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Oracle9i Administrator's Reference
Release 2 ( for UNIX Systems: AIX-Based Systems, Compaq Tru64 UNIX, HP 9000 Series HP-UX, Linux Intel, and Sun Solaris
Part No. A97297-01
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Oracle9i Standard Edition and Oracle9i Enterprise Edition
Typographic Conventions
Command Syntax
Accessing Installed Documentation
Related Documentation
Oracle Services and Support

1 Administering Oracle9i

Environment Variables
Oracle9i Environment Variables
UNIX Environment Variables
Setting a Common Environment
oraenv Script File
Local bin Directory
Switching Between Databases
Setting and Exporting the Value of a Variable in a Current Session
Setting the System Time
LD_PRELOAD Environment Variable for Loading Shared Libraries (HP Only)
Relinking Executables
System Global Area
Determining the Size of the SGA
Intimate Shared Memory (Solaris Only)
Shared Memory on AIX
Oracle9i Memory Requirements
Database Limits
Operating System Accounts and Groups
Oracle Software Owner Account
Groups and Security
Security for Database Files
External Authentication
Running the orapwd Utility
Password Management
Customizing the Initialization File
Oracle HTTP Server
Oracle HTTP Server Log Files
Demonstration Files
SQL*Loader Demonstrations
PL/SQL Demonstrations
PL/SQL Kernel Demonstrations
PL/SQL Precompiler Demonstrations
Administering SQL*Loader
Newline Characters in Fixed Length Records
Removing Newline Characters

2 Tuning for Oracle9i on UNIX

Importance of Tuning
Types of Performance Bottlenecks
Operating System Tools
Common Tools
Linux Tools
Solaris Tools
AIX Tools
AIX System Management Interface Tool
Base Operation System Tools
AIX Performance Toolbox
HP Tools
Performance Tuning Tools
HP Performance Analysis Tools
Tuning Memory Management
Allocate Sufficient Swap Space
Control Paging
Adjust Oracle Block Size
Tuning Disk I/O
Choose the Appropriate File System Type
Monitoring Disk Performance
Tuning UNIX Kernel Parameters
Tuning the Operating System Buffer Cache
Using Raw Devices/Volumes
Guidelines for Using Raw Devices/Volumes
Raw Device Setup
Using Trace and Alert Files
Trace Files
Alert Files

3 Administering SQL*Plus and iSQL*Plus

Administering Command-Line SQL*Plus
Using Setup Files
Using the Site Profile File
Using the User Profile File
Using Demonstration Tables
Using EMP and DEPT Tables
Creating Demonstration Tables Manually
Deleting Demonstration Tables
SQL*Plus Command-Line Help
Installing the SQL*Plus Command-Line Help
Removing the SQL*Plus Command-Line Help
Administering iSQL*Plus
Disabling and Re-enabling iSQL*Plus
Editing the iSQL*Plus Configuration File
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Authentication for iSQL*Plus
Adding Usernames and Passwords to a Password File
Configuring the Oracle HTTP Server to Use a New Password File
Restricting Database Access from iSQL*Plus
Using Command-Line SQL*Plus
Using a System Editor from SQL*Plus
Running Operating System Commands from SQL*Plus
Interrupting SQL*Plus
Using the SPOOL Command
SQL*Plus Restrictions
Resizing Windows
Return Codes
Hiding Your Password

4 Using Oracle Precompilers and the Oracle Call Interface

Overview of Oracle Precompilers
Precompiler Configuration Files
Relinking Precompiler Executables
Precompiler README Files
Issues Common to All Precompilers
Uppercase to Lowercase Conversion
Vendor Debugger Programs
Static and Dynamic Linking
Client Shared Library
Support for 32-Bit and 64-Bit Client Applications (AIX, HP, and Solaris 64-Bit Only)
Pro*C/C++ Precompiler
Pro*C/C++ Demonstration Programs
Pro*C/C++ User Program
Pro*COBOL Precompiler (AIX, HP, Solaris, and Tru64 Only)
Pro*COBOL Environment Variables
Merant Server Express COBOL Compiler
Pro*COBOL Oracle Runtime System
Pro*COBOL Demonstration Programs
Pro*COBOL User Programs
FORMAT Precompiler Option
Pro*FORTRAN Precompiler (AIX, HP, Solaris, and Tru64 Only)
Pro*FORTRAN Demonstration Programs
Pro*FORTRAN User Programs
SQL*Module for Ada (Solaris 32-Bit and AIX Only)
SQL*Module for Ada Demonstration Programs
SQL*Module for Ada User Programs
Oracle Call Interface
OCI Demonstration Programs
OCI User Programs
Custom Make Files
Correcting Undefined Symbols (Solaris Only)
Multi-threaded Applications
Using Signal Handlers
XA Functionality

