guards against improper shutdown of the database.

You can use the dbstart and dbshut scripts located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory to automate database startup and shutdown.

The dbstart and dbshut scripts reference the same entries in the oratab file, so the scripts must apply to the same set of databases. For example, you cannot have dbstart automatically start up databases sid1, sid2, and sid3, and dbshut shut down only databases sid1 and sid2. You can, however, specify that dbshut shut down a set of databases while dbstart is not used at all. To do this, include the dbshut entry in the system shutdown file but omit the dbstart entry from the system startup files.

See Also:

For a description of system startup and shutdown procedures, check the init command in your SGI IRIX documentation. 

This process must be completed for every new database that you want to configure for automated startup and shutdown. Perform the following tasks to set up the dbstart and dbshut scripts so that they are called at system startup:

  1. Edit the /var/opt/oracle/oratab file.

    Database entries in the oratab file appear in the following format:

    > ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:{Y|N}
    
    

    Enter Y or N to specify whether you want the dbstart and dbshut scripts to start up and shut down the database. Find the entries for all the databases that you want to start up. They are identified by the sid in the first field. Change the last field for each to Y.

  2. Create a file named dbora in the /etc/init.d directory (if it does not already exist).

  3. Create entries similar to the following at the end of the dbora file (if they do not already exist). You must specify the full path of the dbstart and dbshut utilities.

    #!/bin/sh
    # Set ORA_HOME to be equivalent to the ORACLE_HOME 
    # from which you wish to execute dbstart and
    # dbshut
    # set ORA_OWNER to the user id of the owner of the
    # Oracle database in ORA_HOME
    ORA_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/8.1.7
    ORA_OWNER=oracle
    if [! -f $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart]
    then
    echo "Oracle startup: cannot start"
    exit
    fi
    case "$1" in
    'start')
    # Start the Oracle databases: # The following command assumes that the oracle login will not prompt the
    # user for any values
    su - $ORA_OWNER -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart &
    ;;
    'stop')
    # Stop the Oracle databases: # The following command assumes that the oracle login will not prompt the
    # user for any values
    su - $ORA_OWNER -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut &
    ;;
    esac
  4. Link dbora by entering:

    # ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc0.d/K10dbora
    # ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc2.d/S99dbora
    

Configuration Tasks to Perform as the oracle User

Perform the following tasks as the oracle user:

Run the catrep.sql Script

Update UNIX Account Startup Files

Configure Environment Variables

Apply Any Required Oracle Patches

Set Initialization Parameters

Run the catrep.sql Script

When performing a first-time installation of Oracle8i, you must run the catrep.sql script. This script loads the necessary packages and views for replication.

Update UNIX Account Startup Files

Update the startup files of the oracle account and the UNIX accounts of Oracle users.

Configure Environment Variables

Set the following environment variables in the .profile or .login file of the oracle account before using Oracle8i products. Table 4-2 shows the recommended settings. The settings that you use should correspond to the settings that you used during installation as described in "Set Environment Variables". The syntax for setting environment variables is as follows.

For the Bourne or Korn shell:

variable_name=value; export variable_name

For the C shell:

setenv variable_name value  


Note:

You should not define environment variables with names that are identical to those used for Oracle processes, for example: CKPT, PMON, and DBWR. 


Table 4-2 lists environment variables and their default settings. Examples assume the Bourne or Korn shell.

Table 4-2 Environment Variable Settings  
Environment Variable  Recommended Setting 

LD_LIBRARY64_PATH  

Specifies a search path for 64-bit shared libraries. Set LD_LIBRARY64_PATH to include the $ORACLE_HOME/lib and the $ORACLE_HOME/javavm/admin directories.  

LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH  

Specifies a search path for 32-bit shared libraries. Set LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH to include the $ORACLE_HOME/lib32 directory. 

