Oracle® Database Installation Guide
10g Release 1 (10.1) for Apple Mac OS X
Part No. B13953-01
This chapter describes the different types of Oracle Database installations that you can perform, and issues that you should consider before installing the software. It includes information about the following topics:
The Oracle Database installation process consists of four parts:
Planning your installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
Completing pre-installation tasks: Chapter 2 describes pre-installation tasks that you must complete before installing the product.
Installing software: Chapter 3 describes how to use the Oracle Universal Installer to install this product.
Completing post-installation tasks: Chapter 4 describes recommended and required post-installation tasks.
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database, the Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all of the required information to install the Oracle Database software and optionally create a database.
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start the Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These automated installation methods are useful if you need to perform multiple installations on similarly configured systems.
When you use a response file, you can run the Installer in the following modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information or not:
Silent Mode: The Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response file that specifies all required information. None of the Installer screens are displayed.
Suppressed Mode: The Installer runs in suppressed mode if you do not specify all required information in the response file. The Installer displays only the screens that prompt for the information that you did not specify.
For more detailed information about these modes and about how to complete an installation using response files, see Appendix A.
Note:Oracle Client is installed separately. You cannot install Oracle Client during an Oracle Database installation.
You can choose one of the following installation types when installing Oracle Database:
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing.
During the installation, you can choose whether you want to create an Oracle database as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, the Installer uses the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create it. You can choose to create one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or create a customized database to suit your own requirements.
Preconfigured Database Types
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or customize during the installation:
See the online help provided by either the Installer or the DBCA for a description of these preconfigured database types.
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
The Installer runs DBCA in one of two modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
If you choose either the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation type, then choose to create a preconfigured database type, the Installer prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then runs DBCA in non-interactive mode to create the database after it installs the software.
Note:Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a database if you have not previously created one.
If you choose the Custom installation type or choose the Advanced database configuration option, the Installer does not prompt you for database information. Instead, it installs the software and then runs DBCA in interactive mode. Using the screens in DBCA, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database types or create a custom database and specify precisely how you want to configure it.
Note:If you choose this method to create a database, click Help on any of the DBCA screens for a description of the information that you must specify on that screen.
Creating a Database After Installation
If you decide not to create a database during the installation, you can use DBCA to create one after you have installed the software. For more information about using DBCA to create a database after installation, see the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA manual.
This release of Oracle Database provides new options that you can choose during installation to simplify database administration tasks. These options include:
The following sections describe these options.
If you choose to create a database during the installation, you can specify one of three storage options for database files:
If you choose the file system option, the Database Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on your computer. Oracle recommends that the file system you choose be separate from the file systems used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system that you choose can be any of the following:
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not RAID devices, Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) recommendations described in Appendix B and distribute the database files over more than one disk.
A file system on a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in a RAID configuration, Oracle recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not need to specify more than one file system mount point for database storage.
If you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database creation option, you can also choose to use the Oracle-managed files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, you need only specify the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
See Also:For more information about Oracle-managed files, see the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is a new feature introduced with this release of Oracle Database. It is a high-performance storage management solution for Oracle database files that is consistent across all supported platforms. Designed specifically to simplify the job of the database administrator (DBA), ASM provides you with a flexible storage solution that simplifies the management of a dynamic database environment. The features provided by ASM make most manual I/O performance tuning tasks unnecessary.
To use ASM for database storage, you must create one or more ASM disk groups. A disk group is a set of disk devices that ASM manages as a single unit. ASM spreads data evenly across all of the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization. To protect against disk failure, you can choose one of three redundancy levels when you create a disk group. The redundancy level defines how files are mirrored within a disk group, as follows:
|External||No mirroring by ASM|
In addition to the manageability, performance, and reliability benefits provided by ASM, it can also increase database availability. You can add or remove disk devices from disk groups without shutting down the database. ASM automatically rebalances the files across the disk group after disks have been added or removed.
Disk groups are managed by a special Oracle instance, called an ASM instance. This instance must be running before you can start a database instance that uses ASM for storage management. If you choose ASM as the storage mechanism for your database, DBCA creates and starts this instance if necessary.
See Also:For a more detailed description of ASM, see the Oracle Database Concepts manual. For information about administering ASM, see the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
Raw devices are disk partitions or volumes that have not been formatted with a file system. When you use raw devices for database file storage, Oracle writes data directly to the partition or volume, bypassing the operating system file system layer. For this reason, you can sometimes achieve performance gains by using raw devices. However, because raw devices can be difficult to create and administer, and because the performance gains over modern file systems are minimal, Oracle recommends that you choose ASM or file system storage in preference to raw devices.
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g centrally in your environment
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within your environment, then install an Oracle Management Agent on every computer that you want to manage. You can then use a single Web-based interface to manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, Net listeners, and third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control (or simply Grid Control).
Note:Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g is available separately in the Oracle Database media pack. For more information about Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g, see the Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Concepts manual and the Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Installation and Basic Configuration manual.
