Oracle8i Administrator's Reference
Release 3 (8.1.7) 64 Bit for SGI IRIX

Part Number A87435_01
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5
Configuring Net8

This chapter describes Net8 features on Oracle8i release 3 (8.1.7) 64 Bit for SGI IRIX. It includes the following sections:

Core Net8 Products and Features

This section describes core Net8 products and features.

Net8 Files and Utilities

This section describes the files and utilities that you can use to configure Oracle Net8 products.

Location of Net8 Configuration Files

The default directory for Net8 configuration files on SGI IRIX systems is /etc.

Oracle Net8 searches the following locations for global files in the following order:

  1. The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable, if set

  2. The /etc directory

  3. The $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory

To set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable in the startup files of all network users, enter the following for the Bourne or Korn shell:

$ TNS_ADMIN=directory_path 
$ export TNS_ADMIN

For each system level configuration file, users may have a corresponding local private configuration file (stored in the user's home directory). The settings in the local file override the settings in the system level file. The local configuration file for sqlnet.ora is $HOME/.sqlnet.ora. The local configuration file for tnsnames.ora is $HOME/.tnsnames.ora. Syntax for these files is identical to that of the corresponding system files.

Sample Configuration Files

Examples of the cman.ora, listner.ora, names.ora, sqlnet.ora, and tnsnames.ora configuration files are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/samples directory.

The Adapters Utility

Net8 provides support for various network protocol adapters and naming methods. These adapters and naming methods are linked to particular executables and provide the interface between network protocols and Net8.

To display installed Net8 protocol adapters, enter:

$ adapters

To display adapters linked with a specific executable, enter:

$ adapters executable

For example, to display the Net8 protocol adapters linked with the Oracle executable, enter:

$ adapters oracle

The adapters executable displays output similar to the following:

Net8 Protocol Adapters linked with oracle are:
BEQ Protocol Adapter
IPC Protocol Adapter
TCP/IP Protocol Adapter
RAW Protocol Adapter
Net8 Naming Adapters linked with oracle are:
Oracle TNS Naming Adapter
Oracle Naming Adapter
Oracle Advanced Security/Networking Security products linked with oracle are:

Oracle Connection Manager

Oracle Connection Manager (OCM) is a router through which a client connection request may be sent either to its next hop or directly to the database server. Clients who route their connection requests through the OCM can then take advantage of the connection concentration, Net8 access control, or multi-protocol support features configured on that OCM.

OCM listens for incoming requests from clients and initiates connection requests to destination services. OCM performs these tasks with the help of Oracle Connection Gateway Process and Oracle Connection Manager Administrative Process.

OCM also includes a feature which you can use to control client access to designated servers in a TCP/IP environment. By specifying certain filtering rules you may allow or restrict access from specific clients to a server based on the following criteria:

Net8 Firewall Proxy

Some firewall vendors also offer Net8 Firewall Proxy, which is installed on firewalls requiring an application proxy. Net8 Firewall Proxy has the same access controls as Oracle Connection Manager.

See Also:

For more information on the Oracle Connection Manager, see the Net8 Administrator's Guide

Server Models

Net8 connects clients and servers using two different models:

Oracle Names

Oracle Names uses Oracle proprietary software to store the names and addresses of all database services on a network. Clients that want to connect to a server direct their connection requests to an Oracle Names server. Oracle Names servers resolve the name to a network address and return that information to the client.

See Also:

For information on Oracle Names, see the Net8 Administrator's Guide

Net8 Protocol Support

Net8 release 8.1.7 on SGI IRIX supports the following protocols:

Before installing the TCP/IP protocol, you must install the appropriate operating system software. The BEQ, IPC, and RAW Net8 protocols do not have any specific operating system requirements.

See Also:

Refer to the Oracle8i Installation Guide Release 3 (8.1.7) 64 Bit for SGI IRIX for more information on Net8.  

ADDRESS Specification

The IPC and TCP/IP Net8 protocols each have a protocol-specific ADDRESS specification that is used for Net8 configuration files and for the MTS_LISTENER_ADDRESS database initialization parameter in the initsid.ora file. See the ADDRESS specification heading under each protocol section in this chapter for details.

Table 5-1 shows a summary of ADDRESS specifications for each protocol.