ORACLE_BASE 

software_mount_point/app/oracle 

ORACLE_HOME 

$ORACLE_BASE/product/8.1.7 

ORACLE_SID 

If you do not remember the value that you entered when you were prompted by the Oracle Universal Installer, you can find it listed in the Installer log file located in
oraInventory_location/logs/installActions.log

The oraInventory_location is defined in /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc file. 

PATH 

Make sure the new $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory is included in the PATH setting. See Chapter 2 for other PATH requirements. 

CLASSPATH 

Must include the following directories:

JRE_Location, $ORACLE_HOME/jlib, 
$ORACLE_HOME/product/jlib

Note: JRE_Location is defined as $ORACLE_HOME/JRE 

THREADS_FLAG  

Set to native. The default is green. SGI IRIX does not support mixing native and green threads. 

TNS_ADMIN 

Set to the location of the Net8 configuration files. This variable must be set if Net8 configuration files are not located in one of the default locations. 

TWO_TASK 

Set to the Net8 connect string alias defined in tnsnames.ora which client software will use by default to connect to a server. 

LD_LIBRARY64_PATH

Specifies a search path for 64-bit shared libraries. Set LD_LIBRARY64_PATH to include the $ORACLE_HOME/lib and the $ORACLE_HOME/javavm/admin directories.

For example:

$LD_LIBRARY64_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$ORACLE_HOME/javavm/admin

$ export LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH

This environment variable is required if you are using Oracle products that use 64-bit shared libraries. It must be undefined when installing software with the Oracle Universal Installer.

LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH

Specifies a search path for 32-bit shared libraries. Set LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH to include the $ORACLE_HOME/lib32 directory.

For example:

$ LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib32

$ export LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH

This environment variable is required if you are using Oracle products that use 32-bit shared libraries. It must be undefined when installing software with the Oracle Universal Installer.

ORACLE_BASE

Specifies the directory at the top of the Oracle software and administrative file structure. The Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) -recommended value is:

software_mount_point/app/oracle

For example:

/u01/app/oracle

ORACLE_HOME

Specifies the directory containing the Oracle software for a particular release. The OFA recommended value is:

$ORACLE_BASE/product/release

For example:

/u01/app/oracle/product/817

ORACLE_SID

Specifies the Oracle System Identifier (SID), which is the name of the Oracle Server instance. Because the SID is incorporated into many file names, Oracle Corporation recommends restricting it to no more than four characters to avoid file name problems on different operating systems.

PATH

After the installation of Oracle software, the search path should include all of the following directories:

CLASSPATH

The CLASSPATH environment variable is used for Java applications. This variable differs with each Java application. Refer to your product documentation for more information. In addition to any pre-existing settings, CLASSPATH must include the following Java Runtime Environment (JRE) locations:

$ORACLE_HOME/JRE/lib:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/product/jlib

In the preceding example, product indicates any product directory in the Oracle home directory, such as rdbms or network, where Java class libraries are located.

TNS_ADMIN

If the Net8 configuration files are not located in one of the default directories (/etc or $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin), set the
TNS_ADMIN environment variable to the directory where Net8 configuration files are located. For example, if the tnsnames.ora files are stored in the /tns directory, set TNS_ADMIN to /tns.

Oracle products look for network information in the following locations:

  1. In the .tnsnames.ora file in the current user's home directory (note the dot before the file name)

  2. In the $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora file

  3. In the /etc/tnsnames.ora file

  4. In the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora file

Check that a tnsnames.ora exists in one of these locations; otherwise, you may be unable to connect to a database through Net8 using local naming.

TWO_TASK

If you have a Client/Server configuration, you can set the TWO_TASK environment variable to the network service name of the database where you want the client software to connect by default. When TWO_TASK is set, you do not have to specify the network service name of the database when you want to connect to it using Oracle client software. See the Net8 Administrator's Guide and the Oracle8i Administrator's Reference Release 3 (8.1.7) 64 Bit for SGI IRIX Administrator's Reference for SGI IRIX for more information on network service names.

