Skip Headers

Oracle9i Lite SQL Reference
Release 5.0.1
Part No. A95915-01
Go To Table Of Contents
Contents
Go To Index
Index

Previous Next

4
SQL Commands

This document discusses SQL commands used by Oracle Lite. Topics include:

4.1 SQL Command Types

The following lists the different types of SQL commands including clauses and pseudocolumns. An explanation of each SQL command, clause, and pseudocolumn is provided in "SQL Commands Overview".


SQL Commands
Data Definition Language (DDL) Commands
ALTER SEQUENCE   CREATE JAVA   DROP INDEX  
ALTER SESSION   CREATE PROCEDURE   DROP JAVA  
ALTER TABLE   CREATE SCHEMA   DROP PROCEDURE  
ALTER TRIGGER   CREATE SEQUENCE   DROP SCHEMA  
ALTER USER   CREATE SYNONYM   DROP SEQUENCE  
ALTER VIEW   CREATE TABLE   DROP SYNONYM  
CREATE DATABASE   CREATE TRIGGER   DROP TABLE  
CREATE FUNCTION   CREATE USER   DROP TRIGGER  
CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE   CREATE VIEW   DROP USER  
CREATE INDEX   DROP FUNCTION   DROP VIEW  
Data Definition Language (DDL) Commands (cont.)
GRANT   REVOKE   TRUNCATE TABLE  
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
DELETE      
EXPLAIN PLAN      
INSERT      
SELECT      
subquery::=      
UPDATE      
Transaction Control Commands  
COMMIT      
ROLLBACK      
SAVEPOINT      
SET TRANSACTION      
Clauses    
CONSTRAINT clause   DROP clause    
     
Pseudocolumns    
CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns   LEVEL pseudocolumn   ROWID pseudocolumn  
ROWNUM pseudocolumn   OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn    

4.2 SQL Commands Overview

Oracle Lite uses several different types of SQL commands. This section discusses the different types of SQL commands.

4.2.1 Data Definition Language (DDL) Commands

Data definition language (DDL) commands enable you to perform the following tasks:

  • Create, alter, and drop schema objects

  • Grant and revoke privileges and roles

  • Add comments to the data dictionary

The CREATE, ALTER, and DROP commands require exclusive access to the object being acted upon. For example, an ALTER TABLE command fails if another user has an open transaction on the specified table.

4.2.2 Data Manipulation Language (DML) Commands

Data manipulation language (DML) commands query and manipulate data in existing schema objects. These commands do not implicitly commit the current transaction.

4.2.3 Transaction Control Commands

Transaction control commands manage changes made by DML commands.

4.2.4 Clauses

Clauses are subsets of commands that modify the command.

4.2.5 Pseudocolumns

Pseudocolumns are values generated from commands that behave like columns of a table, but are not actually stored in the table. Pseudocolumns are supported by Oracle but are not part of SQL-92.

4.2.6 BNF Notation Conventions

The syntax diagrams in this document use a variation of Backus-Nauer Form (BNF), a convention used to show syntax in many programming languages. Emphasis and symbols have the following meaning in this version of BNF syntax:

  • Keywords are are shown in UPPERCASE.

  • Placeholders for which you must substitute an actual value are shown in lowercase. These can include clauses and other expressions.

  • Vertical (|) bars separate multiple choices. They indicate "or".

  • Parentheses and other punctuation enclosed in quotes must be typed as shown, for example "(".

  • Square brackets ( [] ) are not typed. They indicate that the enclosed syntax is optional.

  • Curly braces ( {} ) usually are not typed. They indicate that you must specify one of the the enclosed choices. (The choices are separated by vertical bars.)

  • Loops or repetitions are indicated by a second, bracketed appearance of the term, set of terms, or expression, followed by ellipsis points. The brackets indicate that the repetition is optional (all repetitions are optional). The ellipsis points indicate that multiple repetitions are allowed. The bracketed appearance of the term begins with a comma if the repetitions are comma delimited.

  • All other punctuation (quotation marks, commas, semicolons, and so on) must be typed as shown.

4.3 SQL Commands Alphabetical Listing

This section lists Oracle Lite SQL commands, clauses, and pseudocolumns in alphabetical order and discusses each. The discussion includes the following:

4.3.1 ALTER SEQUENCE


Syntax

Figure 4-1 The ALTER SEQUENCE Command

Description of alt_sequ.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
 ALTER SEQUENCE [schema .] sequence  [(INCREMENT BY "integer"   | (MAXVALUE "integer" | NOMAXVALUE)   | (MINVALUE "integer" | NOMINVALUE)
  ]
;

Purpose

Changes a sequence in one of the following ways:

  • changes the increment between future sequence values

  • sets or eliminates the minimum or maximum value


Prerequisite

The sequence must be in your own schema.

Table 4-1 Arguments Used with the ALTER SEQUENCE Command

Argument Description
schema The name of the schema to contain the sequence. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite alters the sequence in your own schema.
sequence The name of the sequence to be altered.
INCREMENT BY Specifies the interval between sequence numbers. Can be any positive or negative integer, but cannot be 0. If negative, then the sequence descends. If positive, the sequence ascends. This value can have 10 or fewer digits. The absolute of this value must be less than the difference of MAXVALUE and MINVALUE. If you omit the INCREMENT BY clause, the default is 1.
MAXVALUE Specifies the maximum value the sequence can generate. This integer value can have 10 or fewer digits. MAXVALUE must be greater than MINVALUE.
NOMAXVALUE Specifies a maximum value of 2147483647 for an ascending sequence or –1 for a descending sequence.
MINVALUE Specifies the minimum value that the sequence can generate. This integer value can have 10 or fewer digits. MINVALUE must be less than MAXVALUE.
NOMINVALUE Specifies a minimum value of 1 for an ascending sequence or –2147483647 for a descending sequence.

Usage Notes
  • To restart a sequence at a different number, you must drop and recreate the sequence. Only future sequence numbers are affected by the ALTER SEQUENCE command.

  • Oracle Lite performs some validations. For example, you cannot specify a new MAXVALUE that is less than the current sequence number, or a new MINVALUE that is greater than the current sequence number.


Example

This statement sets a new maximum value for the ESEQ sequence:

ALTER SEQUENCE eseq MAXVALUE 1500

ODBC 2.0

Although the ALTER SEQUENCE command is not part of ODBC SQL;ODBC passes the command through to your database.


Related Topics

CREATE SEQUENCE, DROP SEQUENCE

4.3.2 ALTER SESSION


Syntax

Figure 4-2 The ALTER SESSION Command

Description of alt_sess.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ALTER SESSION SET nls_date_format = nls_date_value ;

Purpose

To specify or modify any of the conditions or parameters that affect your connection to the database. Oracle Lite only enables you to use the SET clause of this command to specify or modify the NLS date format. The statement stays in effect until you disconnect from the database.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-2 Arguments Used with the ALTER SESSION Command

Argument Description
parameter_name With Oracle Lite, the ALTER SESSION command has only one parameter name: NLS_DATE_FORMAT.
parameter_value The NLS date format. For example: 'YYYY MM DD HH24:MI:SS'.

Example
ALTER SESSION 
SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = 'YYYY MM DD HH24:MI:SS';

Oracle Lite uses the new default date format:

SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE) Today FROM DUAL; 

TODAY 
------------------- 
1997 08 12 14:25:56 

4.3.3 ALTER TABLE


Syntax

Figure 4-3 The ALTER TABLE Command

Description of alt_tabl.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ALTER TABLE [schema .] table
{
  ADD add_column_list
 |ADD table_constraint
 |DROP drop_clause
 |ATTACH JAVA {CLASS | SOURCE} cls_or_src_name 
   IN {DATABASE | cls_or_src_path} 
    [WITH CONSTRUCTOR ARGUMENTS "(" col_name_list ")"
 |DETACH [AND DELETE] JAVA CLASS class_name
 |ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS
 |DISABLE ALL TRIGGERS
 |MODIFY "(" modify_column_option")"
 |MODIFY CONSTRAINT constraint_name constraint_state
}
;

add_column_list::=

Figure 4-4 The add_column_list Expression

Description of add_col.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
[COLUMN] "("column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [column_constraint] 
[, column_constraint]...")" [, [COLUMN] "("column datatype [DEFAULT expr]
[column_constraint] [, column_constraint]...")"]...

modify_column_option::=

Figure 4-5 The modify_column_option Expression

Description of md_col_op.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
column [datatype] [DEFAULT { literal | USER | SYSDATE }] [ NULL | NOT NULL ]
      [,  column [ [datatype] [DEFAULT { literal | USER | SYSDATE }] 
       [ NULL | NOT NULL ] ] ]...

constraint_state::=

Figure 4-6 The constraint_state Expression

Description of cons_st.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
([ENABLE | DISABLE] [VALIDATE | NOVALIDATE]) 

Purpose

Changes the definition of a table in one of the following ways:

  • Adds a column or integrity constraint

  • Drops a column or integrity constraint

  • Attaches a Java class

  • Detaches a Java class

  • Add, or change default value of a column

  • Change datatype or size of a column

  • Disable or enable a constraint

  • Change nullity property of a column


Prerequisite

The table must be in your own schema. You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-3 Arguments Used with the ALTER TABLE Command

Argument Description
schema The name of the schema, which is a character string of up to 128 characters. The schema name must be different from any user names since each user name comes with a default schema with the same name. If you create a schema with the same name as a user name, Oracle Lite returns an error. See "CREATE USER" for more information.
table The name of a database table.
ADD Specifies that a column or integrity constraint is added to the database table.
DROP Specifies that a column or integrity constraint is dropped from the database table.
column The name of a database column.
datatype The datatype of the database column.
DEFAULT Specifies a default value expr (expression) for the new column. It can be one of the following:
  • DEFAULT NULL, DEFAULT USER (the user name when the table is created), DEFAULT literal

  • ODBC FUNCTIONS - TIMESTAMPADD, TIMESTAMPDIFF, DATABASE, USER

  • SQL FUNCTIONS - CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, SYSDATE

For more information about expressions, see "Specifying Expressions ".

expr A valid expression. Expressions are evaluated when ALTER TABLE is executed, not when a row is inserted with a default value. For more information, see "Specifying Expressions ".
column_constraint A column integrity constraint. For more information, see . You cannot add a column with a not null constraint to a table that already contains data.
table_constraint A table integrity constraint. For more information, see "CONSTRAINT clause".
drop_clause An integrity constraint to be dropped. For more information, see "DROP clause".
ATTACH JAVA Attaches a Java class or source file to the database table.
IN Indicates that the Java class or source file must be attached in either a database, Java class, or source path.
DATABASE The database in which you attach the Java class or source path.
DETACH Detaches a Java class from the database table.
CLASS Specifies a Java class.
SOURCE Specifies a Java source file.
cls_or_src_name A fully qualified Java class or source file name.
cls_or_src_path The directory containing the specified Java class or source file.
WITH CONSTRUCTOR ARGS Specifies attributes of the class to be used as arguments to the Java constructor.
col_name_list List of columns (attributes) in the database table.
AND DELETE Deletes the Java class from the database.
class_name The name of a fully qualified Java class.
ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS Enables all triggers associated with the table. The triggers are fired whenever their triggering condition is satisfied. To enable a single trigger, use the ENABLE clause of ALTER TRIGGER. See "ALTER TRIGGER ".
DISABLE ALL TRIGGERS Disables all triggers associated with the table. A disabled trigger is not fired even if the triggering condition is satisfied. To disable a single trigger, use the DISABLE clause of ALTER TRIGGER. See "ALTER TRIGGER ".
MODIFY This specifies a new default for an existing column. Oracle Lite assigns this value to the column if a subsequent INSERT statement omits a value for the column. The datatype of the default value must match the datatype specified for the column. The column must also be long enough to hold the default value.
modify_column_option This modifies the definition of an existing column. Any of the optional parts of the column definition, datatype, default value (literal, USER, or SYSDATE) or column constraint state (NULL, NOT NULL) which are omitted remain unchanged. Existing datatypes can be changed to a new datatype as long as the existing data is such that the data conversion does not produce any conversion errors. Increasing the size of a varchar column whose existing size is greater than 15 characters does not require any data conversion. All other changes require a data conversion step. Each column is converted individually. Each datatype change involves a rewrite of all objects and creation of all dependent indexes.

A column undergoing datatype alteration which is part of an index created using the KEY COLUMNS clause, may cause the ALTER TABLE MODIFY command to fail because the index recreation is unable to reestablish the KEY COLUMNS option. An index created using KEY COLUMNS, should be dropped before modifying the column.

CONSTRAINT Modifies the state of an existing constraint. ENABLE specifies that the constraint is applied to all new data in the table. Before a referential integrity constraint can be enabled, its referenced constraint must be enabled.
ENABLE VALIDATE This setting specifies that all existing data complies with the constraint. An enabled validated constraint guarantees that all data is and continues to be valid. If a user places a primary key constraint in ENABLE VALIDATE mode, validation ensures that primary key columns contain no nulls.

If VALIDATE or NOVALIDATE are omitted, the default is VALIDATE.

ENABLE NOVALIDATE This setting ensures that all new DML operations on the constrained data comply with the constraint, but does not ensure that existing data in the table complies with the constraint.

Enabling a primary key constraint automatically creates a primary index to enforce the constraint. This index is converted to an ordinary index if the primary key constraint is subsequently disabled. If the constraint is subsequently re-enabled, the index is checked for any primary key constraints and if no violations are detected, is restored to primary key status.

DISABLE VALIDATE This setting disables the constraint and converts the index on the primary key constraint to an ordinary index, but keeps the constraint valid. No DML statements are allowed on the table through SQLRT engine but you may be able to perform a DML statement through Oracle Lite Java Access Classes (JAC).

If VALIDATE or NOVALIDATE are omitted, the default is NOVALIDATE.

DISABLE NOVALIDATE This setting signifies that Oracle Lite makes no effort to maintain the constraint (because it is disabled) and cannot guarantee that the constraint is true (because it is not validated). A primary key constraint index is downgraded to an ordinary index.

You cannot drop a table with a primary key that is referenced by a foreign key even if the foreign key constraint is in the DISABLE NOVALIDATE state.


Usage Notes

If you use the ADD clause to add a new column to the table, then the initial value of each row for the new column is null. You can add a column with a NOT NULL constraint only when a default value is also specified, regardless of whether or not the table is empty.

If VALIDATE or NOVALIDATE are omitted from the ENABLE argument, the default is NOVALIDATE.

If VALIDATE or NOVALIDATE are omitted from the DISABLE argument, the default is NOVALIDATE.