Table 5-1 ADDRESS Specification Summary
Supported Protocol  ADDRESS Specification 

BEQ 

(ADDRESS =
(PROTOCOL = BEQ)
(PROGRAM = ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle)
(ARGV0 = oracleORACLE_SID)
(ARGS = '(DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=BEQ)))')
(ENVS = 'ORACLE_HOME=ORACLE_HOME,ORACLE_SID=ORACLE_SID')

IPC 

(ADDRESS =
(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=key)

RAW 

N/A 

TCP/IP 

(ADDRESS =
(PROTOCOL=TCP) 
(HOST=hostname) 
(PORT=port_id)

BEQ Protocol

The BEQ protocol adapter is both a communications mechanism and a process-spawning mechanism. To use the BEQ protocol adapter, the client and server must be on the same system. If a network service name is not specified, either directly by the user on the command line or Login screen or indirectly through an environment variable such as TWO_TASK, then the BEQ protocol is used. In this case, the BEQ protocol always uses a dedicated server and the multi-threaded server is never used. This dedicated server is started automatically by the BEQ protocol, which waits for the server process to start and attach to an existing System Global Area (SGA). If the startup of the server process is successful, the BEQ protocol then provides inter-process communication through UNIX pipes.

An important feature of the BEQ protocol is that no listener is required for its operation. The protocol is linked into the client tools and directly starts its own server process without outside interaction. However, the BEQ protocol can only be used when the client program and Oracle8i are installed on the same system. The BEQ protocol is always installed and always linked to all client tools and to the Oracle8i server.

The BEQ protocol connection parameters are part of the ADDRESS keyword-value pair. The ADDRESS is commonly part of a larger construct such as a connect descriptor or configuration file. You can enter the following parameters in any order:

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = BEQ)
(PROGRAM = ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle)
(ARGV0 = oracleORACLE_SID)
(ARGS = '(DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=BEQ)))')
(ENVS = 'ORACLE_HOME=ORACLE_HOME,ORACLE_SID=ORACLE_SID')
)

Table 5-2 describes the syntax for the BEQ protocol connection parameters.

Table 5-2 Syntax for BEQ Protocol Connection Parameters  
Parameter  Description 

PROTOCOL 

The protocol adapter to be used.
The value is BEQ. It is not case sensitive. 

PROGRAM 

The full path to the oracle executable. 

ARGV0 

The name of the process as it appears in a ps listing. The recommended value is oracleORACLE_SID

ARGS 

'(DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=BEQ)))' 

ENVS 

Environment specification that includes the ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID variables, where ORACLE_HOME represents the full path to the Oracle home directory of the database, and ORACLE_SID represents the system identifier of the database. 

Example 5-1 shows a sample BEQ ADDRESS.:

Example 5-1 BEQ ADDRESS Specifying a Client

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = BEQ)
(PROGRAM = /u01/app/oracle/product/8.1.7/bin/oracle)
(ARGV0 = oracleV817)
(ARGS = '(DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=BEQ)))')
(ENVS = 'ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/8.1.7,ORACLE_SID=V817')

IPC Protocol

The IPC protocol is similar to the BEQ protocol in that it can only be used when the client program and the Oracle8i server are installed on the same system. The IPC protocol differs from the BEQ protocol in that it can be used both with a dedicated server and Multi-threaded Server configurations. The IPC protocol requires a listener for its operation. The IPC protocol is always installed and always linked to all client tools and to Oracle8i.

For the IPC protocol, the location of the UNIX Domain Socket (IPC) file on UNIX systems changed after Oracle7 release 7.1. If you have Oracle7 release 7.1 installed on the same computer as Oracle8i and you attempt to make an IPC connection between the two instances, the connection might fail. The solution to this problem is to make a symbolic link between the previous location of the IPC file directory (/var/tmp/o) to its current directory location (/var/tmp/.oracle).

The IPC protocol connection parameters are part of the ADDRESS keyword-value pair. The ADDRESS is commonly part of a larger construct such as a connect descriptor or configuration file. You can enter the following parameters in any order:

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=key)
)

Table 5-3 describes the syntax for IPC protocol connections parameters.

Table 5-3 Syntax for IPC Protocol Connection Parameters  
Parameter  Description 

PROTOCOL 

IPC protocol adapter to be used.
The value is IPC. It is not case sensitive. 

KEY 

Service name of database or database identifier (SID). 

Example 5-2 shows a sample IPC ADDRESS.

Example 5-2 IPC Address Specifying a Client

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=PROD)

The ADDRESS is commonly part of a larger construct such as a connect descriptor or configuration file.

RAW Protocol

When data is transferred between a client and a server, Net8 adds its own header information to every network packet. Through the Raw Transport feature, Net8 can now minimize header information on each packet going over the network.