Initialize the oraenv (coraenv) Script

The oraenv or coraenv scripts enable you to set a common environment for oracle users. The following sections describe a single-instance or multiple-instance configuration for the oraenv script, or the coraenv script if you are running the C shell.

Single-Instance Configuration

On a single-instance system, set the ORACLE_SID environment variable in the .profile or .login file of the oracle account, followed by commands that initialize the oraenv (coraenv) file at login.

For the Bourne or Korn shell, run the script:

ORAENV_ASK=NO
. /usr/local/bin/oraenv

For the C shell, run the script:

set ORAENV_ASK = NO
source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
unset ORAENV_ASK
Multiple-Instance System

On a multiple-instance system, include a list of instance names and the commands necessary to initialize the oraenv (coraenv) file at the end of the startup file of the oracle account.

For the Bourne or Korn shell:

#!/usr/bin/sh
echo "The SIDs on this machine are:"
cat /etc/oratab | nawk -F: '{print $1}' | grep -v "#"
ORAENV_ASK="YES"
. /usr/local/bin/oraenv

For the C shell:

#!/usr/bin/csh
echo "The SIDs on this machine are:"
cat /etc/oratab | nawk -F: '{print $1}' | grep -v "#"
set ORAENV_ASK="YES"
source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
Update Other Oracle User Startup Files

To create the same environment for all oracle users, update each user startup file to include the following at the end of the startup file:

Apply Any Required Oracle Patches

The Oracle8i release which this guide accompanies, includes patches (if any) that must be applied to Oracle8i or other products. You can find patches on the Oracle8i release 3 (8.1.7) CD-ROM in the cd_rom_mount_point/patch directory. Review the README file included with each patch for installation instructions.

Set Initialization Parameters

You can change initialization parameters to configure and tune your system for optimal performance. The default initsid.ora file shipped with the distribution is located in the $ORACLE_BASE/admin/sid/pfile directory. A template initsid.ora file is also located in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. The template file contains settings for small, medium, and large databases, with the settings for the medium and large databases commented out. The size settings are relative to each other, but do not represent an empirical size of the database.

Modify initsid.ora Parameters

When you create a typical startup database using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, the initsid.ora parameters are set automatically. You can use a UNIX text editor to manually modify the initialization parameters in the initsid.ora file. Activate the modified initsid.ora file by shutting down and restarting the database.

Do not use symbolic character representations such as question marks (?) for the Oracle home directory in parameter files, as they may lead to startup errors.

To bring rollback segments online automatically when you start the database, you must uncomment the rollback_segments line in the initsid.ora file.


See Also:

For more information on initialization parameters, see the Oracle8i Administrator's Reference Release 3 (8.1.7) 64 Bit for SGI IRIX and the Oracle8i Reference


For example, remove the number sign (#) from the following line:

#rollback_segments = (r0, r1, r2, r3)

See Also:

See the Oracle8i Administrator's Reference Release 3 (8.1.7) 64 Bit for SGI IRIX for information on initialization parameters, and for more information on tuning and configuring these parameters. 

Post-installation Tasks for Oracle Products

Perform as many of the following tasks as required for your installation. Not all products require post-installation tasks.

To review online documentation before you configure Oracle products, see "De-Installing Oracle Software". You do not need to read the product documentation before completing the configuration tasks in this guide. However, if you are performing more sophisticated tuning, you should read the product documentation.

The following products require post-installation tasks:

Multi-threaded Server

Oracle servers configured with Multi-threaded Server require a higher setting for the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter or a custom configuration that uses the LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter. If you installed the server using Oracle Universal Installer, the value of SHARED_POOL_SIZE is set automatically by the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. If you created a database manually, raise the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter value in the initsid.ora file. Typically, you should add 1 KB for each anticipated concurrent user.

See Also:

See Oracle8i Designing and Tuning for Performance for more information on configuring Multi-threaded Server. 

Net8

For detailed information on configuring a complete Oracle network, see the Net8 Administrator's Guide.

