Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  Java Servlet Technology

5.  JavaServer Pages Technology

What Is a JSP Page?

A Simple JSP Page Example

The Example JSP Pages

The Life Cycle of a JSP Page

Translation and Compilation



Handling JSP Page Errors

Creating Static Content

Response and Page Encoding

Creating Dynamic Content

Using Objects within JSP Pages

Using Implicit Objects

Using Application-Specific Objects

Using Shared Objects

Unified Expression Language

Immediate and Deferred Evaluation Syntax

Immediate Evaluation

Deferred Evaluation

Value and Method Expressions

Value Expressions

Method Expressions

Defining a Tag Attribute Type

Deactivating Expression Evaluation

Literal Expressions

Resolving Expressions

Process of Expression Evaluation

EL Resolvers

Implicit Objects


Reserved Words

Examples of EL Expressions


Using Functions

Defining Functions

Using Custom Tags

Declaring Tag Libraries

Including the Tag Library Implementation

Reusing Content in JSP Pages

Transferring Control to Another Web Component

jsp:param Element

Including an Applet

Setting Properties for Groups of JSP Pages

Deactivating EL Expression Evaluation

Declaring Page Encodings

Defining Implicit Includes

Eliminating Extra White Space

Further Information about JavaServer Pages Technology

6.  JavaServer Pages Documents

7.  JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library

8.  Custom Tags in JSP Pages

9.  Scripting in JSP Pages

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology

11.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in JSP Pages

12.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

13.  Creating Custom UI Components

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

16.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

17.  Binding between XML Schema and Java Classes

18.  Streaming API for XML

19.  SOAP with Attachments API for Java

Part IV Enterprise Beans

20.  Enterprise Beans

21.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

22.  Session Bean Examples

23.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

Part V Persistence

24.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

25.  Persistence in the Web Tier

26.  Persistence in the EJB Tier

27.  The Java Persistence Query Language

Part VI Services

28.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

29.  Securing Java EE Applications

30.  Securing Web Applications

31.  The Java Message Service API

32.  Java EE Examples Using the JMS API

33.  Transactions

34.  Resource Connections

35.  Connector Architecture

Part VII Case Studies

36.  The Coffee Break Application

37.  The Duke's Bank Application

Part VIII Appendixes

A.  Java Encoding Schemes

B.  About the Authors



JavaBeans Components

JavaBeans components are Java classes that can be easily reused and composed together into applications. Any Java class that follows certain design conventions is a JavaBeans component.

JavaServer Pages technology directly supports using JavaBeans components with standard JSP language elements. You can easily create and initialize beans and get and set the values of their properties.

JavaBeans Component Design Conventions

JavaBeans component design conventions govern the properties of the class and govern the public methods that give access to the properties.

A JavaBeans component property can be:

  • Read/write, read-only, or write-only

  • Simple, which means it contains a single value, or indexed, which means it represents an array of values

A property does not have to be implemented by an instance variable. It must simply be accessible using public methods that conform to the following conventions:

  • For each readable property, the bean must have a method of the form:

    PropertyClass getProperty() { ... }
  • For each writable property, the bean must have a method of the form:

    setProperty(PropertyClass pc) { ... }

In addition to the property methods, a JavaBeans component must define a constructor that takes no parameters.

The Duke’s Bookstore application JSP pages bookstore.jsp, bookdetails.jsp, catalog.jsp, and showcart.jsp, all located at tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore2/web, use the tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore2/src/java/com/sun/bookstore2/database/ JavaBeans component.

BookDB provides a JavaBeans component front end to the access object BookDBAO. The JSP pages showcart.jsp and cashier.jsp access the bean tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore/src/com/sun/bookstore/cart/, which represents a user’s shopping cart.

The BookDB bean has two writable properties, bookId and database, and three readable properties: bookDetails, numberOfBooks, and books. These latter properties do not correspond to any instance variables but rather are a function of the bookId and database properties.

package database;
public class BookDB {
    private String bookId = "0";
    private BookDBAO database = null;
    public BookDB () {
    public void setBookId(String bookId) {
    this.bookId = bookId;
    public void setDatabase(BookDBAO database) {
    this.database = database;
    public Book getBook() throws
         BookNotFoundException {
        return (Book)database.getBook(bookId);
    public List getBooks() throws BooksNotFoundException {
        return database.getBooks();
    public void buyBooks(ShoppingCart cart)
         throws OrderException {
    public int getNumberOfBooks() throws BooksNotFoundException {
        return database.getNumberOfBooks();

Creating and Using a JavaBeans Component

To declare that your JSP page will use a JavaBeans component, you use a jsp:useBean element. There are two forms:

<jsp:useBean id="beanName"
    class="fully-qualified-classname" scope="scope"/>


<jsp:useBean id="beanName"
    class="fully-qualified-classname" scope="scope">
    <jsp:setProperty .../>

The second form is used when you want to include jsp:setProperty statements, described in the next section, for initializing bean properties.

