Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference
Release 9.0.1

Part Number A88805-01

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Contents

Title and Copyright Information

List of Examples

List of Figures

List of Tables

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Preface

Audience
Organization
Changes for Release 9.0.1
Technologies Released Separately
Related Documents
Conventions
Documentation Accessibility
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

Part I Conceptual and Usage Information

1 Spatial Concepts

1.1 What Is Oracle Spatial?
1.2 Object-Relational Model
1.3 Introduction to Spatial Data
1.4 Geometry Types
1.5 Data Model
1.5.1 Element
1.5.2 Geometry
1.5.3 Layer
1.5.4 Coordinate System
1.5.5 Tolerance
1.5.5.1 In the Geometry Metadata for a Layer
1.5.5.2 As an Input Parameter
1.6 Query Model
1.7 Indexing of Spatial Data
1.7.1 R-tree Indexing
1.7.1.1 R-tree Quality
1.7.2 Quadtree Indexing
1.7.2.1 Tessellation of a Layer During Indexing
1.7.2.2 Fixed Indexing
1.8 Spatial Relations and Filtering
1.9 Spatial Aggregate Functions
1.9.1 SDOAGGRTYPE Object Type
1.10 Performance and Tuning Information
1.11 Spatial Release (Version) Number
1.12 Examples

2 The Object-Relational Schema

2.1 Simple Example: Inserting, Indexing, and Querying Spatial Data
2.2 SDO_GEOMETRY Object Type
2.2.1 SDO_GTYPE
2.2.2 SDO_SRID
2.2.3 SDO_POINT
2.2.4 SDO_ELEM_INFO
2.2.5 SDO_ORDINATES
2.2.6 Usage Considerations
2.3 Geometry Examples
2.3.1 Rectangle
2.3.2 Polygon with a Hole
2.3.3 Compound Line String
2.3.4 Compound Polygon
2.3.5 Type 0 (Zero) Element
2.4 Geometry Metadata Structure
2.4.1 TABLE_NAME
2.4.2 COLUMN_NAME
2.4.3 DIMINFO
2.4.4 SRID
2.5 Spatial Index-Related Structures
2.5.1 Spatial Index Views
2.5.1.1 xxx_SDO_INDEX_INFO Views
2.5.1.2 xxx_SDO_INDEX_METADATA Views
2.5.2 Spatial Index Table Definition
2.5.3 R-Tree Index Sequence Object
2.6 Unit of Measurement Support

3 Loading Spatial Data

3.1 Bulk Loading
3.1.1 Bulk Loading SDO_GEOMETRY Objects
3.1.2 Bulk Loading Point-Only Data in SDO_GEOMETRY Objects
3.2 Transactional Insert Operations Using SQL
3.2.1 Polygon with Hole
3.2.2 Compound Line String
3.2.3 Compound Polygon
3.2.4 Compound Polygon with Holes
3.2.5 Transactional Insertion of Point-Only Data

4 Indexing and Querying Spatial Data

4.1 Creating a Spatial Index
4.1.1 Creating R-Tree Indexes
4.1.2 Determining Index Creation Behavior (Quadtree Indexes)
4.1.3 Spatial Indexing with Fixed-Size Tiles (Quadtree Indexes)
4.1.4 Constraining Data to a Geometry Type
4.1.5 Creating a Cross-Schema Index
4.1.6 Using Partitioned Spatial Indexes
4.2 Querying Spatial Data
4.2.1 Query Model
4.2.2 Spatial Query
4.2.2.1 Primary Filter
4.2.2.2 Primary and Secondary Filters
4.2.2.3 Within-Distance Operator
4.2.2.4 Nearest Neighbor Operator
4.2.3 Spatial Join
4.2.4 Cross-Schema Operator Invocation

5 Coordinate Systems (Spatial Reference Systems)

5.1 Terms and Concepts
5.1.1 Coordinate System (Spatial Reference System)
5.1.2 Cartesian Coordinates
5.1.3 Geodetic Coordinates (Geographic Coordinates)
5.1.4 Projected Coordinates
5.1.5 Local Coordinates
5.1.6 Geodetic Datum
5.1.7 Authalic Sphere
5.1.8 Transformation
5.2 Geodetic Coordinate Support
5.2.1 Geodesy and Two-Dimensional Geometry
5.2.2 Choosing a Geodetic or Projected Coordinate System
5.2.3 Other Considerations and Requirements with Geodetic Data
5.3 Local Coordinate Support
5.4 Coordinate Systems Data Structures
5.4.1 MDSYS.CS_SRS Table
5.4.1.1 Well-Known Text (WKTEXT)
5.4.2 MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS Table
5.4.3 MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS Table
5.4.4 MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS Table
5.4.5 MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table
5.4.6 MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS Table
5.5 Creating a User-Defined Coordinate System
5.6 Coordinate System Transformation Functions
5.7 Notes and Restrictions with Coordinate Systems Support
5.7.1 Functions Not Supported with Geodetic Data
5.7.2 Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data
5.8 Example of Coordinate System Transformation