Net8 Configuration Assistant performs a basic configuration of Net8 when you run Net8 Configuration Assistant from the Oracle Universal Installer. See "Understanding Net8 Configuration" for an explanation of how Net8 Configuration Assistant configures your installation. See "Net8 Assistant" for information on running Net8 Configuration Assistant as a stand alone tool.

To verify and complete your initial configuration:

  1. Log in as the root user.

  2. Reserve a port for the Net8 listener by making the following entry in the /etc/services file:

    listener_name 1521/tcp             #Net8 listener
    
    


    Note:

    1521 is the default port. If you chose a different port when you configured the Net8 listener, specify that port in the /etc/services file. 


  3. Check the status of the listener following installation by entering the command:

    $ lsnrctl status [listener_name]
    
    

    The listener_name field is required if the listener has a name other than the default, listener.

  4. If the listener is not running, enter the following command to start it:

    $ lsnrctl start [listener_name]
    
    
  5. Install and configure the Oracle client software on a remote system, if necessary, then start SQL*Plus to test the connection to the server:

    $ sqlplus username/password@net_service_name
    
    

If you can successfully connect to the server using SQL*Plus, you have established network connectivity over TCP/IP.

Oracle Assistants

The following Oracle assistants are described in this section:

The Installer usually runs these assistants during an installation session. However, you can also run them in a stand alone mode. Like the Oracle Universal Installer, you can run each of these assistants non-interactively using a response file. See "Non-Interactive "Silent" Installation and Configuration" for information on using response files with the assistants.

Net8 Assistant

When the Net8 Server or Net8 Client is installed, the Net8 Assistant is automatically launched by the Oracle Universal Installer.

If you create a database using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant during or after installation, it automatically updates the Net8 configuration with any configuration information required by the new database. The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant either registers the database in a supported directory service so that clients can use the directory service to connect to the database, or it creates an entry in the local naming file (tnsnames.ora) that you can then distribute to client systems.

If you choose to install Oracle8i Client separately, the Net8 Assistant automatically creates a profile that is consistent with any selections you made during the installation. The Installer automatically runs the Net8 Assistant to set up a network service name in the local naming file found in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory of the client installation.

After installing the software, you can create a more detailed configuration using the Net8 Assistant using the following command:

$ netasst

See Also:

See "Understanding Net8 Configuration" for a description of how Net8 Assistant configures your installation. For information on the use and configuration of Net8, see the Net8 Administrator's Guide

Oracle Data Migration Assistant

If you have installed Oracle8i for use with an existing database from a previous software release, and you did not choose to upgrade the database during the installation, upgrade or migrate the database before you mount it using Oracle8i.

See Also:

See Oracle8i Migration for more information on migrating a database. 

Oracle Database Configuration Assistant

The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant can create a default or customized database or it can configure an existing database to use Oracle options, for example. The assistant can create the database or generate a collection of shell and SQL scripts that you can inspect, modify, and run at a later time. See "Identifying Your Database Environment" for information on the types of databases that you can install using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.

Enter the following command to start the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant:

$ dbassist

For help with the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, use the -help or -h command line parameters with the dbassist command.

$ dbassist -help

Oracle Corporation recommends running the utlrp.sql script after creating, upgrading, or migrating a database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that may be in an INVALID state, including packages, procedures, types, and so on. This step is optional, but recommended so that the cost of recompilation is incurred during the installation rather than in the future.


Note:

There should be no other data definition language (DDL) statements running on the database while the utlrp.sql is running, and packages STANDARD and DBMS_STANDARD must already be VALID. 


  1. Start SQL*Plus:

    $ SQLPLUS
    
    
  2. Connect to the database with the SYS account:

    SQL> CONNECT SYS/PASSWORD AS SYSDBA
    
    

    In the preceding example, PASSWORD is CHANGE_ON_INSTALL, unless it was changed after installation.

  3. Start the database (if necessary):

    SQL> STARTUP
    
    
  4. Run the utlrp.sql script:

    SQL> @oracle_base/oracle_home/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
    

Oracle Options

The following sections describe post-installation tasks required for Oracle options.

