|Oracle® Transparent Gateway for Teradata Administrator's Guide
10g Release 1 (10.1) for Windows
Part Number B10543-01
After the gateway is installed and configured, you can use the gateway to access Teradata data, pass Teradata commands from applications to the Teradata database, perform distributed queries, and copy data.
This chapter contains the following sections:
The gateway can pass Teradata commands or statements from the application to the Teradata database using the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package.
Use the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package in a PL/SQL block to specify the statement to be passed to the Teradata database, as follows:
DECLARE num_rows INTEGER; BEGIN num_rows := DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH.EXECUTE_IMMEDIATE@TERA('command'); END; /
Where command cannot be one of the following:
The DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package supports passing bind values and executing SELECT statements.
Teradata and Oracle databases function differently in some areas, causing compatibility problems. The following compatibility issues are described in this section:
The Oracle concept of a schema does not exist in Teradata. An owner included in a query is recognized by Teradata as a database name.
When querying data dictionary tables, the following results are returned:
Naming rule issues include the following:
Oracle and Teradata use different database object naming rules. For example, the maximum number of characters allowed for each object name can be different. Also, the use of single and double quotation marks, case sensitivity, and the use of alphanumeric characters can all be different.
The Oracle database server defaults to uppercase unless you surround identifiers with double quote characters. For example, to refer to the Teradata table called emp, enter the name with double quote characters, as follows:
However, to refer to the Teradata table called emp owned by Scott from an Oracle application, enter the following:
If the Teradata table called emp is owned by SCOTT, a table owner name in uppercase letters, you can enter the owner name without double quote characters, as follows:
Oracle Corporation recommends that you surround all Teradata object names with double quote characters and use the exact letter case for the object names as they appear in the Teradata data dictionary. This convention is not required when referring to the supported Oracle data dictionary tables or views listed in Appendix C, "Data Dictionary".
If existing applications cannot be changed according to these conventions, create views in Oracle to associate Teradata names to the correct letter case. For example, to refer to the Teradata table emp from an existing Oracle application by using only uppercase names, define the following view:
SQL> CREATE VIEW EMP (EMPNO, ENAME, SAL, HIREDATE)
AS SELECT "empno", "ename", "sal", "hiredate"
With this view, the application can issue statements such as the following:
Using views is a workaround solution that duplicates data dictionary information originating in the Teradata data dictionary. You must be prepared to update the Oracle view definitions whenever the data definitions for the corresponding tables are changed in the Teradata database.
Data type issues include the following:
Oracle SQL uses hexadecimal digits surrounded by single quotes to express literal values being compared or inserted into columns defined as data type RAW.
This notation is not converted to syntax compatible with the Teradata VARBINARY and BINARY data types (a ff surrounded by single quotes followed by hexadecimal digits).
For example, the following statement is not supported:
where BINARY_TAB contains a column of data type VARBINARY or BINARY. Use bind variables when inserting into or updating VARBINARY and BINARY data types.
In order for Teradata date formats (DATE, TIME and TIMESTAMP) to be treated as dates and not strings, in the ODBC DSN set up make sure that the DateTimeFormat parameter is set to AAA.
Teradata does not support implicit date conversions. Such conversions must be explicit.
For example, the gateway issues an error for the following SELECT statement:
To avoid problems with implicit conversions, add explicit conversions, as in the following:
Appendix A, "Data Type Conversion" for more information about restrictions on data types.
Query issues include the following:
Teradata evaluates a query condition for all selected rows before returning any of the rows. If there is an error in the evaluation process for one or more rows, no rows are returned even though the remaining rows satisfy the condition.
Oracle evaluates the query condition row-by-row and returns a row when the evaluation is successful. Rows are returned until a row fails the evaluation.
The gateway passes empty bind variables to the Teradata database as a NULL value. This applies only to columns defined with a VARCHAR data type.
The locking model for an Teradata database differs significantly from the Oracle model. The gateway depends on the underlying Teradata behavior, so Oracle applications that access Teradata through the gateway can be affected by the following possible scenarios:
If you encounter incompatibility problems not listed in this section or in "Known Problems", please contact Oracle Support Services. The following section describes the known restrictions and includes suggestions for dealing with them when possible:
The gateway cannot guarantee transactional integrity in the following cases:
The gateway does not support savepoints. If a distributed update transaction is under way involving the gateway and a user attempts to create a savepoint, the following error occurs:
By default, the gateway is configured as COMMIT_CONFIRM and it is always the commit point site when the Teradata database is updated by the transaction.