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager locally on the database system
Oracle Enterprise Manager software is installed by defaultFoot 1 with every Oracle Database installation. This local installation provides a Web-based interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. The Database Control is similar in function to the Grid Control, but it can manage only a single database. If you want to administer more than one database on this system, you must either configure a separate Database Control for each one, or install Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
When you choose to create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to use to manage the database. The following options are available:
Use Grid Control for database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the system. When the Installer detects an Oracle Management Agent on the system, it allows you to choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service that you want to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, you must choose to use Database Control to manage the database. However, if you install Oracle Management Agent after you install Oracle Database, you can then use Grid Control to manage this database.
Use Database Control for database management
This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still choose to configure Database Control to manage the database.
Management Options for Custom Databases
If you choose the Advanced database configuration option or choose to create a database during a Custom installation, the Installer runs Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) in interactive mode. Using a screen in DBCA, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to use to manage the database. Alternatively, you can also choose not to configure the database with Enterprise Manager.
Note:Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during installation. However, if you choose not to configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during the installation, you can use DBCA after the installation to configure the database to use it.
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to perform all of your database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine information about the database, such as:
Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options, and other instance data
Current instance availability
Database alert information
Session and SQL-related performance information
Space usage metrics
Furthermore, it provides you with automatic notification of security alerts and it provides the ability to download and apply patches for the software.
If you choose to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the Oracle-suggested default backup strategy.
Note:You do not have to enable automated backups during the installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the software and create a database.
Enabling Automated Backups
If you enable automated backups, Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily backup job that uses Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database files to an on-disk storage area called the flash recovery area. The first time the backup job runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform incremental back-ups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point during the preceding 24 hours.
To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following information:
The location of the flash recovery area
You can choose to use either a file system directory or an ASM disk group for the flash recovery area. The default disk quota configured for the flash recovery area is 2 GB. For ASM disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the flash recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.
An operating system user name and password for the backup job
Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the UNIX group that identifies database administrators (the OSDBA group, typically
dba). The Oracle software owner user (typically
oracle) that you use to install the software is a suitable choice for this user. Chapter 2 describes the requirements for the OSDBA group and Oracle software owner user and describes how to create them.
Backup Job Default Settings
If you enable automated backups after choosing one of the preconfigured databases during the installation, automated backup is configured with the following default settings:
The backup job is scheduled to run nightly at 2 a.m.
The disk quota for the flash recovery area is 2 GB.
If you enable automated backups by using DBCA, either during or after the installation, you can specify a different start time for the backup job and a different disk quota for the flash recovery area.
More Information About Automated Backups and Recovery
For information about using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to configure or customize automated backups or to recover a backed up database, see the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA manual.
For more detailed information about defining a back-up strategy and backing up and recovering Oracle databases, see the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Basics manual or the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User's Guide.
If you choose to use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, you can configure Enterprise Manager to send e-mail when specific events occur. These events can include occurrences such as disk space reaching a critical limit (a threshold), or a database shutting down unexpectedly.
If you choose to enable e-mail notifications, you must specify the following information:
The host name of an simple mail transport protocol (SMTP) server
The e-mail address that should receive the alerts
The e-mail address that you specify could belong to an individual or it could be a shared e-mail account or a distribution list.
You can use Enterprise Manager Database Control to set-up, change, or customize e-mail notifications after you have created the database.
This section contains information that you should consider before deciding how to install this product. It contains the following sections:
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this installation guide were current at the time this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the OracleMetaLink Web site for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The OracleMetaLink Web site is available at the following URL:
If you do not have a current Oracle Support Services contract, you can access the same information from the following Web site:
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. This means that you can install this release or previous releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home directories.
You must install this product into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install release 10.1 software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory. If you attempt to install this release into an Oracle home directory that contains software from an earlier Oracle release, the installation fails.
You can install this release more than once on the same system provided that each installation is installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
The first time you install Oracle Database 10g on a system, the installation configures and starts a single-node version of the Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) daemon. The CSS daemon is required to enable synchronization between an ASM instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. It is configured and started even if you do not choose ASM as a storage mechanism for database files. Because it must be running before any ASM instance or database instance starts, it is configured to start automatically when the system boots.
For Oracle Real Application Clusters installations, the CSS daemon is installed with Oracle Cluster Ready Services (CRS) in a separate Oracle home directory (also called the CRS home directory). For single-node installations, the CSS daemon is installed in and runs from the same Oracle home as Oracle Database. For this reason, you must use caution when removing Oracle Database 10g software from the system. Before you remove an Oracle home directory that contains Oracle Database 10g, you must either delete the CSS daemon configuration, or if necessary, reconfigure the CSS daemon to run from another Oracle home directory.
See Also:For more information about deleting or reconfiguring the Oracle CSS daemon, see the "Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services" section.
Note:If you plan to have more than one Oracle Database 10g installation on a single system and you want to use ASM for database file storage, Oracle recommends that you run the CSS daemon and the ASM instance from the same Oracle home directory and use different Oracle home directories for the database instances.
Footnote LegendFootnote 1: During a custom installation, you can choose not to install Oracle Enterprise Manager software, however, Oracle recommends that you do install it.