Configuring the Database for Oracle Options

If you install additional Oracle options after the initial installation, use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to configure your database for the options you install.

  1. Enter the following command to start the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbassist
    
    
  2. Select [Modify Database].

  3. Select the appropriate database SID from the list of those detected by the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. The database that you want to modify must already be running.

  4. Choose the options you want to enable from the list, then click the [Finish] button.

Execute privileges are granted to PUBLIC for all of the options and packages that you enable.

Oracle interMedia

If you intend to install Oracle interMedia Text after your initial installation, ensure that you have at least 10 MB of disk space for the data dictionary.

For interMedia Text, include $ORACLE_HOME/ctx/lib in the LD_LIBRARY64_PATH and the LD_LIBRARYN32_PATH environment variables.

Your database must include tablespaces specific to interMedia Text data. Verify that tablespaces exist to serve as default and temporary tablespaces for Oracle interMedia Text. Oracle interMedia Text uses the DRSYS tablespace for its default and temporary tablespaces. If tablespaces for Oracle interMedia Text do not exist or you do not want to use the DRSYS tablespace, create additional tablespaces before proceeding.


Note:

There is no upgrade from previous releases of ConText Cartridge to Oracle interMedia Text release 8.1x. However, you can migrate ConText data manually. See the Oracle8i ConText to interMedia Text Migration guide for information on this process. 


See Also:

See the Oracle8i SQL Reference for information on creating tablespaces. 

Oracle Precompilers


Note:

You cannot use Oracle Precompilers independently of Oracle8i to convert embedded PL/SQL. 


Precompiler Configuration File Location

All precompiler configuration files are located in the following location:

$ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin

Pro*C/C++

The configuration file for Pro*C/C++ is $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin/pcscfg.cfg. This file must be customized for your environment before using Pro*C/C++. This file is installed without content and can be configured with any text editor according to your site-specific requirements.

See Also:

See the Programmer's Guide to the Pro*C/C++ Precompiler for additional information on configuring the pcscfg.cfg file for your environment. 

Pro*FORTRAN

The configuration file for Pro*FORTRAN is $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin/pccfor.cfg. This file is installed without content and can be configured with any text editor according to your site-specific requirements.

See Also:

See your FORTRAN77 documentation to determine how to configure this file. 

.

Oracle Supported Protocols

Perform the following steps after installing any protocol:


Note:

This procedure fails if the TNS_ADMIN environment variable is not set or if the listener.ora file is not in one of the default locations (/etc or $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin). 


  1. Verify that you have created and installed the necessary configuration files for the network.

  2. To start the listener automatically when the system is rebooted, log in as the root user and add a line similar to the following in the /etc/init.d/dbora system startup file:

    su - oracle -c "lsnrctl start"
    
    
  3. If you have a client/server configuration, set the TWO_TASK environment variable on the client systems to the service name for the server (available from the tnsnames.ora file). See "Configure Environment Variables" for information on setting environment variables.

  4. Start the listener on the server:

    $ lsnrctl start
    
    
  5. Check the listener process:

    $ lsnrctl status
    
    
  6. As the oracle user, start SQL*Plus, to test the connection:

    $ sqlplus username/password@service_name
    

Recovery Manager

Recovery Manager is an automated recovery utility that is installed as part of Oracle8i. It stores information in a recovery catalog in a separate Oracle8i database. Install this second Oracle8i database on a separate system to provide maximum fault resistance.


Note:

If it is not practical to install and maintain a second Oracle8i database, you can use Recovery Manager in a restricted mode without a recovery catalog. 


To create a recovery catalog, perform the following steps:

  1. Install Oracle8i on a separate system from any other Oracle8i installation and create a database for the recovery catalog.

    If you do not write a custom script to create the database, create a typical, preconfigured database using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. The default database is adequate for the recovery catalog.

  2. Create a user with the name in the recovery catalog database RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER.

  3. As the RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER, run the create catalog command at the Oracle Recovery Manager prompt.