5 Configuring Oracle Net Services

Location of Oracle Net Services Configuration Files
Adapters Utility
Oracle Protocol Support
IPC Protocol Support
TCP/IP Protocol Support
TCP/IP with SSL Protocol Support
Setting Up the Listener for TCP/IP or TCP/IP with SSL
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Configuring Oracle Intelligent Agent for Oracle SNMP
Configure the Master Agent
Configure the Encapsulator
Verify the Location of the SNMP Daemon in the start_peer Script
Start the SNMP Components
Configure and Start the Database Subagent
Oracle Advanced Security
Calling 32-Bit External Procedures from PL/SQL (AIX, HP, and Solaris 64-Bit Only)

A Tuning for Oracle9i on AIX

Memory and Paging
Controlling Buffer-Cache Paging Activity
Tuning the MINFREE and MAXFREE Parameters
Tuning the AIX File Buffer Cache
Tuning the MINPERM and MAXPERM Parameters
Allocating Sufficient Paging Space
Controlling Paging
Setting the Database Block Size
Tuning the Log Archive Buffers
I/O Buffers and SQL*Loader
BUFFER Parameter for the Import Utility
Disk I/O Issues
AIX Logical Volume Manager
Design a Striped Logical Volume
Suggested Striped Logical Volume Parameters
Other Considerations
Using Journaled File Systems Compared to Using Raw Partitions
Moving from a Journaled File System to Raw Devices
Taking Advantage of Both Journaled File Systems and Raw Devices
Using Asynchronous I/O
I/O Slaves
Using RAID Capabilities
Using Write Behind
Tuning Sequential Read Ahead
Tuning Disk I/O Pacing
Disk Geometry Considerations
Minimizing Remote I/O Operations
VSD Cache Buffers
CPU Scheduling and Process Priorities
Changing Process Running Time Slice
Using Processor Binding on SMP Systems
Processor Binding in a Networked Client and Server Environment
Processor Binding in a Local Environment
UDP Tuning
Backing Up Raw Devices
Resilvering with Oracle9i

B Tuning for Oracle9i on HP

HP-UX Shared Memory Segments for a 64-Bit Oracle Instance
HP SCHED_NOAGE Scheduling Policy
Enabling SCHED_NOAGE for Oracle9i
Lightweight Timer Implementation
Asynchronous I/O
MLOCK Privilege
Implementing Asynchronous I/O
Verifying Asynchronous I/O
Asynchronous Flag in SGA

C Tuning for Oracle9i on Linux

Extended Buffer Cache Support
Asynchronous I/O Support

D Tuning for Oracle9i on Tru64

Enabling Oracle9i Directed Placement Optimizations
Requirements to Run the Directed Placement Optimizations
Enabling Oracle Directed Placement Optimizations
Disabling Oracle Directed Placement Optimizations
Using Oracle Directed Placement Optimizations
Oracle Initialization Parameters
Tru64 UNIX System Parameters
Process Affinity to RADs
Supporting Mixed CPU Systems
Gathering Database Statistics on Tru64
Oracle9i Real Application Clusters on Tru64
Reliable Data Gram
Enabling UDP IPC
CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS Initialization Parameter (Formerly TRU64_IPC_NET)
Tuning Asynchronous I/O
aio_task_max_num Parameter
Direct I/O Support and Concurrent Direct I/O Support
Single Instance Requirements
Clustered Systems
Tru64 UNIX V5.1 Clustered Systems
Multiple Instance Requirements (Oracle9i Real Application Clusters)
Disabling Direct I/O Support
Preventing File Fragmentation
Enabling Access to the Real Time Clock
Setting Up Raw Devices
Spike Optimization Tool
Using Spike

E Running Oracle interMedia, Oracle Text, and Oracle Spatial Demonstrations

Oracle interMedia
Oracle interMedia Audio, Image, and Video Services
Oracle interMedia Annotator
Oracle Text
Oracle Spatial

F Oracle Cluster Management Software
for Linux

Watchdog Daemon
Cluster Manager
Starting OCMS
Starting the Watchdog Daemon
Configuring the Cluster Manager
Starting the Cluster Manager
Configuring Timing for Cluster Reconfiguration
Watchdog Daemon and Cluster Manager Starting Options

G Optimal Flexible Architecture

Optimal Flexible Architecture
Characteristics of an OFA-Compliant Database
Optimal Flexible Architecture Implemented on UNIX
Mount Points
Create Mount Points
Mount Point Syntax
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
Naming Directories
Home Directory Syntax
Referring to Pathnames
Software Directories
Naming Subdirectories
Naming Database Files
Separate Segments With Different Requirements
Naming Tablespaces
Exploiting the OFA Structure for Oracle Files
OFA File Mapping
File Mapping for a Multiple-Instance OFA Database
Directory Structure
ORACLE Base Directory
Oracle Home Directory
Examples of Product Subdirectories
Contents of Product Subdirectories
File Naming Conventions in the admin Directory
Filename Extensions


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