The jsp:useBean element declares that the page will use a bean that is stored within and is accessible from the specified scope, which can be application, session, request, or page. If no such bean exists, the statement creates the bean and stores it as an attribute of the scope object (see Using Scope Objects). The value of the id attribute determines the name of the bean in the scope and the identifier used to reference the bean in EL expressions, other JSP elements, and scripting expressions (see Chapter 9, Scripting in JSP Pages). The value supplied for the class attribute must be a fully qualified class name. Note that beans cannot be in the unnamed package. Thus the format of the value must be package-name.class-name.

The following element creates an instance of mypkg.myLocales if none exists, stores it as an attribute of the application scope, and makes the bean available throughout the application by the identifier locales:

<jsp:useBean id="locales" scope="application"

Setting JavaBeans Component Properties

The standard way to set JavaBeans component properties in a JSP page is by using the jsp:setProperty element. The syntax of the jsp:setProperty element depends on the source of the property value. Table 5-6 summarizes the various ways to set a property of a JavaBeans component using the jsp:setProperty element.

Note -

Syntax rules of attribute values used in this table:

  1. beanName must be the same as that specified for the id attribute in a useBean element.

  2. There must be a setPropName method in the JavaBeans component.

  3. paramName must be a request parameter name.

Table 5-6 Valid Bean Property Assignments from String Values

Value Source

Element Syntax

String constant

<jsp:setProperty name="beanName"
   property="propName" value="string-constant"/>

Request parameter

<jsp:setProperty name="beanName"
   property="propName" param="paramName"/>

Request parameter name that matches bean property

<jsp:setProperty name="beanName"
<jsp:setProperty name="beanName"


<jsp:setProperty name="beanName"
   property="propName" value="expression"/>
<jsp:setProperty name="beanName"
   property="propName" >
   <jsp:attribute name="value">

A property set from a constant string or request parameter must have one of the types listed in Table 5-7. Because constants and request parameters are strings, the web container automatically converts the value to the property’s type; the conversion applied is shown in the table.

String values can be used to assign values to a property that has a PropertyEditor class. When that is the case, the setAsText(String) method is used. A conversion failure arises if the method throws an IllegalArgumentException.

The value assigned to an indexed property must be an array, and the rules just described apply to the elements.

You use an expression to set the value of a property whose type is a compound Java programming language type. The type returned from an expression must match or be castable to the type of the property.

Table 5-7 Valid Property Value Assignments from String Values

Property Type

Conversion on String Value

Bean Property

Uses setAsText(string-literal)

boolean or Boolean

As indicated in java.lang.Boolean.valueOf(String)

byte or Byte

As indicated in java.lang.Byte.valueOf(String)

char or Character

As indicated in java.lang.String.charAt(0)

double or Double

As indicated in java.lang.Double.valueOf(String)

int or Integer

As indicated in java.lang.Integer.valueOf(String)

float or Float

As indicated in java.lang.Float.valueOf(String)

long or Long

As indicated in java.lang.Long.valueOf(String)

short or Short

As indicated in java.lang.Short.valueOf(String)


new String(string-literal)

The Duke’s Bookstore application demonstrates how to use the setProperty element to set the current book from a request parameter in the database bean in tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore2/web/books/bookdetails.jsp:

<c:set var="bid" value="${param.bookId}"/>
<jsp:setProperty name="bookDB" property="bookId"
    value="${bid}" />

The following fragment from the page tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore2/web/books/bookshowcart.jsp illustrates how to initialize a BookDB bean with a database object. Because the initialization is nested in a useBean element, it is executed only when the bean is created.

<jsp:useBean id="bookDB" class="database.BookDB" scope="page">
    <jsp:setProperty name="bookDB" property="database"
         value="${bookDBAO}" />

Retrieving JavaBeans Component Properties

The main way to retrieve JavaBeans component properties is by using the unified EL expressions. Thus, to retrieve a book title, the Duke’s Bookstore application uses the following expression:


Another way to retrieve component properties is to use the jsp:getProperty element. This element converts the value of the property into a String and inserts the value into the response stream:

<jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName"/>

Note that beanName must be the same as that specified for the id attribute in a useBean element, and there must be a getPropName method in the JavaBeans component. Although the preferred approach to getting properties is to use an EL expression, the getProperty element is available if you need to disable expression evaluation.