    See Also:

    For more information on Recovery Manager, see the Oracle8i Backup and Recovery Guide. 

Secure Socket Layer

After the Secure Socket Layer is installed, you must run Net8 Configuration Assistant to properly configure it for your system.

See Also:

For more information on Secure Socket Layer, refer to Configuring Secure Socket Layer Authentication in the Oracle Advanced Security Administrator's Guide in the generic documentation set. 

Reviewing Installed Starter Database Contents

The following sections describe the installed starter database.

User Names and Passwords

This section describes the user names and passwords included in the starter database. The SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP user names and INTERNAL alias passwords in the following table are automatically included in all databases created by Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.

User Name  Password  Description  See Also 

CTXSYS  

CTXSYS 

CTXSYS is the Oracle interMedia Text user name. This user has CONNECT, DBA, and RESOURCE database roles.  

Oracle8i interMedia Text Reference 

DBSNMP  

DBSNMP 

DBSNMP is the Oracle Intelligent Agent user name. This user has CONNECT, RESOURCE, and SNMPAGENT database roles. Run catnsnmp.sql if you want to drop this user.  

Oracle Intelligent Agent User's Guide 

INTERNAL  

ORACLE

 

INTERNAL is the administrator's user name. This user performs database administration tasks, including starting up and shutting down a database.

Note: INTERNAL is not a true user name; it is an alias for the SYS user name and SYSDBA role.

The password is required only for users who did not install the Oracle8i database. The user who installed the Oracle8i database is not prompted to enter a password when connecting as INTERNAL. 

Oracle8i Administrator's Guide 

MDSYS  

MDSYS

 

MDSYS is the Oracle Spatial and interMedia Audio, Video, Locator, and Image administrator user name. 

Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference

Oracle8i interMedia Locator User's Guide and Reference  

MTSSYS  

MTSSYS 

MTSSYS is the Oracle Service for MTS user name. 

Using Microsoft Transaction Server With Oracle8 

ORDPLUGINS

 

ORDPLUGINS 

ORDPLUGINS is the Oracle interMedia Audio and Video user name with the CONNECT and RESOURCE roles. ORDPLUGINS allows non-native plug-in formats for one session. 

Oracle8i interMedia Audio, Image, and Video User's Guide and Reference 

ORDSYS  

ORDSYS 

ORDSYS is the Oracle interMedia Audio, Video, Locator, and Image user name and the Oracle Time Series and Oracle Visual Information Retrieval administrator user name. This user has CONNECT, JAVAUSERPRIV, and RESOURCE database roles.  

Oracle8i Time Series User's Guide

Oracle8i Visual Information Retrieval User's Guide and Reference

Oracle8i interMedia Audio, Image, and Video User's Guide and Reference 

OUTLN  

OUTLN 

OUTLN includes the CONNECT and RESOURCE database roles, and supports plan stability. Plan stability allows you to maintain the same execution plans for the same SQL statements. OUTLN centrally manages metadata associated with stored outlines. 

Oracle8i Concepts

Oracle8i Designing and Tuning for Performance 

SYS

 

CHANGE_ON_INSTALL 

SYS is used for performing database administration tasks. SYS includes the following database roles:

    AQ_ADMINISTRATOR_ROLE
    AQ_USER_ROLE
    CONNECT
    CTXAPP
    DBA
    DELETE_CATALOG_ROLE
    EXECUTE_CATALOG_ROLE
    EXP_FULL_DATABASE
    HS_ADMIN_ROLE
    IMP_FULL_DATABASE
    JAVA_ADMIN
    JAVADEBUGPRIV
    JAVAIDPRIV
    JAVAUSERPRIV
    OEM_MONITOR
    RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER
    RESOURCE
    SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE
    SNMPAGENT
    TIMESERIES_DBA
    TIMESERIES_DEVELOPER

 

Oracle8i Administrator's Guide 

SYSTEM  

MANAGER 

SYSTEM is used for performing database administration tasks. SYSTEM includes the AQ_ADMINISTRATOR_ROLE and DBA database roles. 