The nullity constrain is the only integrity constraint that can be added to an existing column using the MODIFY clause with the column constraint syntax. NOT NULL can be added only if the column contains no nulls. A NULL can be added provided the column is not a component of a primary key constraint.


Example

The following statement adds the columns THRIFTPLAN and LOANCODE to the EMP table. THRIFTPLAN has a datatype, NUMBER, with a maximum of seven digits and two decimal places. LOANCODE has a datatype, CHAR, with a size of one and a NOT NULL integrity constraint:

ALTER TABLE emp
ADD (thriftplan NUMBER(7,2),
loancode CHAR(1));

Related Topics

CONSTRAINT clause, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW

4.3.4 ALTER TRIGGER


Syntax

Figure 4-7 The ALTER TRIGGER Command

Description of alt_trgr.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ALTER TRIGGER [schema .] trigger { ENABLE | DISABLE };

Purpose

To enable or disable a database trigger. For information on creating a trigger, see "CREATE TRIGGER". For information on dropping a trigger, see ÒDROP TRIGGERÓ.


Note:

This statement does not change the declaration or definition of an existing trigger. To redeclare or redefine a trigger, use the CREATE TRIGGER statement with OR REPLACE.


Prerequisites

To alter a trigger you must have the DBA/DDL privilege.

Table 4-4 Parameters of the ALTER TRIGGER Command

   
schema The schema containing the trigger. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes the trigger is in your own schema.
trigger The name of the trigger to be altered.
ENABLE Enables the trigger. You can also use the ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS clause of ALTER TABLE to enable all triggers associated with a table. See "ALTER TABLE".
DISABLE Disables the trigger. You can also use the DISABLE ALL TRIGGERS clause of ALTER TABLE to disable all triggers associated with a table. See "ALTER TABLE".

Examples

Consider a trigger named REORDER created on the INVENTORY table. The trigger is fired whenever an UPDATE statement reduces the number of a particular part on hand below the part's reorder point. The trigger inserts into a table of pending orders a row that contains the part number, a reorder quantity, and the current date.

When this trigger is created, Oracle Lite enables it automatically. You can subsequently disable the trigger with the following statement:

ALTER TRIGGER reorder DISABLE;

When the trigger is disabled, Oracle Lite does not fire the trigger when an UPDATE statement causes the part's inventory to fall below its reorder point.

After disabling the trigger, you can subsequently enable it with the following statement:

ALTER TRIGGER reorder ENABLE; 

After you reenable the trigger, Oracle Lite fires the trigger whenever a part's inventory falls below its reorder point as a result of an UPDATE statement. It is possible that a part's inventory falls below its reorder point while the trigger was disabled. In that case, when you reenable the trigger, Oracle Lite does not automatically fire the trigger for this part until another transaction further reduces the inventory.


Related Topics

CREATE TRIGGER

4.3.5 ALTER USER


Syntax

Figure 4-8 The ALTER USER Command

Description of alt_user.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ALTER USER user IDENTIFIED BY password ;

Purpose

Changes a database user's password.


Prerequisite

You can change your user password in the database if you meet one of the following conditions:

  • You are connected to the database as that user.

  • You are connected to the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL or ADMIN privileges.

  • You are granted the UNRESOLVED XREF TO ADMIN or UNRESOLVED XREF TO DBA/DDL role.

Table 4-5 Arguments Used with the ALTER USER Command

Argument Description
user The user to be altered. Here, user is a unique user name with no more than 30 characters, beginning with one character. The first character in user cannot be a blank space.
IDENTIFIED BY Indicates how Oracle Lite permits user access.
password Specifies a new password for the user which is a name of up to 128 characters. The password does not appear in quotes and is not case-sensitive.

Example

The following example creates a user named ÒtoddÓ identified by the password, ÒtigerÓ. It then changes the user's password to ÒlionÓ.

CREATE USER todd IDENTIFIED BY tiger;

ALTER USER todd IDENTIFIED BY lion;

Related Topics

CREATE USER, DROP USER

4.3.6 ALTER VIEW


Syntax

Figure 4-9 The ALTER VIEW Command

Description of alt_view.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ALTER VIEW [schema .] view COMPILE ;

Purpose

Recompiles a view.


Prerequisite

The view must be in your own schema. You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-6 Arguments Used with the ALTER VIEW Command

Argument Description
schema The schema to contain the view. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite alters the view in your own schema.
view The name of the view to be recompiled.
COMPILE Causes Oracle Lite to recompile the view. The COMPILE keyword is required.

Usage Notes

You can use ALTER VIEW to explicitly recompile a view that is invalid. Explicit recompilation allows you to locate recompilation errors before run-time. You may want to explicitly recompile a view after altering one of its base tables to ensure that the alteration does not affect the view or other objects that depend on it. When you issue an ALTER VIEW statement, Oracle Lite recompiles the view regardless of whether it is valid or invalid. Oracle Lite also invalidates any local objects that depend on the view.

This command does not change the definition of an existing view. To redefine a view, you must use the CREATE VIEW command with the OR REPLACE option.


Example

The following code demonstrates the ALTER VIEW SQL command. The COMPILE keyword is required.

ALTER VIEW customer_view COMPILE;

Related Topics

CREATE VIEW, DROP VIEW

4.3.7 COMMIT


Syntax

Figure 4-10 The COMMIT Command

Description of commit.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
COMMIT [WORK] ;

Purpose

Ends your current transaction, making permanent to the database all its changes.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-7 Arguments Used with the Commit Command

Argument Description
WORK An optional argument with no effect. WORK is supported only for compliance with standard SQL. The statements COMMIT and COMMIT WORK are equivalent.

Usage Notes

Oracle Lite does not autocommit any DDL statements except for CREATE DATABASE. You must commit your current transaction to make permanent all of its changes to the database.


Example

The following code demonstrates the COMMIT command. This example inserts a row into the DEPT table and commits the change. The WORK argument is optional.

INSERT INTO dept VALUES (50, 'Marketing', 'TAMPA');

COMMIT;

ODBC 2.0

Although the COMMIT command is not part of the ODBC SQL syntax, ODBC passes the command through to your database.

An ODBC program typically uses the API call SQLTransact() with the SQL_COMMIT flag.


Related Topics

ROLLBACK

4.3.8 CONSTRAINT clause


Column Constraint Syntax

Figure 4-11 The Column Constraint Clause

Description of col_cons.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
 [CONSTRAINT constraint] { [NOT] NULL    | {UNIQUE | PRIMARY KEY}     | REFERENCES [schema .] table ["("column")"] [ON DELETE CASCADE]    | CHECK "(" condition ")" }

Table Constraint Syntax

Figure 4-12 The Table Constraint Clause

Description of tab_cons.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
[CONSTRAINT constraint]{ { UNIQUE | PRIMARY KEY } "("column [, column] ...")" [ KEY COLUMNS = number ] | FOREIGN KEY "("column [, column] ...")" REFERENCES [ schema .] table   "("column [, column] ...")" [ON DELETE CASCADE] | CHECK "("condition")"}

Purpose

Defines an integrity constraint.


Prerequisite

CONSTRAINT clauses can appear in both the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE commands. To define an integrity constraint, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges. Oracle Lite only has integrity constraints.

Table 4-8 Arguments Used with the Constraint Clause

Argument Description
CONSTRAINT Identifies the integrity constraint named by the constraint argument. Oracle Lite stores the constraint's name and definition in the data dictionary. If you omit the CONSTRAINT keyword, Oracle Lite generates a name with this form: POL_SYS_CONSn, where n is an integer that makes the name unique within the database.
constraint The name of the constraint being added.
NULL Specifies that a column can contain null values.
NOT NULL Specifies that a column cannot contain null values. By default, a column can contain nulls.
UNIQUE Designates a column, or a combination of columns, as a unique key.
PRIMARY KEY Designates a column, or a combination of columns, as the table's primary key.
KEY COLUMNS = This specifies how many columns should be used to create the index. This clause is useful when an index is needed on a large number of columns, since it reduces the size of the index. Query performance may suffer when multiple rows qualify as prefix columns of an index key as given by the KEY COLUMNS value, since the database looks up all qualifying rows to find the matching row(s).
number An integer which specifies the number of KEY COLUMNS.
FOREIGN KEY Designates a column, or a combination of columns in the child table, as the foreign key in a referential integrity constraint.
schema The name of the schema, which is a character string up to 128 characters. The schema name must be different from any user names since each user name comes with a default schema with the same name. If you create a schema with the same name as a user name, Oracle Lite returns an error. See CREATE USER for more information.
REFERENCES Identifies the primary key or unique key of the parent table that is referenced by a foreign key in a referential integrity constraint.
table Specifies the table on which the constraint is placed. If you specify only table and omit the column argument, the foreign key automatically references the primary key of the table.
column Specifies the column of the table on which the constraint is placed.
ON DELETE CASCADE Specifies that Oracle Lite maintains referential integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign key values when you remove a referenced primary key or unique key value.
CHECK Specifies that a condition be checked for each row in the table. Oracle Lite only supports the following operators and functions in CHECK conditions:

+ - / * = ! = < > < = > = IS NULL, LIKE, BETWEEN, TO_CHAR

TO_NUMBER, TO_DATE, TRANSLATE

condition Specifies the condition that each row in the table must satisfy. For more information about creating a valid condition, see Specifying SQL Conditions.

Example

The following example creates a table T, with columns A and B. The example uses the PRIMARY KEY constraint clause to make column A the table's primary key:

CREATE TABLE T (A CHAR(20) PRIMARY KEY, B CHAR(20));

Related Topics

ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE

4.3.9 CREATE DATABASE


Syntax

Figure 4-13 The CREATE DATABASE Command

Description of cre_data.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
 CREATE DATABASE database database_parameter [, database_parameter]...;


database_parameters::=

Figure 4-14 The datbase_parameters Expression

Description of db_parm.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
 {|DATABASE_ID database_id
  |DATABASE_SIZE max_bytes	
  |EXTENT_SIZE npages
 }
; 


Purpose

Creates a database.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-9 Arguments Used with the CREATE DATABASE Command

Argument Description
database A data file name or full path name. Full path names must be enclosed in double quotation marks. If no path name is specified, the data file is created in the directory specified by the data source name (DSN) if connected through ODBC. If neither the full path name nor DSN are valid, the database is created under the current working directory. The length of database is limited by the operating system or file system. If a duplicate database name is used, an error occurs.
DATABASE_ID An optional numeric identifier for the database.
database_id A unique identifier for the database. Must be a unique number from 16 to 32765. If omitted, the default initial value is 64. The database_id parameter in the POLITE.INI file indicates the next available database ID. It is possible to create two databases with the same database ID; however, you cannot connect to both databases at the same time.
DATABASE_SIZE The database size.
maxbytes The maximum file size to which the database can grow. If omitted, the default value is 256M. The abbreviations K, M, and G may be used for kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes, respectively. If an abbreviation is not specified, the default is K. If specifying an abbreviation, you must use an integer value between 250 kilobytes and 4 gigabytes, for example, 256M, 1000K, or 2G.
EXTENT_SIZE An incremental amount of pages in a database file. When a database runs out of pages in the current file, it extends the file by this number of pages.
npages The number of 4K (kilobyte) pages which make up an extent (the minimum unit of allocation for a table). A number that is a multiple of 2 is required for npages. The default value is 4. If set to 0, Oracle Lite sets npages to the default value.

Usage Notes

The number of pages should be less than or equal to 64.

Keywords may be listed in any order.

Before you can run a newly created database, you must first configure its ODBC data source name (DSN) using the ODBC Administrator. See the Oracle Lite User's Guide for more information about creating a DSN or using the ODBC Administrator.

Unlike other DDL statements, Oracle Lite autocommits the CREATE DATABASE command. You cannot undo the CREATE DATABASE command with a ROLLBACK statement.

If the POLITE.INI parameter NLS_SORT has been set to enable one of the collation sequences, such as FRENCH, all databases are created with that collation sequence. The default is BINARY. For more information see the Developer's Guide for Windows 32.


Example

To create the data file LIN.ODB in the directory C:\TMP with the .ODB file extension, use:

CREATE DATABASE "C:\TMP\LIN"

Related Topics

ROLLBACK

4.3.10 CREATE FUNCTION


Syntax

Figure 4-15 The CREATE FUNCTION Command

Description of cre_fun.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [OR REPLACE] FUNCTION [schema .] function["(" argument [ IN | OUT | IN OUT ] datatype    [, argument [ IN | OUT | IN OUT ] datatype]...  ")"]RETURN datatype { IS | AS } [ invoker_rights_clause] [call_spec];

call_spec::=

Figure 4-16 The call_spec Expression

Description of cre_pro4.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
LANGUAGE  Java_declaration

Java_declaration::=

Figure 4-17 The Java_declaration Expression

Description of cre_pro3.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
JAVA NAME . string .

Purpose

To create a call specification for a stored function.

A stored function (also called a user function) is a Java stored procedure that returns a value. Stored functions are very similar to procedures, except that a procedure does not return a value to the environment in which it is called. For a general discussion of procedures and functions, see ÒCREATE PROCEDUREÒ. For examples of creating functions, see the CREATE FUNCTION examples.

A call specification declares a Java method so that it can be called from SQL. The call specification tells Oracle Lite which Java method to invoke when a call is made. It also tells Oracle Lite what type conversions to make for the arguments and return value.

The CREATE FUNCTION statement creates a function as a standalone schema object. For information on dropping a stand-alone function, see ÒDROP FUNCTIONÒ.


Prerequisite

To create a function in your own schema, you must be connected to the database as SYSTEM or you must have DBA/DDL privileges.

To invoke a call specification, you must have DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-10 Parameters Used with the CREATE FUNCTION Command

Argument Description
OR REPLACE Recreates the function if it already exists. Use this clause to change the definition of an existing function without dropping, re-creating, and regranting object privileges previously granted on the function.

Users who had previously been granted privileges on a redefined function can still access the function without being regranted the privileges. If any function-based indexes depend on the function, Oracle Lite marks the indexes DISABLED.

schema The schema to contain the function. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the function in your current schema.
function The name of the function to create. See "Usage Notes".
argument The name of an argument to the function. If the function does not accept arguments, you can omit the parentheses following the function name.
IN Specifies that you must supply a value for the argument when calling the function. This is the default.
OUT Specifies that the function sets the value of the argument.
IN OUT Specifies that a value for the argument can be supplied by you and may be set by the function.
  • Changes made either to this parameter or to another parameter may be visible immediately through both names if the same variable is passed to both.

  • If the function is exited with an unhandled exception, any assignment made to this parameter may be visible in the caller's variable.