6 Linear Referencing System

6.1 Terms and Concepts
6.1.1 Geometric Segments (LRS Segments)
6.1.2 Shape Points
6.1.3 Direction of a Geometric Segment
6.1.4 Measure (Linear Measure)
6.1.5 Offset
6.1.6 Measure Populating
6.1.7 Measure Range of a Geometric Segment
6.1.8 Projection
6.1.9 LRS Point
6.1.10 Linear Features
6.2 LRS Data Model
6.3 Indexing of LRS Data
6.4 3D Formats of LRS Functions
6.5 LRS Operations
6.5.1 Defining a Geometric Segment
6.5.2 Redefining a Geometric Segment
6.5.3 Clipping a Geometric Segment
6.5.4 Splitting a Geometric Segment
6.5.5 Concatenating Geometric Segments
6.5.6 Scaling a Geometric Segment
6.5.7 Offsetting a Geometric Segment
6.5.8 Locating a Point on a Geometric Segment
6.5.9 Projecting a Point onto a Geometric Segment
6.5.10 Converting Geometric Segments
6.6 Example of LRS Functions

7 Generic Geocoding Interface

7.1 Locator Implementation: Benefits and Limitations
7.2 Generic Geocoding Client
7.3 Geocoder Metadata
7.3.1 Server Properties
7.3.2 Geocoding Input and Output Specification
7.3.2.1 Multiple Matches and Rejected Records
7.4 Metadata Helper Class
7.5 Single-Record and Interactive Geocoding
7.6 Java Geocoder Service Interface
7.7 Enabling Third-Party Geocoders

8 Extending Spatial Indexing Capabilities

8.1 SDO_GEOMETRY Objects in User-Defined Type Definitions
8.2 SDO_GEOMETRY Objects in Function-Based Indexes
8.2.1 Example: Function with Standard Types
8.2.2 Example: Function with User-Defined Object Type

Part II Reference Information

9 SQL Statements for Indexing

ALTER INDEX
ALTER INDEX REBUILD
ALTER INDEX RENAME TO
CREATE INDEX
DROP INDEX

10 SDO_GEOMETRY Object Type Methods

GET_DIMS
GET_GTYPE
GET_LRS_DIM

11 Spatial Operators

SDO_FILTER
SDO_NN
SDO_NN_DISTANCE
SDO_RELATE
SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE

12 Geometry Functions

SDO_GEOM.RELATE
SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY
SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA
SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID
SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE
SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE
SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION
SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE
SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE
SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION
SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER
SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE

13 Spatial Aggregate Functions

SDO_AGGR_CENTROID
SDO_AGGR_CONVEXHULL
SDO_AGGR_LRS_CONCAT
SDO_AGGR_MBR
SDO_AGGR_UNION

14 Coordinate System Transformation Functions

SDO_CS.TRANSFORM
SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER
SDO_CS.VIEWPORT_TRANSFORM

15 Linear Referencing Functions

SDO_LRS.CLIP_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.CONCATENATE_GEOM_SEGMENTS
SDO_LRS.CONNECTED_GEOM_SEGMENTS
SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_LRS_DIM_ARRAY
SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_LRS_GEOM
SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_LRS_LAYER
SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_STD_DIM_ARRAY
SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_STD_GEOM
SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_STD_LAYER
SDO_LRS.DEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.DYNAMIC_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.FIND_LRS_DIM_POS
SDO_LRS.FIND_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_END_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_END_PT
SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_LENGTH
SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_START_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_START_PT
SDO_LRS.GET_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.IS_GEOM_SEGMENT_DEFINED
SDO_LRS.IS_MEASURE_DECREASING
SDO_LRS.IS_MEASURE_INCREASING
SDO_LRS.LOCATE_PT
SDO_LRS.MEASURE_RANGE
SDO_LRS.MEASURE_TO_PERCENTAGE
SDO_LRS.OFFSET_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.PERCENTAGE_TO_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.PROJECT_PT
SDO_LRS.REDEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.RESET_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.REVERSE_GEOMETRY
SDO_LRS.REVERSE_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.SCALE_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.SPLIT_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.TRANSLATE_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.VALID_GEOM_SEGMENT
SDO_LRS.VALID_LRS_PT
SDO_LRS.VALID_MEASURE
SDO_LRS.VALIDATE_LRS_GEOMETRY

16 Migration Procedures

SDO_MIGRATE.FROM_815_TO_81X
SDO_MIGRATE.OGIS_METADATA_FROM
SDO_MIGRATE.OGIS_METADATA_TO
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_734
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_81X
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT

17 Tuning Functions and Procedures

SDO_TUNE.ANALYZE_RTREE
SDO_TUNE.AVERAGE_MBR
SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_INDEX_PERFORMANCE
SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TILING_LEVEL
SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TILING_TIME
SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TOTAL_NUMTILES
SDO_TUNE.EXTENT_OF
SDO_TUNE.HISTOGRAM_ANALYSIS
SDO_TUNE.MIX_INFO
SDO_TUNE.QUALITY_DEGRADATION
SDO_TUNE.RTREE_QUALITY

A Installation, Compatibility, and Migration

A.1 Introduction
A.2 Installation of Spatial
A.3 Changing from Oracle9i to Oracle8i Compatibility Mode
A.4 Migrating from Spatial Release 8.1.5, 8.1.6, or 8.1.7
A.5 LRS Data Migration

B Hybrid Indexing

B.1 Creating a Hybrid Index
B.2 Tuning Considerations with Hybrid Indexes

C Locator

Glossary

Index


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