Oracle8i Administrator's Guide 

SCOTT  

TIGER 

SCOTT includes the CONNECT and RESOURCE database roles. 

Oracle8i Administrator's Guide 

Database Identification

The Oracle8i database is identified by its global database name, which consists of the database name and the network domain in which the database is located. The global database name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same network domain. You create a global database name when prompted in the Database Identification window during the installation of the Oracle8i database. The syntax of the global database name is:

database_name.database_domain

For example:

sales.us.acme.com 

Where...  Is... 

sales 

The name you give your database. The database name portion is a string of no more than 8 characters that can contain alpha numeric and additional characters. The database name is also assigned to the DB_NAME parameter in the init.ora file. 

us.acme.com 

The network domain in which the database is located, making the global database name unique. The domain portion is a string of no more than 128 characters that can contain alpha numeric, period (.), and additional characters. The domain name is also assigned to the DB_DOMAIN parameter in the init.ora file. 

The DB_NAME parameter (value sales) and DB_DOMAIN name parameter (value us.acme.com) combine to create the global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter (value sales.us.acme.com) in the initsid.ora file.

The System Identifier (SID) identifies a specific Oracle8i instance that references the database. The SID uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database on the same computer. Multiple Oracle homes enable you to have multiple, active Oracle databases on a single computer. Each database requires a unique SID and database name.

The SID name is taken from the value you entered for the database name in the Database Identification window, although you had the opportunity to change it. The SID can be up to 64 alphanumeric characters in length.

If the SID and database name for an Oracle database are ORCL, each database file is located in the $ORACLE_BASE/oradata/ORCL directory and the initialization parameter file is located in the $ORACLE_BASE/admin/ORCL/pfile directory. The directory ORCL is named after the DB_NAME parameter value.

Tablespaces and Datafiles

An Oracle8i database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces. Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical datafiles. Datafiles contain the contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes. A datafile can be associated with only one tablespace and database.


Note:

Unless you specified different names with Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, the tablespaces and datafiles described in the following table are also included automatically in the Custom database. 


The tablespaces in the Oracle8i database contain the following types of datafiles located in the $ORACLE_BASE/oradata/db_name directory:

Tablespace  Datafile  Contents 

SYSTEM  

system01.dbf 

The data dictionary, including definitions of tables, views, and stored procedures required by the Oracle database. Information in this tablespace is maintained automatically. The SYSTEM tablespace is present in all Oracle databases. 

USERS  

users01.dbf 

Your application data. As you create and enter data into tables, you fill this tablespace with your data. 

TEMP  

temp01.dbf 

Temporary tables or indexes created while processing your SQL statement. You may be required to expand this tablespace if you are executing a SQL statement that involves a lot of sorting, such as ANALYZE COMPUTE STATISTICS on a very large table, or the constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT. 

RBS  

rbs01.dbf 

Rolled back transactions that fail to complete normally. You might be required to expand this tablespace if you have long-running or high-data-volume transactions. 

INDX  

indx01.dbf 

Indexes associated with the data in the USERS tablespace. 

DRSYS 

dr01.dbf 

Oracle interMedia text-related schema objects. 

TOOLS 

tools01.dbf 

Nothing. This datafile is created by users who want to install any third-party or Oracle tools and products. 


Note:

If you choose to create a new repository and accept the default settings when running Oracle Enterprise Manager Configuration Assistant, a tablespace named OEM_REPOSITORY in a datafile named oem_repository.ora is also created. 


See Also:

For more information on tablespaces, see the Oracle8i Concepts guide and the Oracle8i Administrator's Guide. 

Initialization Parameter File

The starter database contains one database initialization parameter file located in the $ORACLE_BASE/admin/db_name/pfile directory. The initsid.ora parameter file must exist for an instance to start. A parameter file is a text file that contains a list of instance configuration parameters. The starter database initsid.ora file has preconfigured parameters. You do not need to edit this file to use the starter database.