These effects may or may not occur on any particular call. You should use NOCOPY only when these effects do not matter.

datatype The datatype of an argument. An argument can have any datatype supported by SQL. The datatype cannot specify a length, precision, or scale. Oracle Lite derives the length, precision, or scale of an argument from the environment from which the function is called.
RETURN datatype Specifies the datatype of the function's return value. Because every function must return a value, this clause is required. The return value can have any datatype supported by SQL.

The datatype cannot specify a length, precision, or scale. Oracle Lite derives the length, precision, or scale of the return value from the environment from which the function is called.

IS Associates the SQL identifier with the Java method.
AS Associates the SQL identifier with the Java method.
invoker_rights_clause For compatibility with Oracle, Oracle Lite recognizes but does not enforce the invoker_rights_clause.
call_spec Maps the Java method name, parameter types, and return type to their SQL counterparts.
LANGUAGE Specifies the call_spec language. In Oracle8 this can be C or Java. In Oracle Lite, this can only be Java.
java_declaration Specifies the call_spec language. In Oracle8 this can be C or Java. In Oracle Lite, this can only be Java.
JAVA NAME The Java method name
string Identifies the Java implementation of the method. For more information, see the Oracle Lite Java Developer's Guide.

Usage Notes

User-defined functions cannot be used in situations that require an unchanging definition. You cannot use user-defined functions:

  • In a CHECK constraint clause of a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement.

  • In a DEFAULT clause of a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement.

In addition, when a function is called from within a query or DML statement, the function cannot:

  • Have OUT or IN OUT parameters.

  • Commit or roll back the current transaction, create or roll back to a savepoint, or alter the session or the system. DDL statements implicitly commit the current transaction, so a user-defined function cannot execute any DDL statements.

  • Write to the database, if the function is being called from a SELECT statement. However, a function called from a subquery in a DML statement can write to the database.

  • Write to the same table that is being modified by the statement from which the function is called, if the function is called from a DML statement.

Except for the restriction on OUT and IN OUT parameters, Oracle Lite enforces these restrictions not only for the function called directly from the SQL statement, but also for any functions that the function calls. Oracle Lite also enforces these restrictions on any functions called from the SQL statements executed by that function or any function it calls.


Example

The following example provides complete instructions for creating and testing a function.

  1. Create and compile the following Java program and name it Employee.java:

    public class Employee {
      public static String paySalary (float sal, float fica, float sttax, 
         float ss_pct, float espp_pct) {
       float deduct_pct;
       float net_sal;
    
       /* compute take-home salary */
       deduct_pct = fica + sttax + ss_pct + espp_pct;
       net_sal = sal * deduct_pct;
    
       String returnstmt = "Net salary is " + net_sal;
       return returnstmt;
     } /*paySalary */
    }
    

  1. Load the Employee class into the Oracle Lite database. Once loaded, the Employee class methods become stored procedures in the Oracle Lite database:

    CREATE JAVA CLASS USING BFILE ('C:\', 'Employee.class');
    

  1. Since the employeeSalary method returns a value, publish it by using the CREATE FUNCTION statement:

    CREATE FUNCTION
    PAY_SALARY(
        sal float, fica float, sttax float, ss_pct float, espp_pct float)
        return varchar2
    as language java name
    'Employee.paySalary(float,float,float,float,float)return java.lang.String';
    .
    /
    
    
  2. Select the PAY_SALARY stored procedure from dual:

    SELECT PAY_SALARY(6000.00, 0.2, 0.0565, 0.0606, 0.1) from dual;
    
    

    Returns the following result:

PAY_SALARY
-----------------------------------------
Net Salary is 2502.6

Related Topics

DROP FUNCTION

4.3.11 CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE


Syntax

Figure 4-18 The CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE Command

Description of glob_tab.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE table"("  column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [{ NULL | NOT NULL}]  [,  column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [ {NULL | NOT NULL} ]... ")"ON COMMIT {DELETE | PRESERVE } ROWS ;

Purpose

The CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE command creates a temporary table which can be transaction specific or session specific. For transaction-specific temporary tables, data exists for the duration of the transaction. For session-specific temporary table, data exists for the duration of the session. Data in a temporary table is private to the session. Each session can only view and modify its own data. On rollback of a transaction, all modifications made to the global temporary table are lost.


Arguments and Descriptions

Table 4-11 Arguments Used with CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE

Argument Description
name An optionally qualified table name.
schema A schema, which has the same name as the user who owns it. If omitted, the default schema name is used.
column The name of a table column.
datatype The datatype of the column. Cannot be used in subquery.
DEFAULT Specifies a default value expr (expression) for the new column. It can be one of the following:
  • DEFAULT NULL, DEFAULT USER (the user name when the table is created), DEFAULT literal

  • ODBC FUNCTIONS - TIMESTAMPADD, TIMESTAMPDIFF, DATABASE, USER

  • SQL FUNCTIONS - CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, SYSDATE

For more information about expressions, see "Specifying Expressions ".


Usage Notes

Temporary tables cannot be partitioned, organized into an index, or clustered.

You cannot specify any referential integrity (foreign key) constraints on temporary tables.


Examples

The following statement creates a temporary table FLIGHT_SCHEDULE for use in an automated airline reservation scheduling system. Each client has its own session and can store temporary schedules. The temporary schedules are deleted at the end of the session.

CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE flight_schedule ( 
startdate DATE, 
enddate DATE, 
cost NUMBER) 
ON COMMIT PRESERVE ROWS; 

4.3.12 CREATE INDEX


Syntax

Figure 4-19 The CREATE INDEX Command

Description of cre_indx.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX [schema .] index ON
[schema .] table 
"(" column [ ASC | DESC]
 [, column [ ASC | DESC]]...
 ")" 
[ KEY COLUMNS=number]
;

Purpose

Creates an index on one or more columns of a table.


Prerequisite

The table to be indexed must be in your own schema. You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-12 Arguments Used with the CREATE INDEX Command

Argument Description
UNIQUE Designates the specified column or combination of columns as a unique key.
schema When it follows CREATE INDEX, this is the schema that contains the index. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the index in your own schema.

When used in the ON clause, the schema that contains the table for which the index is created.

index The name of the index to create. You can create any number of indexes for a table, provided you do not use the same columns and column order for more than one index.
table The name of the table for which the index is created. If you do not qualify table with a schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the table is contained in your own schema.
column The name of a column in the table. A column of an index cannot be of the datatype LONG or LONG RAW.
ASC | DESC Provided for DB2 compatibility only. Indexes are always created in ascending order.
KEY COLUMNS = This specifies how many columns should be used to create the index. This clause is useful when an index is needed on a large number of columns, since it reduces the size of the index. Query performance may suffer when multiple rows qualify as prefix columns of an index key as given by the KEY COLUMNS value. The database looks up all qualifying rows to find the matching row(s).
number An integer which specifies the number of KEY COLUMNS.

Usage Notes

You can use additional index creation options for tuning purposes. However, only use these options when necessary as they may degrade your database performance. See Appendix D, " Index Creation Options" for more information.

CREATE ANY INDEX can be used to create a index in another schema, but this requires the DBA/DDL role.


Example

The following example creates an index on the SAL column of the EMP table:

CREATE INDEX SAL_INDEX ON EMP(SAL);


Related Topics

CONSTRAINT clause, CREATE TABLE, DROP INDEX

4.3.13 CREATE JAVA


Syntax

Figure 4-20 The CREATE JAVA Command

Description of cre_java.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [OR REPLACE] [AND { RESOLVE | COMPILE } NOFORCE ]  JAVA{ { SOURCE | RESOURCE } NAMED [schema .] primary_name     | CLASS [SCHEMA schema .]}[invoker_rights_clause] [RESOLVER"(" "(" match_string [,] { schema_name | - }")"   ["(" match_string [,] { schema_name | - }")"]... ")"]{ USING  BFILE "(" directory_path , server_file_name ")"  | AS source_text };

Purpose

To create a schema object containing a Java source, class, or resource.


Note:

For information on Java concepts, including Java stored procedures and JDBC, see the Oracle Lite Java Developer's Guide.


Prerequisite

To create or replace a schema object containing a Java source, class, or resource in your own schema, you must be connected to the database as SYSTEM or you must have DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-13 Arguments Used with the CREATE JAVA Command

Argument Description
OR REPLACE Recreates the schema object containing the Java class, source, or resource if it already exists. Use this clause to change the definition of an existing object without dropping, re-creating, and regranting object privileges previously granted.

If you redefine a Java schema object and specify RESOLVE or COMPILE, Oracle Lite recognizes but ignores those parameters.

Users, previously granted privileges on a redefined function, can still access the function. You do need to re-grant privileges to the users.

RESOLVE | COMPILE Oracle Lite recognizes but ignores this parameter. In Oracle, you specify that the database should attempt to resolve the Java schema object that is created if this statement succeeds.
  • When applied to a class, resolution of referenced names to other class schema objects occurs.

  • When applied to a source, source compilation occurs.

Restriction: You cannot specify this clause for a Java resource.

NOFORCE Oracle Lite recognizes but ignores this parameter. In Oracle NO FORCE rolls back the results of this CREATE commmand if you have specified either RESOLVE OR COMPILE, and the resolution or compilation fails. If you do not specify this option, Oracle takes no action if the resolution or compilation fails (that is, the created schema object remains).
CLASS Loads a Java class file.
RESOURCE Loads a Java resource file.
SOURCE Loads a Java source file. Requires the use of the AS source_text clause.
NAMED Oracle Lite recognizes but ignores this parameter. In Oracle, it is required for a Java source or resource.
  • For a Java source, this clause specifies the name of the schema object in which the source code is held. A successful CREATE JAVA SOURCE statement also creates additional schema objects to hold each of the Java classes defined by the source.

  • For a Java resource, this clause specifies the name of the schema object to hold the Java resource.

If you do not specify schema, Oracle creates the object in your own schema.

Restrictions:

  • You cannot specify NAMED for a Java class.

  • The primary_name cannot contain a database link.

SCHEMA schema Oracle Lite recognizes but ignores this parameter. In Oracle, it applies only to a Java class. This optional clause specifies the schema in which the object containing the Java file resides. If you do not specify SCHEMA and you do not specify NAMED (above), Oracle creates the object in your own schema.
invoker_rights_clause For compatibility with Oracle, Oracle Lite recognizes but does not enforce the invoker_rights_clause.
RESOLVER Oracle Lite recognizes but ignores this parameter. In Oracle, it specifies a mapping of the fully qualified Java name to a Java schema object, where:
  • match_string is either a fully qualified Java name, a wildcard that can match such a Java name, or a wildcard that can match any name.

  • schema_name designates a schema to be searched for the corresponding Java schema object.

  • A dash (-) as an alternative to schema_name indicates that if match_string matches a valid Java name, Oracle can leave the schema unresolved. The resolution succeeds, but the name cannot be used at run time by the class.

This mapping is stored with the definition of the schema objects created in this command for use in later resolutions (either implicit or in explicit ALTER...RESOLVE statements).

AS source_text A text of a Java source program.
USING BFILE Identifies the format of the class file. BFILE is interpreted as a binary file by CREATE JAVA CLASS or CREATE JAVA RESOURCE.

Usage Notes

When Oracle Lite loads a Java class into the database, it does not load dependent classes. Generally, you should use the loadjava utility to load Java classes into the database. See the Oracle Lite Java Developer's Guide for more information about the loadjava utility.


Java Class Example

The following statement creates a schema object and loads the specified Java class into the newly created schema object:

CREATE JAVA CLASS USING BFILE (bfile_dir, 'Agent.class');

This example assumes the directory path bfile_dir, which points to the operating system directory containing the Java class Agent.class, already exists. In this example, the name of the class determines the name of the Java class schema object.


Java Source Example

The following statement creates a Java source schema object:

CREATE OR REPLACE JAVA SOURCE AS
/* This is a class Test */
import java.math.*; /* */
public class Test {
public static BigDecimal myfunc(BigDecimal a, BigDecimal b)
{ return a.add(b); }
public static Strin myfunc2(String a, String b)
{ return (a+b); }
};

Note:

The keyword Òpublic classÓ should not be used in a comment before the first public class statement.


Java Resource Example

The following statement creates a Java resource schema object named APPTEXT from a binary file:

CREATE JAVA RESOURCE NAMED "appText" 
   USING BFILE ('C:\TEMP', 'textBundle.dat');

Note:

The semi-colon character, Ò;Ó cannot be the last character in a SQL*Plus statement when embedding any Java statements. If the semi-colon must be the last character in a line, a blank comment line must be added using the following characters: Ò/* */Ó . The regular comment symbols, Ò//Ó do not work in this context. Placing /* */ at the end of the line prevents SQL*Plus from interpreting the semi-colon as the end of the SQL statement.


Related Topics

DROP JAVA

4.3.14 CREATE PROCEDURE


Syntax

Figure 4-21 The CREATE PROCEDURE Command

Description of cre_pro.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [OR REPLACE] PROCEDURE [schema .] procedure["(" argument [ IN | OUT | IN OUT ] datatype    [, argument [ IN | OUT | IN OUT ] datatype]... ")"] [invoker_rights_clause] { IS | AS } call_spec;

call_spec::=

Figure 4-22 The call_spec Expression Used with CREATE PROCEDURE

Description of cre_pro4.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
LANGUAGE Java_declaration

Java_declaration::=

Figure 4-23 The Java_declaration Expression Used with Create Procedure

Description of cre_pro3.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
JAVA NAME . string .

Purpose

To create a call specification for a stand-alone stored procedure.

A call specification (Òcall specÓ) declares a Java method so that it can be called from SQL. The call spec tells Oracle which Java method to invoke when a call is made. It also tells Oracle Lite what type conversions to make for the arguments and return value.

Stored procedures offer advantages in the areas of development, integrity, security, and memory allocation. For more information on stored procedures, including how to call stored procedures, see the Oracle Lite Java Developer's Guide.

Stored procedures and stored functions are similar. While a stored function returns a value to the environment in which it is called, a stored procedure does not. For information specific to functions, see ÒCREATE FUNCTIONÒ.

The CREATE PROCEDURE statement creates a procedure as a stand-alone schema object. For information on dropping a stand-alone procedure, see ÒDROP PROCEDUREÒ.


Prerequisite

To create a procedure in your own schema, you must be connected to the database as SYSTEM or you must have DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-14 Arguments Used with the Create Procedure Comman

Argument Description
OR REPLACE Recreates the procedure if it already exists. Use this clause to change the definition of an existing procedure without dropping, re-creating, and regranting object privileges previously granted on it.

