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Oracle8i Server User's Guide
Release 3 (8.1.7) for Fujitsu Siemens Computers BS2000/OSD

Part Number A95463-01
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1
Getting Started

This chapter provides the BS2000/OSD-specific information that you need to use Oracle8i Release 3 for Fujitsu Siemens Computers BS2000/OSD. The chapter contains information about:

The Oracle Server Environment-Definition File

Every Oracle Server utility and product under BS2000/OSD uses an Oracle Server environment-definition file which is referred to as ORAENV. You must generate this file before you use the Oracle Server products as it contains a number of Oracle Server environment variables that describe the operating environment for the Oracle Server and utilities. The section below, "Generating Your Environment-Definition File" explains how you do this.

If you do not generate your ORAENV file, default values are used for all environment variables. In some cases, there are no default values for environment variables, such as ORASID and if you start an Oracle Server program or utility without first generating your ORAENV file, you will not be able to connect to the Oracle Server.

The ORAENV file is a text file that has the format of a BS2000 command procedure which issues a /SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV, filename command to itself. Each line contains an Oracle Server environment variable and its assigned value. When reading this file, the Oracle Server ignores all lines which have a slash or asterisk ("/" or "*") in column 1.

Generating Your Environment-Definition File

You must generate your own ORAENV file prior to using the Oracle Server for the first time. To do this, follow the instructions outlined below:

  1. Call the INSTALL.P.USER procedure by entering the following command:

/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORACL817.INSTALL.P.USER

Calling Your Environment-Definition File

You call the ORAENV file supplied (sid.P.ORAENV) by issuing the CALL PROCEDURE command on the ORAENV file. For example, to call the example ORAENV file for the database DEMO enter the following:

/CALL-PROCEDURE DEMO.P.ORAENV

Specifying the Environment Variables

The contents of the ORAENV file supplied are illustrated below:

/BEGIN-PROCEDURE LOG=N,PARAMETER=Y(PROCEDURE-PARAMETER=(-
/ &SYSCMD=DEMO.P.ORAENV),ESC-CHAR=C'&')
/ REMARK * SYSCMD MUST BE NAME OF THIS FILE
/ WRITE-TEXT ' '
/ WRITE-TEXT ' +-----------------------------------------+ '
/ WRITE-TEXT ' + Oracle8i Server Release 8.1.7     + '
/ WRITE-TEXT ' + environment setup + '
/ WRITE-TEXT ' +-----------------------------------------+ '
/ SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV,&SYSCMD
/ SET-FILE-LINK ORALOAD,$ORACL817.ORALOAD.LIB
/ SET-FILE-LINK ORAMESG,$ORACL817.ORAMESG.LIB
/ SET-FILE-LINK ORAUTM,$ORACL817.UTM.ORAUTM.LIB
/ EXIT-PROCEDURE
*
* parameters for users:
*
ORAUID=$ORACL817
ORASID=DEMO
NLS_LANG=German_Germany.D8BS2000
* PRINTPAR=
DEFAULT_CONNECTION=S:DEMO
/END-PROCEDURE

If you wish, you can change your Oracle8i Release 3 working environment by editing the user variables in this file. The appendix "ORAENV Variables" contains a list of the variables you can specify in the ORAENV file. The values you assign to user variables are specific to your task only. The Database Administrator can also set other variables that affect the whole database instance. If you try to set values for the "database administrator-only" variables in your own ORAENV file they are ignored.


Note:

You can create a separate ORAENV file for each database with which you work. To set the environment variables, simply call the ORAENV file containing the environment variables for the database you want to use.


The ORALOAD Library

The ORALOAD library ($ORACL817.ORALOAD.LIB by default) is required for the execution of any Oracle8i Release 3 program. The Oracle Server uses this library to dynamically load executables when required. The ORALOAD library must be identified by the linkname ORALOAD prior to calling any Oracle Server program. You get a BLS (BS2000 loader) error message, if the linkname is missing. Normally, this linkname is set when the ORAENV procedure is called. Another library, the ORAMESG library ($ORACL817.ORAMESG.LIB by default) is required for ORACLE messages. This library is assigned the linkname ORAMESG in the ORAENV procedure.

Invoking Oracle Utilities with /START-PROGRAM

Before you invoke Oracle Server products you need to call your environment-definition file, as described above.

Invoke the Oracle Server programs and utilities by issuing a START-PROGRAM command with the program name at the BS2000 command prompt (/). Specify the options and operands as the first data-input line when the data prompt (*) is displayed:

/START-PROGRAM $ORACL817.program_name
CCM0001 enter options:
* [
option_switch] [arguments]

where:

program_name
is the name of the program or utility to be invoked

option_switch
is one or more of the program-dependent optional switches. If used, the switch is preceded by a dash (-).

arguments
are one or more of the program's (or utilty's) operands, and/or the userid and password combination.

In this case, $ORACL817 is the Oracle8i Release 3 installation userid.

Example 1-1

To invoke SQL*Plus, enter the following:

/START-PROGRAM $ORACL817.SQLPLUS
* userid/password
SQL>

As soon as the program is loaded, the "CCM0001" prompt is displayed to allow you to enter the command line options. As shown above, you can enter the option_switch or arguments for the program. The program's prompt is then displayed, which in the case of SQL*Plus, is SQL>. You can now enter one of the program's commands. See the generic documentation for the product for a description of the valid commands.