See Also:

For more information on Oracle8i database-specific initialization parameters and their default values see the Oracle8i Administrator's Guide and Oracle8i Reference. 

Redo Log Files

The starter database contains three redo log files located in the $ORACLE_BASE/oradata/db_name directory:

Initialization Parameter File  Description 

initsid.ora 

The parameter file init.ora must exist for an instance to start. A parameter file is a text file that contains a list of instance configuration parameters. The starter database init.ora file has preconfigured parameters. No edits are required to this file to use the starter database. 


Note:

The redo log files redo01.log, redo02.log, and redo03.log are also automatically included in the Custom database. 


Database Files  Disk Size  Description 

redo01.log

redo02.log

redo03.log

 

1 MB

1 MB

1 MB 

Redo log files hold a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance failure occurs, the redo log files can recover the modified data that was in memory.

Redo log files are used in a cyclical fashion. For example, if three files constitute the online redo log, the first file is filled, then the second file, and then the third file. The first file is then re-used and filled, the second file is re-used and filled, and so on.  

See Also:

For more information on backup and recovery issues, see the Oracle8i Backup and Recovery Guide. 

Control Files

The starter database contains three control files located in the $ORACLE_BASE/oradata/db_name directory:

Control Files  Description 

control01.ctl

control02.ctl

control03.ctl 

A control file is an administrative file required to start and run the database. The control file records the physical structure of the database. For example, a control file contains the database name, and the names and locations of the database's datafiles and redo log files. 


Note:

The control01.ctl, control02.ctl, and control03.ctl files are also automatically included in the Custom database. Oracle Corporation recommends that you keep at least three control files (on separate physical drives) for each database and set the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter to list each control file.  


See Also:

See the Oracle8i Administrator's Guide for information on setting this initialization parameter value. 

Rollback Segments

Rollback segments record the old values of data changed by each transaction (whether or not the transaction was committed). Every database contains one or more rollback segments which are portions of the database that record the actions of transactions in the event that a transaction is rolled back. Rollback segments are used to provide read consistency, to roll back transactions, and to recover the database.

The starter database contains the following rollback segments:

Rollback Segment  Tablespace  Used by 

SYSTEM 

SYSTEM 

SYS 

RB_TEMP 

SYSTEM (private) 

SYS 

RB1 through RB16 

RBS 

PUBLIC (a pool of rollback segments that any instance requiring a rollback segment can use) 

Data Dictionary

The data dictionary is a protected collection of tables and views containing reference information on the database, its structures, and its users. The data stored in the dictionary includes the following:

De-Installing Oracle Software

If you are completely de-installing Oracle software from your system, you must de-configure Net8 using the Net8 Configuration Assistant and remove any installed databases using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. You must run both assistants before you use the Installer to completely de-install Oracle software. A partial de-installation of Oracle software does not necessarily require you to run either Oracle Database Configuration Assistant or Net8 Configuration Assistant.

De-installing an Oracle Database Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant

To de-install an Oracle database using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant:

  1. Start the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant by entering:

    $ dbassist
    
    
  2. From the initial screen, select Delete a Database and click [Next].

  3. Select the instance for the database that you want to delete and click [Finish].

  4. Verify that you want to delete the database in the windows that appear.

Because you can only delete one database at a time, you must run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and repeat these steps for each database that you want to delete.

After you have run the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, run the Net8 Configuration Assistant in de-installation mode by starting it at the command line with the /deinst parameter:

$ netca /deinst

De-installing Oracle Software Using Oracle Universal Installer

To de-install Oracle software using the Oracle Universal Installer:

  1. Start the Installer as described in "Using Oracle Universal Installer".

  2. Click the [De-install Products] button in the Welcome dialog box or the [Installed Products...] button available on any Installer screen.

    The Inventory dialog box appears, listing installed products.

  3. In the Inventory dialog box, select any products that you want to de-install, then click the [Remove] button.


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