If any function-based indexes depend on the package, Oracle Lite marks the indexes DISABLED.

schema The schema to contain the procedure. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the procedure in your current schema.
procedure The name of the procedure to create.
argument The name of an argument to the procedure. If the procedure does not accept arguments, you can omit the parentheses following the procedure name.
IN Specifies that you must specify a value for the argument when calling the procedure.
OUT Specifies that the procedure passes a value for this argument back to its calling environment after execution.
IN OUT Specifies that you must specify a value for the argument when calling the procedure and that the procedure passes a value back to its calling environment after execution.

If you omit IN, OUT, and IN OUT, the argument defaults to IN.

Changes made either to this parameter or to another parameter may be visible immediately through both names if the same variable is passed to both.

If the procedure is exited with an unhandled exception, any assignment made to this parameter may be visible in the caller's variable.

These effects may or may not occur on any particular call. You should use NOCOPY only when these effects would not matter.

datatype The datatype of the argument. An argument can have any datatype supported by Oracle Lite SQL.

Datatypes cannot specify length, precision, or scale. For example, VARCHAR2(10) is not valid, but VARCHAR2 is valid. Oracle Lite derives the length, precision, and scale of an argument from the environment from which the procedure is called.

invoker_rights_clause For compatibility with Oracle, Oracle Lite recognizes but does not enforce the invoker_rights_clause.
IS Associates the SQL identifier with the Java method.
AS Associates the SQL identifier with the Java method.
call_spec Maps the Java method name, parameter types, and return type to SQL counterparts.
LANGUAGE Specifies the call_spec language. In Oracle this can be C or Java. In Oracle Lite, this can only be Java.
Java_declaration Identifies the method name in the Java class.
JAVA NAME The Java method name.
string Identifies the Java implementation of the method. For more information, see the Oracle Lite Java Developer's Guide.

Usage Notes

Oracle Lite recognizes but does not enforce the <invoker_rights_clause>. Oracle Lite always uses current_user for AUTHID.


Example

The following example creates and compiles a Java procedure and tests it against an Oracle Lite database:

  1. Create and compile the following Java program and name it EMPTrigg.java:

import java.sql.*;

public class EMPTrigg {
   public static final String goodGuy = "Oleg";

   public static void NameUpdate(String oldName, String[] newName) {
      if (oldName.equals(goodGuy))
         newName[0] = oldName;
   }

   public static void SalaryUpdate(String name, int oldSalary, 
                             int newSalary[])
   {
      if (name.equals(goodGuy))
         newSalary[0] = Math.max(oldSalary, newSalary[0])*10;
   }

   public static void AfterDelete(Connection conn, String name, 
               int salary) {
      if (name.equals(goodGuy))
         try {
            Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
            stmt.executeUpdate(
               "insert into employee values('" + name + "', " + 
                                    salary + ")");
            stmt.close();
         } catch(SQLException e) {}
   }
}

  1. Create the EMPLOYEE table with the NAME and SALARY columns:

CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE (NAME VARCHAR(32), SALARY INT);

  1. Insert values into the EMPLOYEE table by typing the following statements:

INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE VALUES ('Alice', 100);

INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE VALUES ('Bob', 100);

INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE VALUES ('Oleg', 100);

  1. Load the EMPTrigg class into the Oracle Lite database. Once loaded, the EMPTrigg class methods become stored procedures in the Oracle Lite database:

CREATE JAVA CLASS USING BFILE ('c:\', 'EMPTrigg.class');

  1. Use the CREATE PROCEDURE statement to enable SQL to call the methods in the EMPTrigg class:

CREATE PROCEDURE name_update(
old_name in varchar2, new_name in out varchar2)
is language java name
'EMPTrigg.NameUpdate (java.lang.String, java.lang.String[])';
/

 CREATE PROCEDURE salary_update(
 ename varchar2, old_salary int, new_salary in out int)
 as language java name
 'EMPTrigg.SalaryUpdate (java.lang.String, int, int[])';
 /

 CREATE PROCEDURE after_delete(
 ename varchar2, salary int)
 as language java name
 'EMPTrigg.AfterDelete (java.sql.Connection, java.lang.String, int)';
 /

  1. Create a trigger for each of the stored procedures:

CREATE TRIGGER NU BEFORE UPDATE OF NAME ON EMPLOYEE FOR EACH ROW
name_update (old.name, new.name);
/

CREATE TRIGGER SU BEFORE UPDATE OF SALARY ON EMPLOYEE FOR EACH ROW
salary_update (name, old.salary, new.salary);
/

CREATE TRIGGER AD AFTER DELETE ON EMPLOYEE FOR EACH ROW
after_delete (name, salary);
/

  1. Select all rows from the EMPLOYEE table:

SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE;

Returns the following result:

NAME                                SALARY
-------------------------------- ---------
Alice                                  100
Bob                                    100
Oleg                                   100

Related Topics

DROP PROCEDURE

4.3.15 CREATE SCHEMA


Syntax

Figure 4-24 The CREATE SCHEMA Command

Description of cre_schm.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE SCHEMA schema . CREATE TABLE command [ CREATE TABLE command]... ;

Purpose

Creates a schema or an owner of tables, indexes, and views. CREATE SCHEMA can also be used to create multiple tables and views in a single transaction.


Prerequisite

The CREATE SCHEMA statement can include the CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, and GRANT statements. To issue a CREATE SCHEMA statement, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL or ADMIN privileges.

Table 4-15 Arguments Used with the CREATE SCHEMA Command

Argument Description
schema The name of the schema, which is a character string of up to 128 characters. The schema name must be different from any user names since each user name has a default schema with the same name. If you create a schema with the same name as a user name, Oracle Lite returns an error. See CREATE USER for more information.
CREATE TABLE A CREATE TABLE statement to be issued as part of the CREATE SCHEMA statement.
command Contains all the arguments and keywords for a CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW command.

Usage Notes
  • Oracle Lite treats the schema as the user's private database. Informally, a schema defines a separate name space and a scope of ownership. In other words, two tables may have the same name if they reside in different schemas. All tables and views in the same schema are owned by the owner of that schema. To use a schema different from the one currently in use, you must first disconnect from the current schema, then connect to the new schema.

  • CREATE SCHEMA treats a group of separate statements as a single statement; if one of its constituent statements fails, all of its statements are reversed.

  • The name of the new schema appears in the POL__SCHEMATA view.


Example 1

To create a sample schema called HOTEL_OPERATION use:

CREATE SCHEMA HOTEL_OPERATION;

Example 2

To create the schema HOTEL_OPERATION together with the table HOTEL_DIR and the view LARGE_HOTEL use:

CREATE SCHEMA HOTEL_OPERATION
CREATE TABLE HOTEL_DIR(
HOTELNAME CHAR(40) NOT NULL,
RATING INTEGER,
ROOMRATE FLOAT,
LOCATION CHAR(20) NOT NULL,
CAPACITY INTEGER);

ODBC 2.0

Although the CREATE SCHEMA command is not part of the ODBC SQL syntax, ODBC passes the command through to your database.


Related Topics

GRANT, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW

4.3.16 CREATE SEQUENCE


Syntax

Figure 4-25 The CREATE SEQUENCE Command

Description of cre_sequ.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE SEQUENCE [schema .] sequence
{ { INCREMENT BY } integer
 | { MAXVALUE integer | NOMAXVALUE }
 | { MINVALUE integer | NOMINVALUE }
 | { START WITH } integer
 }
[{ { INCREMENT BY } integer
 | { MAXVALUE integer | NOMAXVALUE }
 | { MINVALUE integer | NOMINVALUE }
 | { START WITH } integer
 }]...
;

Purpose

Creates a sequence.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-16 Arguments Used with the CREATE SEQUENCE Command

Argument Description
schema The name of the schema to contain the sequence. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the sequence in your own schema.
sequence The name of the sequence to be created.
INCREMENT BY Specifies the interval between sequence numbers. Can be any positive or negative integer, but cannot be 0. If negative, then the sequence descends. If positive, the sequence ascends. If you omit the INCREMENT BY clause, the default is 1.
START WITH Specifies the first sequence number to be generated. Use this option to start an ascending sequence at a value greater than its minimum (which is the default), or to start a descending sequence at a value less than its maximum (which is the default).
MAXVALUE Specifies the maximum value the sequence can generate. This integer value can have 9 or fewer digits. MAXVALUE must be greater than MINVALUE.
NOMAXVALUE Specifies a maximum value of 2147483647 for an ascending sequence or –1 for a descending sequence.
MINVALUE Specifies the minimum value that the sequence can generate. This integer value can have 9 or fewer digits. MINVALUE must be less than MAXVALUE.
NOMINVALUE Specifies a minimum value of 1 for an ascending sequence or –2147483647 for a descending sequence.

Usage Notes

Oracle Lite commits sequence numbers when you access the NEXTVAL function. However, unlike Oracle, Oracle Lite does not automatically commit sequences. As a result, you can roll back sequences in Oracle Lite. To maintain a sequence when using the ROLLBACK command, you must commit the sequence after you create it.


Example

The following statement creates the sequence ESEQ:

CREATE SEQUENCE ESEQ INCREMENT BY 10;

The first reference to ESEQ.NEXTVAL returns 1. The second returns 11. Each subsequent reference returns a value 10 greater than the previous one.


ODBC 2.0

Although the CREATE SEQUENCE command is not part of the ODBC SQL syntax, ODBC passes the command through to your database.


Related Topics

ALTER SEQUENCE, DROP SEQUENCE

4.3.17 CREATE SYNONYM


Syntax

Figure 4-26 The CREATE SYNONYM Command

Description of cre_syno.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [PUBLIC] SYNONYM [schema .] synonym FOR [schema .] object ;

Purpose

Creates a public or private SQL synonym.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-17 Arguments Used with the CREATE SYNONYM Command

Argument Description
PUBLIC Creates a public synonym. Public synonyms are accessible to all users. If you omit this option, the synonym is private and is accessible only within its schema.
schema The schema to contain the synonym. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the synonym in your own schema. You cannot specify schema if you have specified PUBLIC.
synonym The name of the synonym to be created.
FOR object Identifies the object for which the synonym is created. If you do not qualify the object with a schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the object is in your own schema. The object can be a table, view, sequence, or another synonym. Note that the object need not currently exist and you must have privileges to access the object.

Usage Notes

A private synonym name must be distinct from all other objects in its schema.

You can only use synonyms with the INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements. You cannot use synonyms with the DROP statement.


Example

To define the synonym PROD for the table PRODUCT in the schema SCOTT, issue the following statement:

CREATE SYNONYM PROD FOR SCOTT.PRODUCT;

Related Topics

CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, CREATE SEQUENCE, DROP SYNONYM

4.3.18 CREATE TABLE


Syntax

Figure 4-27 The CREATE TABLE Command

Description of cre_tabl.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE TABLE [schema .] table 
column_list [column_list ]...  
[AS subquery] ;

column_list::=

Figure 4-28 The column_list Expression

Description of col_list.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
"("
  column datatype [DEFAULT expr][column_constraint] [column_constraint]...
   [table_constraint] 
     [, column datatype [DEFAULT expr][column_constraint] [column_constraint]...
     [table_constraint]]...
")"

Purpose

Creates a database table.

Also, creates and populates a database table based on the result of a specified subquery. The datatypes for the column are derived from the subquery's result set. See "Usage Notes", for more information.


Prerequisite

To create a table in your schema or another schema, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-18 Arguments Used with the CREATE TABLE Command

Argument Description
schema A schema, which has the same name as the user who owns it. If omitted, the default schema name is used.
table The name of a database table. Table names may not contain the period Ò.Ó character, nor begin with an underscore Ò_Ó character.
column The name of a table column.
datatype The datatype of the column. Cannot be used in subquery.
DEFAULT Specifies a default value expr (expression) for the new column, or a new default expr for an existing column. It can be one of the following:
  • DEFAULT NULL, DEFAULT USER (the user name when the table is created), DEFAULT literal

  • ODBC FUNCTIONS - TIMESTAMPADD, TIMESTAMPDIFF, DATABASE, USER

  • SQL FUNCTIONS - CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, SYSDATE

For more information about expressions, see "Specifying Expressions ".

column_constraint Adds a column integrity constraint. For more information, see "CONSTRAINT clause".
table_constraint Adds a table integrity constraint. For more information, see "CONSTRAINT clause".
AS subquery A SELECT statement.

Usage Notes

CREATE ANY TABLE can be used to create a table in another schema, but this requires the DBA/DDL role.

Each table can have up to 1000 columns, and no more than one primary key constraint.

If column_list is omitted:

  • If table columns are not defined when specifying a subquery, column names are derived from the expressions selected by the subquery.

  • If an expression in the select list contains an alias, then the alias is used as the column name.

  • If an expression is a column with no alias name, then its name is used as the column name. An expression is illegal if it is not a column and has no alias. The datatypes for the table's columns are the same as the datatypes for the corresponding expressions in the select list of the subquery.

  • If the subquery contains UNION or MINUS, the first select statement is chosen for this purpose.

If column_list is included:

  • The number of columns in the column_list must equal the number of expressions in the subquery.

  • The column definitions can specify only column names, default values, and integrity constraints, but not datatypes.

  • A referential integrity constraint can not be defined through this form of the CREATE TABLE statement. Instead, an ALTER TABLE statement can be used to create the referential integrity constraint at a later point.

If an ORDER BY clause is used in the subquery, the data is inserted in that order into the table. This normally results in clustering of the data according to the order by columns, but it is not guaranteed.


Example 1

The following statement creates a table HOTEL_DIR with two columns: HOTEL_NAME, the primary key, and CAPACITY, which is not nullable and has the default value 0.

CREATE TABLE HOTEL_DIR (HOTEL_NAME CHAR(40) PRIMARY KEY,
CAPACITY INTEGER DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL)

Example 2

The following statement creates a table HOTEL_RESTAURANT:

CREATE TABLE HOTEL_RESTAURANT(REST_NAME CHAR(50) UNIQUE,
HOTEL_NAME CHAR(40) REFERENCES HOTEL_DIR,
RATING FLOAT DEFAULT NULL)

The columns include:

  • REST_NAME is the name of the restaurant.

  • HOTEL_NAME is the name of the hotel the restaurant is in.

  • RATING is the rating of the restaurant and its default value is NULL.

The table has the following integrity constraints:

  • No two hotel restaurants have the same name.

  • HOTEL_NAME must refer to a hotel in the HOTEL_DIR table.


    Note:

    For additional examples you can also view the sample script, poldemo.sql which is located in the Oracle_Home\Mobile\SDK\DBS directory. This script builds the polite.odb demonstration database.