Any COMMIT or ROLLBACK issued in a PL/SQL cursor loop closes all open cursors, which can result in the following error:
To prevent this error, move the COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement outside the cursor loop.
Oracle Corporation recommends that you place a DDL statement in its own transaction when executing such a statement with the pass-through feature. An explicit COMMIT must be issued after the DDL statement.
If the SQL statements being passed through the gateway result in an implicit commit at the Teradata database, the Oracle transaction manager is unaware of the commit and an Oracle ROLLBACK command cannot be used to roll back the transaction.
Due to limitations in NCR's ODBC driver for Teradata, you cannot compare columns of data type TIME or TIMESTAMP to a bind variable.
The following SQL statement causes an error message:
The following error is issued:
ORA-28500: connection from ORACLE to a non-Oracle system returned this message: [Transparent gateway for TERA]DRV_Execute: [NCR][ODBC Teradata][Teradata RDBMS] Invalid operation on an ANSI Datetime or Interval value. (SQL State: 22005;SQL Code: -5407) ORA-02063: preceding 2 lines from TERA
This section lists restrictions on the following SQL syntax:
UPDATE and DELETE statements with the WHERE CURRENT OF clause are not supported by the gateway because they rely on the Oracle ROWID implementation. To update or delete a specific row through the gateway, a condition style WHERE clause must be used.
The gateway does not support the CONNECT BY clause in a SELECT statement.
Subqueries in the SET clause of an UPDATE statement are not supported.
Subqueries can be specified in the WHERE clause of an UPDATE statement. Each subquery, however, must reference a Teradata table. For example, using the table GTW_EMP, the following statement results in a 10% salary increase for all employees working in the RESEARCH department:
SQL> UPDATE "GTW_EMP"@TERA SET "SAL"="SAL" * 1.1 2 WHERE "DEPTNO"=(SELECT "DEPTNO" FROM "GTW_DEPT"@TERA 3 WHERE "DNAME"='RESEARCH');
If "GTW_DEPT"@TERA is replaced by "DEPT" in the subquery where DEPT is the same table but located in the Oracle database, the following error results after the statement is issued:
The Oracle ROWID implementation is not supported.
The EXPLAIN PLAN statement is not supported.
The gateway does not support the SQL*Plus COPY command for lowercase table names.
The gateway is not multithreaded and cannot support shared database links. Each gateway session spawns a separate gateway process and connections cannot be shared.
The gateway does not support the procedure feature that allows the execution of stored procedures in a non-Oracle database.
This section describes known problems and includes suggestions for correcting them when possible. If you have any questions or concerns about the problems, contact Oracle Support Services. A current list of problems is available online. Contact your local Oracle Corporation office for information about accessing the list.
The following known problems are described in this section:
Oracle database server no longer supports the initialization parameter DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN. In databases up through version 7.3, this parameter's default TRUE value prevented the password for the login user ID from being sent over the network (in the clear). Later versions automatically encrypt the password.
The Oracle database server does not send the gateway a SELECT statement containing an aggregate function that is part of a CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement. For example, it does not send the following statement:
CREATE TABLE sum_calls_table AS
SELECT SUM(calls_abandoned), SUM(calls_completed),
SUM(calls_failed) FROM monthly_calls@TERA;
Instead, Oracle interprets what the SQL statement requests and sends the gateway a statement or statements to retrieve the data required for the request. After the data is retrieved, Oracle performs the aggregate function originally requested and passes the results to the application.
A solution to this problem is to use a different series of SQL statements. For example, instead of using the CREATE TABLE statement in the preceding example, use the following statements:
DROP TABLE sum_calls_table;
CREATE TABLE sum_calls_table (x1sum NUMBER, x2sum NUMBER,
SELECT SUM(calls_abandoned), SUM(calls_completed),
SUM(calls_failed) INTO x1, x2, x3 FROM monthly_calls@TERA;
INSERT INTO sum_calls_table VALUES (x1, x2, x3);
The following restrictions apply when using LONG VARCHAR data types:
The gateway does not support the PL/SQL function COLUMN_VALUE_LONG of the DBMS_SQL package.
Appendix B, "Supported SQL Syntax and Functions" for more information about restrictions on SQL syntax.
If you do not prefix a Teradata database object with its schema name in a SQL statement within a PL/SQL block, the following error message occurs:
Change the SQL statement to include the schema name of the object.
You cannot refer to data dictionary views in SQL statements that are inside a PL/SQL block.