After a connection is established, two types of information flow over the network: data and break handling. The connection packets require the Net8 header information to establish the connection correctly. However, after the connection is established, all data packets are stripped of their Net8 header information and passed directly to the operating system, bypassing the Net8 network and protocol layers. The performance of the connection is increased because of fewer protocol stack layers for the data to flow through and fewer bytes that are transmitted over the network.

This feature is transparently enabled when it is required. If no existing features require that header information be transmitted, the headers are stripped off. For example, Raw Transport would not be enabled when you use authentication, which requires certain information to be sent with each packet of information.

This feature requires no configuration. Net8 determines whether the conditions are met and then transparently switches to Raw Transport mode.

TCP/IP Protocol Adapter

Oracle Corporation recommends that you reserve a port for your listener in the /etc/services file of each Net8 node on the network. The default port number is 1521. The entry lists the listener name and the port number, for example:

listener     1521/tcp

In this example listener is the name of the listener, as defined in the listener.ora file. You should reserve more than one port to start more than one listener.

Specifying a TCP/IP ADDRESS

The TCP/IP protocol connection parameters are part of the ADDRESS keyword-value pair. The ADDRESS is commonly part of a larger construct such as a connect descriptor or configuration file. You can enter the parameters in any order:

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=hostname)
(PORT=port_id)
)

Table 5-4 describes the syntax for the TCP/IP protocol connection parameters.

Table 5-4 Syntax for TCP/IP Protocol Connection Parameters  
Parameter  Description 

PROTOCOL 

The protocol adapter to be used.
The value is TCP. It is not case sensitive. 

HOST 

The host name or the host IP address. 

PORT 

The TCP/IP port. Either a number or the name specified in the /etc/services file. Oracle Corporation recommends a value of 1521. 

Example 5-3 shows a sample TCP/IP ADDRESS.

Example 5-3 TCP/IP ADDRESS Specifying a Client

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=MADRID)
(PORT=1521)
)

You can specify the last field by name, for example, (PORT=listener).

Configuring Oracle Intelligent Agent for Oracle SNMP

Although Oracle Intelligent Agent does not require Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), you can configure Oracle SNMP support before starting the Intelligent Agent. Note that all of the configuration files for the following steps are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/snmp/peer directory.

Configure the Encapsulator

To configure the encapsulator, perform the following steps:

  1. Add the following line to the snmpd.conf file, where hostname_or_IP_address represents the local system IP address:

trap hostname_or_IP_address
  1. In the CONFIG.encap file, you can modify the port number which is set to 1161 in the default file. If you modify the port number, you must also modify the port number for NEW_SNMPD_PORT in the start_peer script.

    NEW_SNMPD_PORT is the port on which the snmpd agent (the native SGI IRIX SNMP agent) listens. Make sure that this is the same port as specified in the CONFIG.encap file. NEW_TRAPD_PORT is the PEER encapsulator port to which the snmpd agent sends traps.

    NEW_SNMPD_PORT and NEW_TRAPD_PORT in the start_peer script must have different port numbers. You can also modify the NEW_TRAPD_PORT port number.

Verify start_peer Script

The start_peer script contains a line similar to the following:

SNMPD = snmpd_executable_path

If the snmpd executable on your system is not in the location indicated by this line, specify the correct location of the snmpd executable.

Start the SNMP Components

To start the SNMP components, perform the following steps:

  1. Verify that the SNMP components (master_peer, encap_peer, and snmpd) , are not running:

    $ ps -aef | grep peer
    
    $ ps -aef | grep snmp
    
    

    If any of the components are running, log in as the root user and use the kill command to terminate the processes before proceeding.

  2. As the root user, run the start_peer script to start the PEER master agent, PEER encapsulator, and native SGI IRIX SNMP agent:

    # cd $ORACLE_HOME/network/snmp/peer
    # ./start_peer -a


    Note:

    If you do not have the native SGI IRIX SNMP agent in your system, you must not use the PEER encapsulator. To start the master agent only, run start_peer -m


  3. Verify that the SNMP components are running:

    # ps -aef | grep peer # ps -aef | grep snmp

    Configure and Start the Database Subagent

    The configuration and startup of the database subagent (the Oracle Intelligent Agent) is described in the Oracle Enterprise Manager Configuration Guide.

    Oracle Advanced Security

    The following section describes the Oracle Advanced Security Option.

    .bak Files

    When you install Oracle Advanced Security, three .bak files are created: naeet.o.bak, naect.o.bak, and naedhs.o.bak. They are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/lib directory. These files are required for relinking during Oracle Advanced Security de-installation and should not be deleted.

    Security and Single Sign-On

    For more information on configuring Security and Single Sign-On, see the Oracle Advanced Security Administrator's Guide.


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