Related Topics

CONSTRAINT clause, DROP TABLE, ALTER TABLE, SELECT

4.3.19 CREATE TRIGGER


Syntax

Figure 4-29 The CREATE TRIGGER Command

Description of cre_trig.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER [schema .] trigger 
{ BEFORE | AFTER }
{ DELETE | INSERT | UPDATE [OF column [, column]...] } 
[OR { DELETE | INSERT | UPDATE [OF col_list [, col_list]...] }]... 
ON { [schema .] table
FOR EACH ROW proc_name ["("arg_list")"] ["("arg_list")"]...  
;

Purpose

Creates and enables a database trigger.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-19 Arguments Used with the CREATE TRIGGER Command

Argument Description
OR REPLACE Recreates the trigger if it already exists. Creates the trigger if it does not already exist. Used to change the definition of an existing trigger without dropping, recreating, or regranting object privileges previously granted on it.
schema The schema to contain the trigger. If omitted, Oracle Lite creates the trigger in your own schema.
table The name of a table in the database.
trigger The name of the trigger to be created.
BEFORE Specifies that the trigger should be fired before executing the triggering statement. For row triggers, this is a separate firing before each affected row is changed.
AFTER Specifies that the trigger should be fired after executing the triggering statement. For row triggers, this is a separate firing after each affected row is changed.
DELETE Specifies that the trigger should be fired whenever a DELETE statement removes a row from the table.
INSERT Specifies that the trigger should be fired whenever an INSERT statement adds a row to the table.
UPDATE OF Specifies that the trigger should be fired whenever an UPDATE statement changes a value in one of the columns specified in the OF clause. If you omit the OF clause, Oracle Lite fires the trigger whenever an UPDATE statement changes a value in any column of the table.
col_list The column(s) that, when updated, cause the trigger to be fired.
ON Specifies the schema and name of the table on which the trigger is to be created. If omitted, Oracle Lite assumes the table is in your own schema.
FOR EACH ROW Designates the trigger to be a row trigger. Oracle Lite fires a row trigger once for each row that is affected by the triggering statement. If you omit this clause, the trigger is a statement trigger. Oracle Lite fires a statement trigger only once when the triggering statement is issued if the optional trigger constraint is met.
proc_name Name of the Java method Oracle Lite executes to fire the trigger.
arg_list Arguments passed to the Java method.

Example

The following example provides you with instructions for creating and testing a trigger.

  1. Create the following Java program and name it TriggerExample.java:

import java.lang.*; 
import java.sql.*; 
class TriggerExample { 
        public void EMP_SAL(Connection conn, int new_sal) 
        { 
            System.out.println("new salary is :"+new_sal); 
        } 
    } 

  1. Attach TriggerExample.java to the EMP table:

ALTER TABLE EMP ATTACH JAVA SOURCE "TriggerExample" in '.'; 

  1. Create the Java trigger:

CREATE TRIGGER SAL_CHECK BEFORE UPDATE OF SAL ON EMP FOR EACH ROW 
EMP_SAL(NEW.SAL); 
 . 
 /

  1. Update the EMP table using the Java trigger:

update emp set sal=sal+5000 where sal=70000; 

Returns the following result:

new salary is:75000

1 row updated

Related Topics

ALTER TRIGGER , ALTER VIEW, CREATE VIEW, DROP TRIGGER

4.3.20 CREATE USER


Syntax

Figure 4-30 The CREATE USER Command

Description of cre_user.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE USER user IDENTIFIED BY passowrd ;

Purpose

Creates a database user with no privileges.


Prerequisite

To create users in your schema or other schemas, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-20 Arguments Used with the CREATE USER Command

Argument Description
user The user to be created. Here, user is a unique user name with a minimum of one character and maximum of 128 characters.
IDENTIFIED BY Indicates how Oracle Lite permits user access.
password Specifies a new password for the user which is a name of up to 128 characters. The password does not appear in quotes and is not case-sensitive.

Usage Notes

You can create multiple users in Oracle Lite by using the CREATE USER command. A user is not a schema. When you create a user, Oracle Lite creates a schema with the same name and automatically assigns it to that user as the default schema. The name of the new user appears in the ALL_USERS view. The new user's default schema appears in the POL__SCHEMATA view.

When you connect to an Oracle Lite database as a user, the user name becomes the default schema for that session. If there is no schema to match the user name, Oracle Lite refuses the connection. You can access database objects in the default schema without prefixing them with the schema name.

Users with the appropriate privileges can create additional schemas by using the CREATE SCHEMA command, but only the default schema can connect to the database. These schemas are owned by the user who created them and require the schema name prefix to access their objects.

When you create a database using the CREATEDB utility or the CREATE DATABASE command, Oracle Lite creates a special user called SYSTEM. This user has all database privileges and is not assigned a password. You can assign a password to SYSTEM, if required. You can use SYSTEM as the default user name until you establish user names of your own as needed.

Oracle Lite does not permit a user other than SYSTEM to access data or perform operations in a schema that is not its own. Users can only access data and perform operations in a different user's schema if one of the following conditions is met:

  • The user is granted a pre-defined role in another user's schema, which permits the user to perform the operation.

  • The user is granted specific privileges in another user's schema.


    Note:

    The user SYSTEM must grant DBA/DDL or RESOURCE privileges to a new user before the new user can create database objects. The DBA role is recommended as a replacement for the DDL role wherever possible.


Example
CREATE USER SCOTT IDENTIFIED BY TIGER;

Related Topics

ALTER USER, GRANT

4.3.21 CREATE VIEW


Syntax

Figure 4-31 The CREATE VIEW Command

Description of cre_view.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
CREATE [OR REPLACE] [[NO] FORCE] VIEW [schema .] view["("alias [, alias]...")"] AS subquery ;

Purpose

Creates or replaces a view.


Prerequisite

You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

FORCE creates the view regardless of whether the view's base tables or the referenced object types exist or the owner of the schema containing the view has privileges on them. These conditions must be true before any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements can be issued against the view.

NO FORCE creates the view only if the base tables exist and the owner of the schema containing the view has privileges on them. This is the default.

Table 4-21 Arguments Used with the CREATE VIEW Command

Argument Description
OR REPLACE Recreates the view if it already exists. Used to change the definition of an existing view without dropping, recreating, or re-granting object privileges previously granted.
FORCE Specify FORCE if you want to create the view regardless of whether the view's base tables or the referenced object types exist or the owner of the schema containing the view has privileges on them. These conditions must be true before any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements can be issued against the view.
NO FORCE Specify NO FORCE if you want to create the view only if the base tables exist and the owner of the schema containing the view has privileges on them. This is the default option.
schema The schema to contain the view. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the view in your own schema.
view The name of the view.
alias Specifies names for the expressions selected by the view's query. The number of aliases must match the number of expressions selected by the view. Aliases must follow Oracle Lite's rules for naming schema objects. Each alias must be unique within the view.
AS subquery Identifies columns and rows of the table(s) on which the view is based. A view's query can be any SELECT statement without the ORDER BY or FOR UPDATE clauses. Its select list can contain up to 254 expressions.

Usage Notes

A view is updatable if:

  • The subquery selects from a single base table or from another updatable view.

  • Each selected expression is a column reference to that base table or updatable view.

  • No two column references in the select list reference the same column.

CREATE ANY VIEW can be used to create a view in another schema, but this requires the DBA/DDL role.

The FORCE option of CREATE VIEW behaves differently under Oracle Lite. There are two cases:

  1. A command issued to a view created by using CREATE FORCE VIEW without the base table must have the ALTER VIEW view_name COMPILE command issued first, otherwise an error message is thrown.

  2. A CREATE FORCE VIEW created with a valid base table is no different than CREATE VIEW.


Example

The following example creates a view called EMP_SAL which displays the name, job, and salary of each row in the EMP table:

CREATE VIEW EMP_SAL (Name, Job, Salary) AS SELECT ENAME, JOB, SAL FROM EMP;

SELECT * FROM EMP_SAL;

Returns the following result:

NAME       JOB          SALARY
---------- --------- ---------
KING       PRESIDENT      5000
BLAKE      MANAGER        2850
CLARK      MANAGER        2450
JONES      MANAGER        2975
MARTIN     SALESMAN       1250
ALLEN      SALESMAN       1600
TURNER     SALESMAN       1500
JAMES      CLERK           950
WARD       SALESMAN       1250
FORD       ANALYST        3000
SMITH      CLERK           800
SCOTT      ANALYST        3000
ADAMS      CLERK          1100
MILLER     CLERK          1300

14 rows selected.

ODBC 2.0

Although the ODBC SQL syntax for CREATE VIEW does not support the OR REPLACE argument, ODBC passes the command through to your database.


Editing Data in a View

Most ODBC-based tools require a primary key before allowing updates on a view. Oracle Lite does not report primary keys for views, so you must issue SQL commands to perform updates or deletes on views using the WHERE clause to specify the target row or rows.


Related Topics

DROP SEQUENCE, CREATE TABLE, DROP VIEW

4.3.22 CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns


Purpose

A sequence is a schema object that can generate unique sequential values. These values are often used for primary and unique keys. You can use the CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns to refer to sequence values in SQL sstatmetments.


Prerequisite

You must have a sequence object.


Usage Notes

You must qualify CURRVAL and NEXTVAL with the name of the sequence:

sequence.CURRVAL
sequence.NEXTVAL

To refer to the current or next value of a sequence in the schema of another user, you must qualify the sequence with the schema containing it.

schema.sequence.CURRVAL
schema.sequence.NEXTVAL

You can use CURRVAL and NEXTVAL in:

  • The SELECT list of a SELECT statement that is not contained in a subquery, materialized view, or view.

  • The SELECT list of a subquery in an INSERT statement.

  • The VALUES clause of an INSERT statement.

  • The SET clause of an UPDATE statement.

You cannot use CURRVAL and NEXTVAL in:

  • A query of a view or of a materialized view.

  • A SELECT statement with the DISTINCT operator.

  • A SELECT statement with a GROUP BY clause or ORDER BY clause.

  • A SELECT statement that is combined with another SELECT statement with the UNION, INTERSECT, or MINUS set operator.

  • The WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.

  • DEFAULT value of a column in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement.

  • The condition of a CHECK constraint

Also, within a single SQL statement that uses CURRVAL or NEXTVAL, all referenced LONG columns, updated tables, and locked tables must be located on the same database.

When you create a sequence, you can define its initial value and the increment between its values. The first reference to NEXTVAL returns the sequence's initial value. Subsequent references to NEXTVAL increment the sequence value by the defined increment and return the new value. Any reference to CURRVAL always returns the sequence's current value, which is the value returned by the last reference to NEXTVAL. Note that before you use CURRVAL for a sequence in your session, you must first initialize the sequence with NEXTVAL. Within a single SQL statement, Oracle Lite will increment the sequence only once for each row. If a statement contains more than one reference to NEXTVAL for a sequence, Oracle increments the sequence once and returns the same value for all occurrences of NEXTVAL. If a statement contains references to both CURRVAL and NEXTVAL, Oracle increments the sequence and returns the same value for both CURRVAL and NEXTVAL regardless of their order within the statement. A sequence can be accessed by many users concurrently with no waiting or locking.


Example 1

This example selects the current value of the employee sequence in the sample schema hr:

SELECT employees_seq.currval 
    FROM DUAL;

Example 2

This example increments the employee sequence and uses its value for a new employee inserted into the sample table hr.employees:

INSERT INTO employees
   VALUES (employees_seq.nextval, 'John', 'Doe', 'jdoe', 
   '555-1212', TO_DATE(SYSDATE), 'PU_CLERK', 2500, null, null,
   30);

Example 3

This example adds a new order with the next order number to the master order table. It then adds suborders with this number to the detail order table:

INSERT INTO orders (order_id, order_date, customer_id)
   VALUES (orders_seq.nextval, TO_DATE(SYSDATE), 106);

INSERT INTO order_items (order_id, line_item_id, product_id)
   VALUES (orders_seq.currval, 1, 2359);

INSERT INTO order_items (order_id, line_item_id, product_id)
   VALUES (orders_seq.currval, 2, 3290);

INSERT INTO order_items (order_id, line_item_id, product_id)
   VALUES (orders_seq.currval, 3, 2381);

Related Topics

LEVEL pseudocolumn, ROWID pseudocolumn, ROWNUM pseudocolumn

4.3.23 DELETE


Syntax

Figure 4-32 The DELETE Command

Description of delete.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DELETE FROM [schema .] {table|view}[WHERE condition] ;

Purpose

Removes rows from a table or from a view's base table.


Prerequisite

You can only delete rows from tables or views in your schema.

Table 4-22 Arguments Used with the DELETE Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the table or view. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes the table or view is in your own schema.
table The name of a table from which you want to delete rows.
view The name of the view. If you specify view, Oracle Lite deletes rows from the view's base tables.
WHERE condition Deletes only rows that satisfy a condition specified with the condition argument. For more information about creating a valid condition, see Specifying SQL Conditions.

Usage Notes

If no WHERE clause is specified, then all rows of the table are deleted.

A positioned DELETE requires that the cursor be updatable.


Example
DELETE FROM PRICE WHERE MINPRICE < 2.4;

ODBC 2.0

The ODBC SQL syntax for DELETE is the same as the SQL syntax. In addition, ODBC syntax includes the CURRENT OF cursor_name keyword and argument. These are used in the WHERE clause to specify the cursor where the DELETE operation occurs, as follows:

WHERE CURRENT OF cursor_name

Related Topics

UPDATE

4.3.24 DROP clause


Syntax

Figure 4-33 The DROP Clause

Description of drop_cl.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP 
{PRIMARY KEY
 | [COLUMN] column
 | UNIQUE "("column")" [, "("column")"]...
 |CONSTRAINT constraint }
[ CASCADE ]  ;

Purpose

Removes an integrity constraint from the database.


Prerequisite

The DROP clause only appears in an ALTER TABLE statement. To drop an integrity constraint, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-23 Arguments Used with the DROP Clause

Argument Description
PRIMARY KEY Drops the table's PRIMARY KEY constraint.
UNIQUE Drops the UNIQUE constraint from the specified columns.
COLUMN Drops a column from the table.
column Specifies the column from which a column constraint is removed, or in the case of DROP COLUMN, specifies the column to be dropped from the table.
CONSTRAINT Drops the integrity constraint named constraint. For more information, see "CONSTRAINT clause".
constraint The name of the integrity constraint to drop.
RESTRICT If any integrity constraints depend on the constraint to drop, the DROP command fails.
CASCADE Drops all other integrity constraints that depend on the constraint specified in the CONSTRAINT clause.

