Oracle® Transparent Gateway for IBM DRDA Installation and User's Guide
Release 18.104.22.168.0 for MS Windows
Part Number A96195-01
Oracle Net is an Oracle product providing network communication between Oracle applications, Oracle Servers and Oracle Gateways across different systems.
This chapter contains the following sections:
Use the following checklists when you are installing and configuring Oracle Net.
Use the following checklists for encryption.
Oracle Net provides connectivity to the Gateway through the use of Protocol Adapters, SQL*Net, and the TNS Listener. Configuration of Oracle Net is backwards compatible with past versions of SQL*Net. A new facility called Heterogeneous Services (HS) has been added to both Oracle Net and the Gateway to improve the throughput of SQL*Net data. For additional information, refer to Oracle9i Net Services Administrator's Guide and Oracle9i Heterogeneous Connectivity Administrator's Guide.
Oracle Net is a required Oracle product supporting network communications between Oracle applications, Oracle servers, and Oracle gateways across different CPUs or operating systems. It also supports communication across different Oracle databases and CPUs providing distributed database and distributed processing capabilities.
Oracle Net also allows applications to connect to multiple Oracle servers or gateways across a network, selecting from a variety of communications protocols and application program interfaces (APIs) to establish a distributed processing and distributed database environment.
A communications protocol is a set of implemented standards or rules governing data transmission across a network. An API is a set of subroutines providing an interface for application processes to the network environment.
Dividing processing between a front-end computer running an application and a back-end computer used by the application is known as distributed processing. Oracle Net enables an Oracle tool or application to connect to a remote computer containing an Oracle server or Oracle gateway.
Several databases linked through a network, appearing as a single logical database, are known as a distributed database. An Oracle tool running on a client computer or on an Oracle server running on a host computer can share and obtain information retrieved from other remote Oracle servers. Regardless of the number of database information sources, you might be aware of only one logical database.
The following terms are used to explain the architecture of Oracle Net for MS Windows:
Add an entry for the gateway to the listener.ora file. For example:
(SID_DESC= (SID_NAME=sidname) (ORACLE_HOME=C:\oracle\GTWHome) (PROGRAM=g4drsrv))
Refer to Appendix B, " Sample Files", for a sample listener.ora file.
Add a gateway service name to the tnsnames.ora file on the system where your Oracle integrating server resides. Specify the service name in the USING parameter of the database link defined for accessing the gateway from the Oracle9i server.
linkname1 = (DESCRIPTION= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=IPC) (KEY=ORAIPC)) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=sidname)) (HS=) )
linkname1 is the name used to define the database link referencing the gateway.
sidname is your gateway SID, the same SID that you used for the entry in your listener.ora file.
linkname2 = (DESCRIPTION= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=TCP) (PORT=port) (HOST=hostname)) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=sidname)) (HS=) )
linkname2 is the name used to define the database link referencing the gateway.
port is the default Oracle TCP/IP port number (1541).
hostname is the name of your host system.
sidname is your gateway SID.
Refer to "Sample Oracle Net tnsnames.ora File" for a sample tnsnames.ora file. For more information about configuring Oracle Net, refer to Oracle9i Net Services Reference Guide and Oracle9i Net Services Administrator's Guide.
Oracle Net supports the CHECKSUM command and the Export encryption algorithms. The following sections describe a basic method of verifying this feature if it is used at your site. The easiest way to determine if Advanced Security encryption is attempting to work is to deliberately set wrong configuration parameters and attempt a connection between the server and client. Incorrect parameters cause the connection to fail.
After receiving the expected failure message, set the configuration parameters to the correct settings and try the connection again. Encryption is working properly if you receive no further error messages.
Set Advanced Security encryption parameters for the gateway
Set Advanced Security encryption parameters for the Oracle integrating server
Note:The international or export version of Advanced Security encryption supports the following encryption types:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = REJECTED SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER = REJECTED SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER = (MD5) SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER = (DES40,RC4_40) SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED = "abcdefg123456789"
The value shown for SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED is only an example. Set it to the value you want. Refer to the Oracle Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for more information.
Edit the Oracle Net configuration file on the Oracle integrating server system to add the following parameters:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT = REQUIRED SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT = REQUIRED SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT = (MD5) SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT = (DES40,RC4_40) SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED = "abcdefg123456789"
The value shown for SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED is only an example.
After completing Steps 1 and 2 to set up Advanced Security encryption, you are ready to test the operation of the Advanced Security encryption by using the following steps:
Connect gateway and Oracle integrating server
Reset configuration parameters on the gateway
ORA-12660: Encryption or crypto-checksumming
Change the following Advanced Security encryption parameters on the gateway to:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = REQUIRED SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER = REQUIRED
Attempt the connection between the gateway and the Oracle integrating server again. If no error message is returned and the connection completes, then you can assume Advanced Security encryption is working properly.