Invoking Oracle Utilities in Unix Style

The utilities exp, imp, lsnrctl, sqlldr and sqlplus you can also start with the commands:

/START-ORACLE-EXPORT            or     /OEXP
/START-ORACLE-IMPORT            or     /OIMP
/START-ORACLE-LISTENER-CONTROL  or     /LSNRCTL
/START-ORACLE-SQLLOADER         or     /SQLLDR
/START-ORACLE-SQLPLUS           or     /SQLPLUS

Parameters can be specified behind the start command (in quotes, if the parameters contains '=' or blanks). Before you start the utility, activate the MOD-SDF command in oraenv file and call the oraenv file.

Examples:

/sqlplus
/lsnrctl stop
/oimp 'system/manager file=iea buffer=210000 ignore=y grants=y rows=y            
full=y commit=y' 

Connecting to the Oracle Server

You can connect to the Oracle Server in the following ways:

Check with your Database Administrator to see whether you can connect to the Oracle Server using all the methods listed above, as the possibilities available to you are dependant on how your system has been installed. Normally, you specify the way you connect to the Oracle Server as part of the logon string appended to the userid/password, and separated from it by an "at" symbol, @, as illustrated on the following pages.

Default Connections

If you do not specify a connection string, the environment variable DEFAULT_CONNECTION, if set, is used to establish your Oracle Server connection. Please refer to the appendix "ORAENV Variables" for more information on the ORAENV file and in particular the DEFAULT_CONNECTION environment variable.

Single-Task Mode

The following example logon string will connect you to a local database called DEMO in single-task mode:

SCOTT/TIGER@S:DEMO

Note that by default single-task access is restricted to tasks that are running under the same BS2000 userid as the database.

Connecting to the Oracle Server via Net8

If you want to access a local or remote database via Net8, use the Net8 logon string to identify:

The Net8 logon string has the following structure:

/START-PROGRAM $ORACL817.SQLPLUS
* userid/password@service_name

where:

service_name
specifies a service name entered in the TNSNAMES.ORA file or Oracle Names Server that identifies the TNS connect descriptor for the desired database and server type. If you are not sure of what you should enter here, contact your Database Administrator.

The following example logon string connects you to a database defined in the TNSNAMES.ORA file as SERVERX:

SCOTT/TIGER@SERVERX

Using BS2000 Files for Input and Output

In most cases, the Oracle Server for BS2000/OSD programs use the functions of the C-BS2000 runtime system to access their input and output files. Oracle Server programs can read SAM and ISAM, as well as PAM files, and create ISAM or PAM files, as appropriate.

Text Files

Textual data is normally stored in SAM or ISAM files; each record is taken to be one text line. Examples are the SQL script files used by Server Manager, SQL*Plus and spool output files.

SQL*Loader input data is provided as SAM or ISAM files. These files may also contain non-printable data such as packed decimal or binary integer values.

For ISAM files, the key at the beginning of the record is generally ignored.

Binary Files

Binary data is normally stored in PAM files.

Generic Oracle Server Filename Syntax

The convention used in generic Oracle Server documentation represents filenames as two parts separated by a full stop, as in LOGIN.SQL. This syntax is basically correct for BS2000. However, since there is no "current directory" concept in BS2000, you generally have to add a prefix to the generic example names to get a full BS2000 filename.

Default File Name Extensions

Under BS2000/OSD, the Oracle Server utilities add default extensions to filenames only when the last component of the specified filename is longer than three characters, or when only one component is specified. For example:

Original file name Extended file name

1)

TEST.TEST

TEST.TEST.EXT

2)

TST

TST.EXT

3)

T.T

T.T

4)

TEST.TST

TEST.TST

This is similar to the file-naming conventions used with Oracle Server on a UNIX system.

Using Linknames

Instead of specifying a filename, in special cases you can also refer to the LINKNAME of a previously issued BS2000 /FILE command by using the syntax "link=linkname", in places where a filename is requested. In this way you can override default file attributes, pre-allocate file space, and so on. There are a few exceptions where the "link=linkname" notation cannot be used.


Note:

When using the "link=linkname" notation, default filename extensions do not work. As a result, filename defaults derived from such notation are not valid, and you have to provide explicit names in such cases (for example, when working with SQL*Loader, if you specify "link=linkname" for the SQL*Loader control file, you must provide explicit names for the BAD, LOG and DISCARD filenames).



Note:

Some programs may report a syntax error when the "link=linkname" notation is used on the command (options) line. In such cases, omit the parameter on the command line, and specify it instead when you are prompted for the missing parameter.


Fixed linknames

The Oracle8i Release 3 Server for BS2000/OSD also assumes fixed linknames for certain files whose names cannot normally be specified.

The most important of these are as follows:

Linkname Meaning

ORAENV

The linkname of the Oracle Server environment-definition file.

ORALOAD

The linkname is mandatory and is used to specify the load library from which the Oracle Server modules and data tables are loaded during execution.

ORAMESG

The linkname is mandatory and is used to specify the message library from which Oracle message modules are loaded during execution.

ORAUTM

The linkname you need when you use Oracle with openUTM.

Normally, you set the above linknames by executing the ORAENV procedure.


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