Example
ALTER TABLE EMP DROP COLUMN COMM;

Related Topics

ALTER TABLE, CONSTRAINT clause

4.3.25 DROP FUNCTION


Syntax

Figure 4-34 The DROP Function

Description of dro_fun.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP FUNCTION [schema .] function_name ;

Purpose

To remove a stand-alone stored function from the database. For information on creating a function, see ÒCREATE FUNCTIONÒ.


Prerequisite

To drop a function, you must meet one of the following requirements:

  • The function must be in your own schema.

  • You must be connected to the database as SYSTEM.

  • You must have DBA/DDL privileges .

Table 4-24 Arguments Used with the DROP Function

Argument Description
schema The schema containing the function. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes the function is in your own schema.
function_name The name of the function to drop.

Oracle Lite invalidates any local objects that depend on, or call, the dropped function. If you subsequently reference one of these objects, Oracle Lite tries to recompile the object and returns an error if you have not recreated the dropped function.


Example

The following statement drops the PAY_SALARY function, which you created in the CREATE FUNCTION example. When you drop the PAY_SALARY function, you invalidate all objects that depend on PAY_SALARY.

DROP FUNCTION PAY_SALARY;

Related Topics

CREATE FUNCTION

4.3.26 DROP INDEX


Syntax

Figure 4-35 The DROP INDEX Command

Description of dro_indx.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP INDEX [schema .] index ;

Purpose

Removes an index from the database.


Prerequisite

To drop an index, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-25 Arguments Used with the DROP INDEX Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the index to drop. If you omit the schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the index is in your own schema.
index The name of the index to drop.

Example

The following example drops an index on the SAL column of the EMP table:

DROP INDEX SAL_INDEX;


Related Topics

CREATE INDEX

4.3.27 DROP JAVA


Syntax

Figure 4-36 The DROP JAVA Command

Description of dro_java.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP JAVA { CLASS | RESOURCE } [schema .] object_name;

Purpose

To drop a Java class or resource schema object.

For more information on resolving Java classes, and resources, see the Oracle Lite Java Developer's Guide.


Prerequisite

To drop a class or resource schema object, you must meet the following requirements:

  • The Java class, or resource must be in your own schema.

  • You must be connected to the database as SYSTEM or have DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-26 Arguments Used with the DROP JAVA Command

Argument Description
JAVA CLASS Drops a Java class schema object.
JAVA RESOURCE Drops a Java resource schema object.
object_name Specifies the name of an existing Java class, source, or resource schema object.

Usage Notes

Oracle Lite recognizes schema_name when specified, but does not enforce it.


Example

The following statement drops the Java class MyClass:

DROP JAVA CLASS "MyClass";

Related Topics

CREATE JAVA

4.3.28 DROP PROCEDURE


Syntax

Figure 4-37 The DROP PROCEDURE Command

Description of dro_pro.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP PROCEDURE [schema .] procedure ;

Purpose

To remove a stand-alone stored procedure from the database.

For information on creating a procedure, see ÒCREATE PROCEDUREÒ.


Prerequisite

The procedure must be connected to the database as schema or you must have DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-27 Arguments Used with the DROP PROCEDURE Command

Argument Description
schema The schema containing the procedure. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes the procedure is in your own schema.
procedure The name of the procedure to drop.

When you drop a procedure, Oracle Lite invalidates any local objects that depend on the dropped procedure. If you subsequently reference one of these objects, Oracle Lite tries to recompile the object and returns an error message if you have not recreated the dropped procedure.


Example

The following statement drops the procedure TRANSFER owned by the user KERNER and invalidates all objects that depend on TRANSFER:

DROP PROCEDURE kerner.transfer 

Related Topics

CREATE PROCEDURE

4.3.29 DROP SCHEMA


Syntax

Figure 4-38 The DROP SCHEMA Command

Description of dro_schm.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP SCHEMA schema . [{CASCADE | RESTRICT}] ;

Purpose

Removes a schema from the database.


Prerequisite

To drop a schema, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL or ADMIN privileges.

Table 4-28 Arguments Used with the DROP SCHEMA Command

Argument Description
schema The schema to drop from the database.
CASCADE Specifies that all other objects whose definitions depend on the specified schema are automatically dropped with the schema.
RESTRICT Specifies that if there are other objects whose definitions depend on the specified schema, the DROP SCHEMA operation fails.

Usage Notes

If no options are specified, the default behavior is determined by the RESTRICT argument.


Example

The following example drops the HOTEL_OPERATION schema you created in the CREATE SCHEMA example:

DROP SCHEMA HOTEL_OPERATION CASCADE;

Related Topics

CREATE SCHEMA

4.3.30 DROP SEQUENCE


Syntax

Figure 4-39 The DROP SEQUENCE Command

Description of dro_sequ.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP SEQUENCE [schema .] sequence ;

Purpose

Removes a sequence from the database.


Prerequisite

You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or the sequence must be in your schema.

Table 4-29 Arguments Used with the DROP SEQUENCE Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the sequence to drop. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the sequence is in your own schema.
sequence The name of the sequence to remove from the database.

Usage Notes

One method for restarting a sequence is to drop and recreate it. For example, if you have a sequence with a current value of 150 and you would like to restart the sequence with a value of 27, you would:

  • Drop the Sequence.

  • Create it with the same name and a START WITH value of 27.


Example

The following example drops the ESEQ sequence you created in the CREATE SEQUENCE example:

DROP SEQUENCE ESEQ;

ODBC 2.0

Although the DROP SEQUENCE command is not part of the ODBC SQL syntax, ODBC passes the command through to your database.


Related Topics

ALTER SEQUENCE, CREATE SEQUENCE

4.3.31 DROP SYNONYM


Syntax

Figure 4-40 The DROP SYNONYM Command

Description of dro_syno.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP [PUBLIC] SYNONYM [schema .] synonym ;

Purpose

Drops a public or private SQL sequence from the database.


Prerequisite

To drop a synonym from the database, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or the synonym must be in your schema.

Table 4-30 Arguments Used with the DROP SYNONYM Command

Argument Description
PUBLIC Specifies a public synonym. You must specify PUBLIC to drop a public synonym.
schema The schema to contain the synonym. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite creates the synonym in your own schema. You cannot specify schema if you have specified PUBLIC.
synonym The name of the synonym to be dropped.

Example

The following example drops the synonym named PROD, which you created in the CREATE SYNONYM example:

DROP SYNONYM PROD;

Related Topics

CREATE SYNONYM

4.3.32 DROP TABLE


Syntax

Figure 4-41 The DROP TABLE Command

Description of dro_tab.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP TABLE [schema .] table [{CASCADE | CASCADE CONSTRAINTS | RESTRICT}] ;

Purpose

Removes a table from the database.


Prerequisite

To drop a table from the database, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA/DDL privileges.

Table 4-31 Arguments Used with the DROP TABLE Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the table to drop. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the table is in your own schema.
table The name of the table to remove from the database.
CASCADE Specifies that, if the table is a base table for views, or if there are referential integrity constraints that refer to primary keys in the table, they are automatically dropped with the table.
CASCADE CONSTRAINTS Specifies that all referential integrity constraints that refer to primary keys in the table are automatically dropped with the table.
RESTRICT Specifies that, if the table is a base table for views, or if the table is referenced in any referential integrity constraints, the DROP TABLE operation fails.

Usage Notes

If no options are specified and there are no referential integrity constraints that refer to the table, Oracle Lite drops the table. If no options are specified and there are referential integrity constraints that refer to the table, Oracle Lite returns an error message.


Example
DROP TABLE EMP;

Related Topics

ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE

4.3.33 DROP TRIGGER


Syntax

Figure 4-42 The DROP TRIGGER Command

Description of dro_trg.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP TRIGGER [schema .] trigger ;

Purpose

Removes a database trigger from the database.


Prerequisite

You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or the trigger must be in your schema.

Table 4-32 Arguments Used with the DROP TRIGGER Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the trigger. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the trigger is in your own schema.
trigger The name of the trigger.

Example

The following statement drops the SAL_CHECK trigger, which you created in the CREATE TRIGGER example:

DROP TRIGGER ruth.reorder

Related Topics

CREATE TRIGGER

4.3.34 DROP USER


Syntax

Figure 4-43 The DROP USER Command

Description of dro_user.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP USER user [CASCADE] ;

Purpose

Removes a user from the database.


Prerequisite

To drop a user from the database, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or you must have DBA/DDL or ADMIN privileges.

Table 4-33 Arguments Used with the DROP USER Command

Argument Description
user Name of the user to be dropped.
CASCADE Drops all objects associated with the user.

Usage Notes

You can drop users if you are connected to the database as SYSTEM, or if you are granted the ADMIN or DBA/DDL role.


Example

The following statement drops the user Michael:

DROP USER MICHAEL;

Related Topics

CREATE USER

4.3.35 DROP VIEW


Syntax

Figure 4-44 The DROP VIEW Command

Description of dro_view.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
DROP [schema .] VIEW view [ {CASCADE | RESTRICT}] ;

Purpose

Removes a view from the database.


Prerequisite

To drop a view from the database, you must be logged into the database and you must meet one of the following requirements:

  • You must be logged into the database as SYSTEM.

  • You must have DBA/DDL privileges.

  • The view must be in your schema.

Table 4-34 Arguments Used with the DROP VIEW Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the view to drop. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the view is in your own schema.
view The name of the view to be removed from the database.
CASCADE Specifies that all other views whose definitions depend on the specified view are automatically dropped with the view.
RESTRICT Specifies that if there are other views whose definitions depend on the specified view, the DROP VIEW operation fails.

Usage Notes

If no options are specified, Oracle Lite drops only this view. Other dependent views are not affected.


Example

The following statement drops the EMP_SAL view you created in the CREATE VIEW example:

DROP VIEW EMP_SAL;

Related Topics

CREATE SYNONYM, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW

4.3.36 EXPLAIN PLAN


Syntax

Figure 4-45 The EXPLAIN PLAN Command

Description of exp_plan.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
EXPLAIN PLAN select_command;

Purpose

Displays the execution plan chosen by the Oracle Lite database optimizer for subquery::= statements.

Table 4-35 Arguments Used with the EXPLAIN PLAN Command

Argument Description
EXPLAIN PLAN Determines an execution plan on a query.
select_command The query for which you determine the execution plan.

Usage Notes

Oracle Lite outputs the execution plan to a file called execplan.txt. Oracle Lite appends each new execution plan to the file.

For every execution of the EXPLAIN PLAN command, Oracle Lite outputs a single line of the EXPLAIN COMMAND followed by one or more lines of the execution plan.

The execution plan contains one line per query block. A query block begins with a subquery::= keyword.

The plan output is indented to indicate nesting. All siblings of UNION and MINUS are also indented. Each line of the plan output has the following general form:

table-name [(column-name)] [{NL(rows)|IL(rows)} table-name [(column-name)] ]

Table 4-36 Parameters of the EXPLAIN PLAN Output

Parameter Definition
table-name A fully qualified alias or table name.
column-name The name of the first column of an index key.
NL Nested loop join.
IL Index loop join is an index used to join the table following ÒILÓ.
(rows) Indicates the optimizer's estimate of rows for the result of the join.

The tables are executed from left to right. The left-most table forms the outer-most loop of iteration.

Oracle Lite uses row estimates to order tables, however, the actual values are not important. The optimizer estimates the best possible index. The object kernel may choose a different index since it is more accurate at execution time.

4.3.37 GRANT


Syntax

Figure 4-46 The GRANT Command

Description of grant.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
GRANT {role | privilege_list ON object_name} TO user_list ;

Purpose

Grants the ADMIN, DBA, DDL, or RESOURCE roles to users, or grants privileges on a database object to users. The DBA role is recommended as a replacement for the DDL role wherever possible.


Prerequisite

To grant roles, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or as a user with DBA/DDL and ADMIN privileges, or with RESOURCE privileges to GRANT privilege on your own objects to other users.

Table 4-37 Arguments Used with the GRANT Command

Argument Description
role The UNRESOLVED XREF TO ADMIN, UNRESOLVED XREF TO DBA/DDL, or UNRESOLVED XREF TO RESOURCE role.
user_list One user, or a comma-separated list of users.
ON Signifies the database object to which you grant roles.
privilege_list Either a comma-separated list of the following privileges or a combination called ALL: INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE (col_list), SELECT, and REFERENCES.
TO Signifies the users or user list to whom you grant roles.
object_name A table name optionally prefixed with a schema name.

Pre-defined Roles

Oracle Lite combines some privileges into pre-defined roles for convenience. In many cases it is easier to grant a user a pre-defined role than to grant specific privileges in another schema. Oracle Lite does not support creating or dropping roles. The following is a list of Oracle Lite pre-defined roles:

Table 4-38 Predefined Roles in Oracle Lite

Role Name Privileges Granted To Role
ADMIN Enables the user to create other users and grant privileges other than DDL and ADMIN on any object in the schema. The user can execute any of the following commands in a SQL statement:

CREATE SCHEMA, CREATE USER, ALTER USER, DROP USER, DROP SCHEMA, GRANT, and REVOKE.

DBA/DDL Enables the user to issue the following DDL statements which otherwise can only be issued by SYSTEM:

All ADMIN privileges, CREATE TABLE, CREATE ANY TABLE, CREATE VIEW, CREATE ANY VIEW, CREATE INDEX, CREATE ANY INDEX, ALTER TABLE, ALTER VIEW, DROP TABLE, DROP VIEW, and DROP INDEX.

RESOURCE The RESOURCE role grants the same level of control as the DBA/DDL role, but only over the user's own domain. The user can execute any of the following commands in a SQL statement:

CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, CREATE INDEX, CREATE CONSTRAINT, ALTER TABLE, ALTER VIEW, ALTER INDEX, ALTER CONSTRAINT, DROP TABLE, DROP VIEW, DROP INDEX, DROP CONSTRAINT, and GRANT or REVOKE privileges on any object under a user's own schema.


Usage Notes

If privilege_list is ALL, then the user can INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, or SELECT from the table or view. If privilege_list is either INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, or SELECT, then the user has that privilege on a table.

When you grant UPDATE on a table to a user and then subsequently alter the table by adding a column, the user is not able to update the new column. The user can only update the new column if you issue a grant statement after creating the new column. For example:

CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 NUMBER c2 INTEGER);
CREATE USER a IDENTIFIED BY a;
GRANT SELECT, UPDATE ON t1 TO a;
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD c3 INT;
COMMIT;

In the preceding example, the GRANT statement must be issued after the ALTER TABLE statement or the user can not update the new column, c3.


Example 1

The following example creates a user named MICHAEL and grants the user the ADMIN role:

CREATE USER MICHAEL IDENTIFIED BY SWORD;

GRANT ADMIN TO MICHAEL;

Example 2

The following example creates a user named MICHAEL and grants INSERT and DELETE privileges on the EMP table the user.

CREATE USER MICHAEL IDENTIFIED BY SWORD;

GRANT INSERT, DELETE ON EMP TO MICHAEL;

Example 3

The following example grants ALL privileges on the PRODUCT table to the newly created user, MICHAEL:

GRANT ALL ON PRODUCT TO MICHAEL;

Related Topics

REVOKE

4.3.38 INSERT


Syntax

Figure 4-47 The INSERT Command

Description of insert.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
INSERT INTO [schema .] {table | view }["("column [, column]...")"]{ VALUES  "(" expr [, expr]...")" | subquery} ; 

Purpose

Adds rows to a table or to a view's base table.


Prerequisite

To insert rows into a table or view, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or the table and view must be in your schema.

Table 4-39 Arguments Used with the INSERTCommand

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the table or view. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the table or view is in your own schema.
table The name of the table into which you want to insert rows.
view The name of the view into whose base tables you want to insert rows.
column A column of a table or view. In the inserted row, each column listed in this argument is assigned a value from the VALUES clause or from the subquery.

If you omit one of the table's columns from this argument, the column's value for the inserted row is the column's default value as specified when the table is created. If you omit the column argument, the VALUES clause or the query must specify values for all columns in the table.

VALUES Specifies a row of values to be inserted into the table or view. You specify in the VALUES clause a value for each column in the column argument.
expr The values assigned to the corresponding column. This can contain host variables. For more information, see "Specifying Expressions ".
subquery A SELECT statement that returns rows that are inserted into the table. The SELECT list of this subquery must have the same number of columns as the column list of the INSERT statement.

Usage Notes
  • The same column name may not appear more than once in the column argument.

  • If you omit any columns from the column argument, Oracle Lite assigns the columns the default values specified when the table is created.

  • The number of columns specified in the column argument must be the same as the number of values provided. If you omit the column argument, the number of values must be equal to the degree of the table.

  • If a column does not have a user-defined default value, its default value is NULL. This is true even when there is a NOT NULL constraint on the column. If an INSERT statement does not provide an explicit value for such a column, Oracle Lite generates an integrity violation error message.


Example
INSERT INTO EMP (EMPNO, ENAME, DEPTNO) VALUES ('7010', 'VINCE', '20');

Related Topics

DELETE, UPDATE

4.3.39 LEVEL pseudocolumn


Purpose

The LEVEL pseudocolumn can be used in a SELECT statement that performs a hierarchical query. For each row returned by a hierarchical query, the LEVEL pseudocolumn returns 1 for a root node, 2 for a child of a root, and so on. In a hierarchical query, a root node is the highest node within an inverted tree, a child node is any non-root node, a parent node is any node that has children, and a leaf node is any node without children.


Prerequisites

None.


Usage Notes

The number of levels returned by a hierarchical query is limited to 32.


Example

The following statement returns all employees in hierarchical order. The root row is defined to be the employee whose job is PRESIDENT. The child rows of a parent row are defined to be those who have the employee number of the parent row as their manager number.

SELECT LPAD(' ',2*(LEVEL-1)) || ename org_chart,
empno, mgr, job
FROM emp
START WITH job = 'PRESIDENT'
CONNECT BY PRIOR empno = mgr;

Returns the following result:

ORG_CHART              EMPNO       MGR JOB
------------------ --------- --------- ---------
                        7839           PRESIDENT
    JONES               7566      7839 MANAGER
    SCOTT               7788      7566 ANALYST
    ADAMS               7876      7788 CLERK
    FORD                7902      7566 ANALYST
    SMITH               7369      7902 CLERK
    CLARK               7782      7839 MANAGER
    MILLER              7934      7782 CLERK
    BLAKE               7698      7839 MANAGER
    WARD                7521      7698 SALESMAN
    JAMES               7900      7698 CLERK
    TURNER              7844      7698 SALESMAN
    ALLEN               7499      7698 SALESMAN
    MARTIN              7654      7698 SALESMAN

14 rows selected.

Related Topics

CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns, OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn, ROWID pseudocolumn, ROWNUM pseudocolumn,

4.3.40 OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn


Purpose

For each row in the database, the OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn returns the status of a row from a snapshot table: new, updated, or clean.


Prerequisite

None.


Usage Notes

OL_ROW_STATUS allows you to select the column from any snapshot or regular table, but row status information is only returned for snapshot table rows. Regular table rows return the same value regardless of status.

The OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn can be qualified with the table name in the same manner as other pseudocolumns. Thus you can determine row status in complex queries involving multiple tables.

Table 4-40 OL_ROW_STATUS Results

Table Type OL_ROW_STATUS value Description
Snapshot table 0 The row is clean or not dirty.
Snapshot table 16 The row is a new row created at the client side.
Snapshot table 32 The row has been updated.
Regular table 0 This value is static and never changes.

Example 1
Select OL__ROW_STATUS, Emp.* from Employee Emp Where Empno = 7900;


Example 2
Select Emp. OL__ROW_STATUS, ENAME, DNAME  from EMP,DEPT where
DEPT.DEPTNO=EMP.DEPTNO AND EMP.EMPNO=7900;


Related Topics

CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns, LEVEL pseudocolumn, ROWID pseudocolumn, ROWNUM pseudocolumn

4.3.41 REVOKE


Syntax

Figure 4-48 The REVOKE Command

Description of revoke.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
REVOKE  { role | privilige_list ON object_name } FROM user_list ;

Purpose

Revokes the ADMIN, DBA/DDL, or RESOURCE roles from users, or revokes privileges on a database object from users. The DBA role is recommended as a replacement for the DDL role.


Prerequisite

To revoke roles from users, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM or as a user with DBA or ADMIN privileges.

Table 4-41 Arguments Used with the REVOKE Command

Argument Description
role The UNRESOLVED XREF TO ADMIN, UNRESOLVED XREF TO DBA/DDL, or UNRESOLVED XREF TO RESOURCE role.
user_list One user, or a comma-separated list of users.
privilege_list A comma-separated list of the following privileges or a combination called ALL: INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE (col_list), and SELECT.
object_name A table name prefixed with a schema name.

Usage Notes

If privilege_list contains INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, or SELECT, then the user has those privileges on a table or view. If privilege_list is ALL, then the user can INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, or SELECT from the table or view.


Example 1

The following example creates a user named STEVE and grants the user the ADMIN role. Then, the example revokes the ADMIN role from the user, STEVE.

CREATE USER STEVE IDENTIFIED BY STINGRAY;
GRANT ADMIN TO STEVE;
REVOKE ADMIN FROM STEVE;

Example 2

The following example revokes the INSERT and DELETE privileges on the EMP table from the user, SCOTT.

REVOKE INSERT,DELETE ON EMP FROM SCOTT;

Example 3

The following example creates a user named CHARLES and grants the user the INSERT and DELETE privileges on the PRICE table, and ALL privileges on the ITEM table. Then the example revokes all privileges for the user CHARLES on the PRICE and ITEM tables.

CREATE USER CHARLES IDENTIFIED BY VORTEX;
GRANT INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE ON PRICE TO CHARLES;
GRANT ALL ON ITEM TO CHARLES;
REVOKE ALL ON PRICE FROM CHARLES;
REVOKE ALL ON ITEM FROM CHARLES;

Related Topics

GRANT

4.3.42 ROLLBACK


Syntax

Figure 4-49 The ROLLBACK Command

Description of rollback.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ROLLBACK [{ WORK | TO savepoint_name }] ;

Purpose

Undoes work performed in the current synonym.


Prerequisite

None.

Table 4-42 Arguments Used with the ROLLBACK Command

Argument Description
work An optional argument supported to provide ANSI compatibility.
TO An optional argument that enables you to roll back to a savepoint.
savepoint_name The name of the savepoint you roll back to.

Usage Notes

If you are not already in a transaction, Oracle Lite starts one the first time you issue a SQL statement. All the statements you issue are considered part of the transaction until you use a COMMIT or ROLLBACK command.

The COMMIT command makes permanent changes to the data in the database, saving everything up to the start of the transaction. Before changes are committed, both the old and new data exist so that changes can be stored or the data can be restored to its prior state.

The ROLLBACK command discards pending changes made to the data in the current transaction, restoring the database to its state before the start of the transaction. You can roll back a portion of a transaction by identifying a SAVEPOINT.


Important:

Oracle Lite does not automatically commit DDL commands, except for CREATE DATABASE. DDL commands in Oracle Lite are subject to rollback.


Example

The following example inserts a new row into the DEPT table and then rolls back the transaction. This example returns the same results for both ROLLBACK and ROLLBACK WORK.

INSERT INTO DEPT (deptno, dname, loc) VALUES (50, 'Design', 'San Francisco');
SELECT * FROM dept;

Returns the following result:

   DEPTNO DNAME          LOC
--------- -------------- -------------
       10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
       20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
       30 SALES          CHICAGO
       40 OPERATIONS     BOSTON
       50 DESIGN         SAN FRANCISCO

ROLLBACK WORK;
SELECT * FROM dept;

Returns the following result:

   DEPTNO DNAME          LOC
--------- -------------- -------------
       10 ACCOUNTING     NEW YORK
       20 RESEARCH       DALLAS
       30 SALES          CHICAGO
       40 OPERATIONS     BOSTON

ODBC 2.0

Although the ROLLBACK command is not part of the ODBC SQL syntax, ODBC passes the command through to your database.

An ODBC program typically uses the API call SQLTransact() with the SQL_ROLLBACK flag.


Related Topics

SAVEPOINT

4.3.43 ROWID pseudocolumn


Purpose

For each row in the database, the ROWID pseudocolumn returns a row address. A ROWID value uniquely identifies a row in the database. Values of the ROWID pseudocolumn have the datatype ROWID.


Prerequisite

None.


Usage Notes

ROWID values have several important uses:

  • They are the fastest way to access a single row.

  • They can show you how a table's rows are stored.

  • They are unique identifiers for rows in a table.

You should not use ROWID as a table's primary key. If you delete and reinsert a row with the Import and Export utilities, for example, its rowid may change. If you delete a row, Oracle Lite may reassign its ROWID to a new row inserted later.

Although you can use the ROWID pseudocolumn in the SELECT and WHERE clause of a query, these pseudocolumn values are not actually stored in the database. You cannot insert, update, or delete a value of the ROWID pseudocolumn.


Example 1

This statement selects the address of all rows that contain data for employees in department 20:

SELECT ROWID, last_name  
   FROM employees
   WHERE department_id = 20;

Related Topics

CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns, LEVEL pseudocolumn, ROWNUM pseudocolumn, OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn

4.3.44 ROWNUM pseudocolumn


Purpose

For each row returned by a query, the ROWNUM pseudocolumn returns a number indicating the order in which Oracle Lite selects the row from a table or set of joined rows. The first row selected has a ROWNUM of 1, the second has 2, and so on.


Prerequisite

None.


Usage Notes

If an ORDER BY clause follows ROWNUM in the same subquery, the rows are reordered by the ORDER BY clause. The results can vary depending on the way the rows are accessed. For example, if the ORDER BY clause causes Oracle Lite to use an index to access the data, Oracle Lite may retrieve the rows in a different order than without the index.

If you embed the ORDER BY clause in a subquery and place the ROWNUM condition in the top-level query, you can force the ROWNUM condition to be applied after the ordering of the rows. See Example 3.


Example 1

The following example uses ROWNUM to limit the number of rows returned by a query:

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM < 10;

Example 2

The following example follows the ORDER BY clause with ROWNUM in the same query. As a result, the rows are reordered by the ORDER BY clause and do not have the same effect as the preceding example:

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM < 11 ORDER BY empno;

Example 3

The following query returns the ten smallest employee numbers. This is sometimes referred to as a Òtop-N queryÓ:

SELECT * FROM
   (SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY empno)
   WHERE ROWNUM < 11;

Example 4

The following query returns no rows:

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM > 1;

The first fetched row is assigned a ROWNUM of 1 and makes the condition false. The second row to be fetched is now the first row and is also assigned a ROWNUM of 1, this makes the condition false. All rows subsequently fail to satisfy the condition, so no rows are returned.


Example 5

The following statement assigns unique values to each row of a table:

UPDATE tabx SET col1 = ROWNUM;

Related Topics

CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns, LEVEL pseudocolumn, ROWID pseudocolumn, OL_ROW_STATUS pseudocolumn

4.3.45 SAVEPOINT


Syntax

Figure 4-50 The SAVEPOINT Command

Description of savpoint.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
SAVEPOINT savepoint_name ;

Purpose

To identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back.


Prerequisites

None.


Usage Notes

Once you set a savepoint you can either roll back to it or remove it later. To roll back to a savepoint use the statement:

ROLLBACK TO <savepoint_name>

To remove a savepoint use the statement:

REMOVE SAVEPOINT <savepoint_name>

When you roll back to remove a savepoint, all nested savepoints are also rolled back or removed. Savepoints should be removed as soon as possible to reduce memory usage.

A user defined savepoint allows you to name and mark the current point in the processing of a transaction. Used with ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT lets you undo parts of a transaction instead of the entire transaction. When you roll back to a savepoint, any savepoint marked after that savepoint is erased. The COMMIT statement erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback.

The number of active savepoints you define per session is unlimited. An active savepoint is one marked since the last commit or rollback.


Example

The following example updates the salary for two employees, Blake and Clark. It then checks the total salary in the EMP table. The example rolls back to savepoints for each employee's salary, and updates Clark's salary.

UPDATE emp 
    SET sal = 2000 
    WHERE ename = 'BLAKE';

SAVEPOINT blake_sal;

UPDATE emp 
    SET sal = 1500 
    WHERE ename = 'CLARK';

SAVEPOINT clark_sal;
SELECT SUM(sal) FROM emp;
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT blake_sal;
UPDATE emp 
    SET sal = 1300
    WHERE ename = 'CLARK';
COMMIT; 

Related Topics

COMMIT, SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK

4.3.46 SELECT


Syntax

Figure 4-51 The SELECT Command

Description of select.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
subquery [order_by_clause] [ for_update_clause] ;

subquery::=

Figure 4-52 The subquery Expression

Description of sel_sub.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
{query_spec | "("subquery")" } [{ INTERSECT | INTERSECT ALL | UNION | UNION ALL | MINUS } 
  {query_spec |"(" subquery ")" } ] 

query_spec::=

Figure 4-53 The query_spec Expression

Description of sel_q_sp.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
SELECT [ hint ] [ { DISTINCT | ALL ]{ * | { [schema.] { table | view } .*      | expr [[AS] c_alias]  }   [, { 
     | [schema .] { table | view  } .*      | expr [[AS] c_alias]     }  ]...}FROM  [schema .] { "("subquery [order_by_clause] ")" | table | view  }[ t_alias ] [ WHERE condition][ { [ START WITH condition ] CONNECT BY condition | GROUP BY expr [, expr]... | [HAVING condition]  } ]

for_update_clause::=

Figure 4-54 The for_update_clause Expression

Description of sel_for.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
FOR UPDATE[OF [[schema .] { table | view } .] column  [, [[schema .] { table | view } .] column]...] 

order_by_clause::=

Figure 4-55 The order_by_clause Expression

Description of sel_ord.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
ORDER  BY { expr | position | c_alias } [ ASC | DESC ] [, { expr | position | c_alias } [ ASC | DESC ] ]...

table_reference::=

Figure 4-56 The table_reference Expression

Description of tabl_ref.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
{ [schema .] {table | view} | "("subquery [order_by_clause] ")"} [[AS] t_alias]

odbc_join_table::=

Figure 4-57 The odbc_join_table Expression

Description of oj_tabl.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
"{" OJ joined_table "}" 

joined_table::=

Figure 4-58 The join_table Expression

Description of join_tbl.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
"{"
  { table_reference   | OJ table_refernce { LEFT | RIGHT } [OUTER] JOIN joined_table ON conditon  }"}"

hint::=

Figure 4-59 The hint Expression

Description of sql_hint.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
{ // hint // | /* hint */ | /*% hint %*/}

Purpose

Retrieves data from one or more tables or views. You can also use the select statement to invoke Java stored procedures.


Prerequisite

To select data from a table or view, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or the table(s) and view(s) must be part of your schema.

Table 4-43 Arguments Used with the SELECT Command

Argument Description
DISTINCT Returns only one copy of each set of duplicate rows selected. Duplicate rows are those with matching values for each expression in the select list.
ALL Returns all rows selected, including all copies of duplicates. The default is ALL.
*   Selects all columns from all tables, views, or snapshots listed in the FROM clause.
table.* Selects all columns from the selected table. Use the schema qualifier to select from a schema other than your own.
view.* Selects all columns from the selected view. Use the schema qualifier to select from a schema other than your own.
expr Selects an expression, usually based on column values, from one of the tables or views in the FROM clause. A column name in this list can be qualified with a schema only if the table or view that contains the column is itself qualified with a schema in the FROM clause. For more information, see "Specifying Expressions ".
hint Hints are processed by the Oracle Lite optimizer to suggest choices for statement execution. See "Hints Usage" for more information.
/*+ ... +*/ Hint processed by both Oracle and Oracle Lite.
/*% ...%*/ Hint processed as a comment in Oracle, processed by Oracle Lite.
// ... // Hint processed by both Oracle and Oracle Lite.
c_alias Provides a column alias, which is a different name for the column expression, and causes the column alias to be used in the column heading. A column alias does not affect the actual name of the column. The alias can only be used in the ORDER BY clause. It cannot be used by other clauses in the query.
schema The schema that contains the selected table, view, or snapshot. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the table, view, or snapshot resides in your own schema.
table The table from which data is selected.
view The view from which data is selected
t_alias Provides a different name or alias for the table, view, or snapshot, for the purpose of evaluating the query. Most often used in a correlated query. Other references to the table, view, or snapshot throughout the query must refer to the alias.
WHERE Restricts the rows selected to those for which the specified condition is TRUE. If you omit the WHERE clause, Oracle Lite returns all rows from the tables, views, or snapshots in the FROM clause. In an embedded SQL SELECT statement, the condition in a WHERE clause can contain host variables. WHERE specifies a conditional expression that evaluates to TRUE or FALSE. For more information, see "Specifying Expressions ".
condition A search condition. For more information about creating a valid condition, see Specifying SQL Conditions.
START WITH Returns rows in a hierarchical order.
CONNECT BY Specifies the relationship between parent and child rows in a hierarchical query. The condition defines this relationship, and must use the PRIOR operator to refer to the parent row. To find the children of the parent row, Oracle Lite evaluates the PRIOR expression for each row in the table. Rows for which the condition is TRUE are the children of the parent. For more information, see the UNRESOLVED XREF TO PRIOR operator.
GROUP BY Groups the selected rows based on the value of the expr argument for each row, and returns a single row of summary information for each group.
HAVING Restricts the groups of rows returned to those groups for which the specified condition is TRUE. If you omit this clause, Oracle Lite returns summary rows for all groups. For more information, see Specifying SQL Conditions.
INTERSECT Returns all distinct rows selected by both queries. INTERSECT has a higher precedence than UNION.
INTERSECT ALL Returns all distinct rows selected by both queries, the same result as INTERSECT. This syntax is supported, but has no function.
UNION Returns all distinct rows selected by either query.
UNION ALL Returns all rows selected by either query, including duplicates.
MINUS Returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not the second.
command Refers to all parameters of a SELECT command which is itself a parameter of another SELECT command. When entering parameters for a SELECT command within a SELECT command, you can not use the WHERE statement.
ORDER BY Orders rows returned by the SELECT statement, according to the following arguments:

expr (expression) orders rows based on their value for expr. The expression is based on columns in the select list, or based on columns in the tables, views, or snapshots in the FROM clause.

position orders rows based on their value for the expression in this position in the select list.

ASC specifies an ascending sort order. ASC is the default.

DESC specifies a descending sort order.

FOR UPDATE Locks the selected rows.

The column list in the FOR UPDATE clause is ignored.

The FOR UPDATE clause can be used either before or after the ORDER BY clause.

column The column to be updated.

Usage Notes

If you do not specify a WHERE clause and there is more than one table in the FROM clause, Oracle Lite computes a Cartesian product of all the tables involved.

You can use the LEVEL pseudocolumn in a SELECT statement to perform a hierarchical query. For more information, see LEVEL pseudocolumn. A hierarchical query cannot perform a join, nor can it select data from a view.

When you select columns with an expression, those columns must have an alias. An alias specifies names for the column expressions selected by the query. The number of aliases must match the number of expressions selected by the query. Aliases must be unique within the query.


Example 1
SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL = 1300;

Returns the following result:

    EMPNO ENAME      JOB             MGR HIREDATE        SAL      COMM    DEPTNO
--------- ---------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
     7782 CLARK      MANAGER        7839 1981-06-0      1300                  10
     7934 MILLER     CLERK          7782 1982-01-2      1300                  10

Example 2
SELECT 'ID=',EMPNO, 'Name=',ENAME, 'Dept=',DEPTNO
FROM EMP ORDER BY DEPTNO;

Returns the following result:

'ID     EMPNO 'NAME ENAME      'DEPT    DEPTNO
--- --------- ----- ---------- ----- ---------
ID=      7839 Name= KING       Dept=        10
ID=      7934 Name= MILLER     Dept=        10
ID=      7782 Name= CLARK      Dept=        10
ID=      7566 Name= JONES      Dept=        20
ID=      7876 Name= ADAMS      Dept=        20
ID=      7788 Name= SCOTT      Dept=        20
ID=      7369 Name= SMITH      Dept=        20
ID=      7902 Name= FORD       Dept=        20
ID=      7521 Name= WARD       Dept=        30
ID=      7900 Name= JAMES      Dept=        30
ID=      7844 Name= TURNER     Dept=        30
ID=      7499 Name= ALLEN      Dept=        30
ID=      7654 Name= MARTIN     Dept=        30
ID=      7698 Name= BLAKE      Dept=        30

14 rows selected.

Example 3
SELECT 'ID=', EMPNO, 
'Name=', ENAME, 
'Dept=', DEPTNO
FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 1300;

Returns the following result:

'ID     EMPNO 'NAME ENAME      'DEPT    DEPTNO
--- --------- ----- ---------- ----- ---------
ID=      7839 Name= KING       Dept=        10
ID=      7698 Name= BLAKE      Dept=        30
ID=      7782 Name= CLARK      Dept=        10
ID=      7566 Name= JONES      Dept=        20
ID=      7499 Name= ALLEN      Dept=        30
ID=      7844 Name= TURNER     Dept=        30
ID=      7902 Name= FORD       Dept=        20
ID=      7788 Name= SCOTT      Dept=        20
ID=      7934 Name= MILLER     Dept=        10

9 rows selected.

Example 4
SELECT * FROM (SELECT ENAME FROM EMP WHERE JOB = 'CLERK'
UNION
SELECT ENAME FROM EMP WHERE JOB = 'ANALYST');

Returns the following result:

ENAME
----------
ADAMS
FORD
JAMES
MILLER
SCOTT
SMITH

Hints Usage

You can use special text in a SQL statement to pass instructions, or hints, to the Oracle Lite database optimizer. The optimizer uses these hints as suggestions for choosing an execution plan for the statement. The hint text is delimited by the following sets of symbols depending on the applications in use. All of the sample syntaxes in the diagram work from a user written application.

The /*% ... %*/ syntax is treated by the Oracle8i optimizer as a comment whereas /*+ ORDERED +*/ is processed by Oracle8i optimizer. To share the same code between Oracle Lite and Oracle8i and to specify a hint to Oracle Lite only, use the syntax /*% ORDERED %*/. To give hints to both Oracle Lite and Oracle optimizers, use the syntax /*+ ORDERED +*/. The hint text must follow the SELECT keyword. The hint text is not case sensitive.


Example 5

In this example, the ÒorderedÓ hint selects the EMP table as the outermost table in the join ordering. The optimizer still attempts to pick the best possible indexes to use for execution. All other optimizations, such as view replacement and subquery unnesting are still attempted.

Select //ordered//  Eno, Ename, Loc from Emp, Dept
where Dept.DeptNo = Emp.DeptNo and Emp.Sal > 50000;

Example 6

In this example, the hint joins the tables (Product, Item, and Ord) in the given order: Product, Item, and Ord. The hint is limited only to the subquery.

Select CustId, Name, Phone from Customer
Where CustId In ( Select //ordered// Ord.CustId from Product, Item, Ord
Where Ord.OrdId = Item.OrdId And
Item.ProdId = Product.ProdId And
Product.Descrip like '%TENNIS%')


Related Topics

CONSTRAINT clause, DELETE, UPDATE

4.3.47 SET TRANSACTION


Syntax

Figure 4-60 The SET TRANSACTION Command

Description of set_trans.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL{ READ COMMITTED | REPEATABLE READ | SERIALIZABLE | SINGLE USER};

Purpose

Establishes the isolation level of the current transaction.


Note:

Oracle Lite implicitly commits the current transaction before and after executing a data definition language statement.


Prerequisite

If you use a SET TRANSACTION statement, it must be the first statement in your transaction. However, a transaction need not have a SET TRANSACTION statement.

Table 4-44 Arguments Used with the SET TRANSACTION Command

Argument Description
SET TRANSACTION Establishes the isolation level of the current transaction. The operations performed by a SET TRANSACTION statement affect only your current transaction, not other users or other transactions. Your transaction ends whenever you issue a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement.
ISOLATION LEVEL Specifies how transactions containing database modifications are handled.
READ COMMITTED An isolation level. The transaction does not take place until rows write locked by other transactions are unlocked. The transaction holds a read lock when it reads the current row and a write lock when it updates or deletes the current row. This prevents other transactions from updating or deleting it. The transaction releases read locks when it moves off the current row, and releases write locks when it is either committed or rolled back.
REPEATABLE READ An isolation level. The transaction does not take place until rows write locked by other transactions are unlocked. The transaction maintains read locks on all rows it returns to the application, and maintains write locks on all rows it inserts, updates, or deletes. The transaction only releases its locks when it is committed or rolled back.
SERIALIZABLE An isolation level. The transaction does not take place until rows write locked by other transactions are unlocked. The transaction holds a read lock when it reads a range of rows and a write lock when it updates or deletes a range of rows. This prevents other transactions from updating or deleting the rows.
SINGLEUSER An isolation level. The transaction has no locks and therefore consumes less memory. This is recommended for bulk loading of the database.

Usage Notes

None.


Example
SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SINGLEUSER;

Related Topics

COMMIT, ROLLBACK

4.3.48 TRUNCATE TABLE


Syntax

Figure 4-61 The TRUNCATE TABLE Command

Description of truncate.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
TRUNCATE TABLE [schema .] table ;

Purpose

This command deletes all rows from the table. The statement is provided to be compatible with Oracle8i. This statement performs the same action as the following:

DELETE FROM table_name ;

Table 4-45 Arguments Used with the TRUNCATE TABLE Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the table.
table The name of the table to be truncated.

Usage Notes

A table cannot be truncated if it has a primary key and there are rows in the dependent tables.


Example
TRUNCATE TABLE emp;

4.3.49 UPDATE


Syntax

Figure 4-62 The UPDATE Command

Description of update.gif is contained in the surrounding text

BNF Notation
UPDATE [schema .] { table | view} [ alias ] SET column = { expr | subquery }  [, column = { expr | subquery }]...[WHERE condition] ;

Purpose

Changes existing values in a table or in a view's base table.


Prerequisite

To update existing values in a database table or view, you must be logged into the database as SYSTEM, or the table(s) and view(s) must be part of your schema.

Table 4-46 Arguments Used with the UPDATE Command

Argument Description
schema The schema that contains the table or view. If you omit schema, Oracle Lite assumes that the table or view resides in your own schema.
table The name of the table to be updated.
view The name of the view whose base tables you want to update.
alias Relabels the name of the table or view in the other clauses of the UPDATE command.
SET Indicates that the columns that follow be set to specific values.
column The name of a column of the table or view to be updated. If you omit one of the table's columns in the SET clause, that column's value remains unchanged.
expr The new values assigned to the corresponding column. This can contain host variables.
subquery The subquery to be updated.
WHERE Restricts the rows updated to those for which the specified condition is TRUE. If you omit the WHERE clause, Oracle Lite updates all rows in the table or view.
condition A search condition. For more information about creating a valid condition, see Specifying SQL Conditions.

Usage Notes
  • The same column name may not appear more than once in the SET clause.

  • If no WHERE clause is specified, then all rows of the table are updated.

  • A positioned UPDATE requires that the cursor be updatable.


Example
UPDATE EMP SET SAL = SAL * .45 WHERE JOB = 'PRESIDENT';

ODBC 2.0

The ODBC SQL syntax for UPDATE is the same as specified. In addition, the following syntax is supported:

WHERE CURRENT OF CURSOR cursor_name

Related Topics

DELETE, INSERT


Previous Next
Oracle Logo
Copyright © 2002 Oracle Corporation

All rights reserved
Go To Table Of Contents
Contents
Go To Index
Index